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                    On this date, April 26, 1945, Nazi Mad Scientist, Dr. Sigmund Rascher was executed by firing squad. I will post information about this Nazi War Criminal from Wikipedia and other links.

     

    Dr. Sigmund Rascher

    Sigmund Rascher
    Born
    12 February 1909
    Munich, Germany
    Died
    26 April 1945 (aged 36)
    Dachau concentration camp
    Allegiance
    Nazi Germany
    Service/branch
    Schutzstaffel
    Rank
    SS-Hauptsturmführer
    Battles/wars
    World War II

    Sigmund Rascher(12 February 1909 – 26 April 1945) was a German SS doctor. His deadly experiments on humans, which were carried out in the Nazi concentration camp of Dachau, were judged inhumane and criminal during the Nuremberg Trials.

    Early life and career

    Rascher was born the third child of Hanns-August Rascher (1880–1952), a physician, and completed his secondary education in Konstanz in 1930 or 1931 (this is uncertain, as he himself used both dates). His father was an avid follower of Rudolf Steiner, and Sigmund attended a Waldorf School which was based on Steiner's approach to education. In 1933 he began studying medicinein Munich, where he also joined the NSDAP. The exact day of his joining is also uncertain, as there are two dates given: Rascher insisted that it was on 1 March, whereas the documents show 1 May. This is relevant in that the first date is before the Nazi victory in the election of 5 March 1933, where as the second date is after Hitler had consolidated power on 23 March with his Enabling Act.

    After his Praktikum (internship), he worked with his now divorced father in Basel, Switzerland, and also continued his studies there, joining the Swiss Voluntary Work Forces. In 1934 he moved to Munich to finish his studies, and received his doctorate in 1936.

    In May 1936 year Rascher joined the SA. In 1939 he transferred to the SS with the rank of SS-Mann (Private).

    In Munich Rascher worked with Prof. Trumpp from 1936 to 1938 on cancer diagnostics, supported by a stipend, and until 1939 was an assistant physician at Munich's Schwabinger Krankenhaus hospital.

    Career with the SS

    In 1939 Rascher denounced his father, joined the SS, and was conscripted into the Luftwaffe. A relationship and eventually marriage to former singer Karoline "Nini" Diehl gained him direct access to Reichsführer-SSHeinrich Himmler. Rascher's connection with Himmler gave him immense influence, even over his superiors. Diehl may have been a former lover of Himmler; she frequently corresponded with him and interceded with him on her husband's behalf.

    A week after first meeting Himmler, Rascher presented a paper, "Report on the Development and Solution to Some of the Reichsfuehrer's Assigned Tasks During a Discussion Held on April 24, 1939". Rascher became involved in testing a plant extract as a cancer treatment. Kurt Blome, deputy of the Reich Health Leader (Reichsgesundheitsführer) and Plenipotentiary for Cancer Research in the Reich Research Council, favoured testing the extract on rodents, but Rascher insisted on using human test subjects. Himmler took Rascher's side and a Human Cancer Testing Station was established at Dachau. Blome worked on the project.

    High altitude experiments

    Rascher suggested in early 1941, while a captain in the Luftwaffe's Medical Service, that high-altitude/low-pressure experiments be carried out on human beings. While taking a course in aviation medicine at Munich, he wrote Himmler a letter in which he said that his course included research into high-altitude flight and it was regretted that no tests with humans had been possible as such experiments were highly dangerous and nobody volunteered for them. Rascher asked Himmler to place human subjects at his disposal, stating quite frankly that the experiments might prove fatal, but that previous tests made with monkeys had been unsatisfactory. The letter was answered by Rudolf Brandt, Himmler's adjutant, who informed Rascher that prisoners would be made available.

    Rascher subsequently wrote back to Brandt, asking for permission to carry out his experiments at Dachau, and plans for the experiments were developed at a conference in early 1942 attended by Rascher and members of the Luftwaffe Medical Service. The experiments were carried out in the spring and summer of the same year, using a portable pressure chamber supplied by the Luftwaffe. The victims were locked in the chamber, the interior pressure of which was then lowered to a level corresponding to very high altitudes. The pressure could be very quickly altered, allowing Rascher to simulate the conditions which would be experienced by a pilot freefalling from altitude without oxygen. After viewing a report of one of the fatal experiments, Himmler remarked that if a subject should survive such treatment, he should be "pardoned" to life imprisonment. Rascher replied to Himmler that the victims had to date been merely Poles and Russians, and that he believed they should be given no amnesty of any sort.

      

    Mugshot of Wolfram Sievers, taken by American authorities after his arrest
    Freezing experiments

    Rascher also conducted so-called "freezing experiments" on behalf of the Luftwaffe, in which 300 test subjects were used against their will. These were also conducted at Dachau after the high-altitude experiments had concluded. The purpose was to determine the best way of warming German pilots who had been forced down in the North Sea and suffered hypothermia. Rascher's victims were forced to remain outdoors naked in freezing weather for up to 14 hours, or kept in a tank of icewater for three hours, their pulse and internal temperature measured through a series of electrodes. Warming of the victims was then attempted by different methods, most usually and successfully by immersion in hot water.

    GeneralDr. Erich Hippke, chief of the Luftwaffe medical service, was the actual source of the idea for the so-called "freezing experiments" which were undertaken on behalf of the Luftwaffe and conducted at Dachau concentration camp by Sigmund Rascher.

    Himmler attended some of the experiments, and told Rascher he should go the North Sea and find out how the ordinary people there warmed victims of extreme cold. Himmler reportedly said he thought "that a fisherwoman could well take her half-frozen husband into her bed and revive him in that manner" and added that everyone believed "animal warmth" had a different effect than artificial warmth. Four Romani women were sent from Ravensbrück concentration camp and warming was attempted by placing the hypothermic victim between two naked women.

    A medical conference was held in Nuremberg in October 1942, at which the results of the experiments were presented under the headings "Prevention and Treatment of Freezing", and "Warming Up After Freezing to the Danger Point".

    Rascher, who had by now been transferred to the Waffen-SS, was eager to obtain the academic credentials necessary for a high-level university position. A habilitationwhich was to be based on his research failed, however, at Munich, Marburg, and Frankfurt, due to the formal requirement that results be made available for public scrutiny. US investigators later concluded that Rascher had been merely a convenient front for Luftwaffe chief surgeon Erich Hippke, who had been the true source of the ideas for Rascher's experiments. 

    Similar experiments were conducted from July to September 1944, as the Ahnenerbeprovided space and materials to doctors at Dachau to undertake “seawater experiments”, chiefly through Wolfram Sievers. Sievers is known to have visited Dachau on 20 July 1944, to speak with Kurt Plötner and the non-Ahnenerbe Wilhelm Beiglboeck, who ultimately carried out the experiments.

    While at Dachau, Rascher developed the standard cyanide capsules, which could be easily bitten through, either deliberately or accidentally.

    Blood coagulation experiments

    Rascher experimented with the effects of Polygal, a substance made from beet and apple pectin, which aided blood clotting. He predicted that the preventive use of Polygal tablets would reduce bleeding from gunshot wounds sustained during combat or during surgery. Subjects were given a Polygal tablet, and shot through the neck or chest, or their limbs amputated without anaesthesia. Rascher published an article on his experience of using Polygal, without detailing the nature of the human trials and also set up a company to manufacture the substance, staffed by prisoners.

    Personal life and execution

    In an attempt to please Himmler by demonstrating that population growth could be accelerated by extending the childbearing age, Rascher publicized the fact that his wife had given birth to three children even after becoming 48 years of age, and Himmler used a photograph of Rascher's family as propaganda material. However, during her fourth "pregnancy", Mrs. Rascher was arrested for trying to kidnap a baby and an investigation revealed that her other three children had been either bought or kidnapped. Himmler felt betrayed by this conduct, and Rascher was arrested in April 1944. As well as complicity in the kidnappings of the three infants, Rascher was also accused of financial irregularities, the murder of his former lab assistant, and scientific fraud. Both Rascher and his wife were hastily condemned without trial to the concentration camps. Rascher was imprisoned at Buchenwald following his arrest in 1944 until the camp's evacuation in April 1945. He and other prisoners were then taken to Dachau where Rascher was executed by firing squad on 26 April 1945; just three days before the camp was liberated by American troops.

    Literature

    Hubert Rehm: The Fall of the House of Rascher. The bizarre life and death of the SS-doctor Sigmund Rascher.

    OTHER LINKS:





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    Martin John Bryant

    Martin John Bryant (born 7 May 1967) is an Australian mass murderer who pleaded guilty to murdering 35 people and injuring 23 others in the Port Arthur massacre, a shooting spreein Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia, in 1996. He is currently serving 35 life sentences plus 1,035 years without parole in the psychiatric wing of Risdon Prison in Hobart, Tasmania.

    Bryant's rampage was the third-deadliest shooting by a lone gunman in history, the first being the 2011 Norway attacks committed by Anders Behring Breivik, followed by the 1982 massacre by Woo Bum-kon in South Korea.

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                On this date, 28 April 2014 amid the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état, An Egyptian judge has sentenced 683 alleged Muslim Brotherhood supporters to death, including the group's supreme guide, Mohamed Badie, and confirmed the death sentences of 37 of 529 alleged supporters previously condemned. Mohamed Elmessiry, an Amnesty International researcher monitoring the cases, said they "lacked basic fair trial guarantees". The defendants from the first case whose death sentences were not upheld were each sentenced to 25 years in prison.

                I do not support the mass death sentences as I prefer a fair trial with massive judicial safeguards and with extreme carefulness.

    Egyptian court sentences 683 people to death

    Amid crackdown on opposition, judge also confirms death sentences for 37 alleged Muslim Brotherhood supporters.

    Al Jazeera | | Middle East, Egypt

    Minya, Egypt - An Egyptian judge has sentenced 683 alleged Muslim Brotherhood supporters to death, including the group's supreme guide, Mohamed Badie, and confirmed the death sentences of 37 of 529 alleged supporters previously condemned.

    Outside the courtroom on Monday, when news of the sentences broke, families of the accused began to scream and several women fainted, falling to the ground.

    Mohamed Elmessiry, an Amnesty International researcher monitoring the cases, said they "lacked basic fair trial guarantees".

    The defendants from the first case whose death sentences were not upheld were each sentenced to 25 years in prison.

    Many of the lawyers for the accused boycotted the hearing, demanding that the judge be recused and calling him a "butcher".

    Mohamed Abdel Waheb, a lawyer who represents 25 of the defendants, said the verdict was handed down in a court session lasting less than five minutes.

    Previously, he said, the single session in the trial lasted just four hours, during which the judge refused to listen to any arguments from the defence.

    Abdel Nasser Hassanien, standing outside the courtroom, said five of his relatives were among those sentenced to die, including his brother, Ahmed Hassenein Abdelatty, 22.

    "Of the five only one is related to the Muslim Brotherhood, and he didn't do anything," he said.

    Global attention

    Judge Saeed Youssef first attracted international condemnation and prompted an outcry from human-rights groups after he handed down the initial sentence for the 528 defendants on March 24, following a brief trial marked by irregularities.

    On Monday he reversed 492 of those 529 death sentences, commuting most of them to life in prison.
    Among those freshly sentenced to death today was Badie, the supreme guide of the Muslim Brotherhood - the group's most senior leader.

    He is among 77 of 683 defendants in custody; the remainder were tried in absentia and have an automatic right to a retrial. 

    Egyptian law requires that death sentences are confirmed by the presiding judge after a comment has been invited from the Grand Mufti of Al Azhar, the country's leading religious official.

    The Mufti's opinion to the judge is secret.

    The guilty verdict and death sentences are still subject to appeal at the Court of Appeal.

    "The case killed the credibility of the Egyptian judicial system," said Elmessiry of Amnesty International.

    The violence of which the defendants are accused took place on August 14 last year as news reached Minya governorate that police had launched the deadly clearance of two sit-ins in Cairo, held by supporters of former President Mohamed Morsi, who had recently been ousted after mass protests against his rule.

    Crowds in Minya and elsewhere in southern Egypt, apparently supporters of Morsi, attacked police stations and churches, accusing Christians of having supported his overthrow.


    Mass death sentences now a part of life in Egypt

    by Omar Ashour
    Mass death sentences are usually associated with regimes like those of Adolf Hitler’s Nazis or Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge. But Egypt’s military rulers have now joined the ranks of such regimes, staging circus-like trials in which the outcome is foreordained. One such trial, in March 2014, produced 529 death sentences; another, in April, yielded 683 death sentences. And the trend shows no signs of slowing.

    Last month, 107 people — including Mohammed Morsi, Egypt’s first freely elected president — were handed death sentences for their alleged role in a mass “prison break” during the January 2011 uprising against former President Hosni Mubarak.

    Morsi was also accused of “colluding with foreign militants” — that is, Hezbollah and Hamas — in order to free political prisoners in Egypt.

    Soon after, the six defendants in the “Arab Sharkas” case — who were handed death sentences in October 2014 for allegedly attacking security posts — were executed, despite a local and international outcry against the flawed trial.

    According to Ahmed Helmi, a lawyer for four of the six men, the government wanted to “send a message following Morsi’s verdict” that it would carry out such sentences. His clients and the others, he concluded, were just “scapegoats.”

    Overall, civilian courts have handed down more than 1,000 death sentences since Egypt’s military overthrew Morsi in July 2013. The profiles of the “convicts” raise eyebrows: Emad Shahin, for example, is a world-renowned academic who has taught at Harvard and the American University in Cairo; Sondos Asem is a promising young scholar and political activist.

    Making matters worse, extra-judicial killings by the security services and elements in the military are rampant. The most dramatic of these episodes accompanied the coup in July 2013, when Egyptian police and army opened fire on crowds protesting Morsi’s ouster in Cairo’s Rab’a Square, killing more than 1,000 protesters in less than 10 hours.

    More recently, Islam Atito, an engineering student at Cairo’s Ain Shams University who supported the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood, was found dead in the desert on the outskirts of Cairo. Egypt’s interior ministry claimed that Atito had been involved in the “assassination” of a police officer and was killed in a firefight with security forces during a raid on his “hideout.”

    But according to the student union of the university’s engineering faculty — whose members collectively resigned in protest against the killing — Atito was arrested during a final exam on the university campus.

    The government, it is claimed, had Atito abducted and murdered in response to his activism. As a human-rights lawyer monitoring the case notes, this is just one of several such cases — none of which is being seriously investigated.

    These judicial and extra-judicial killings reflect the depth of Egypt’s current crisis. The “hawks” who control the security and military establishments seem intent on restoring a Mubarak-style regime, but with one key difference: they believe that Mubarak did too little to repress the opposition.

    For Egypt’s current leadership, the brutal tactics employed by the likes of Libya’s Moammar Gadhafi and Syria’s Bashar Assad are more likely to work in the Egyptian context than in those countries. After all, the probability of international intervention (as in Libya) is nil, and the likelihood of a full-fledged armed revolution (as in Syria) is extremely limited.

    But relying on force to subdue dissent in a country where 70 percent of the population is under the age of 30 will be a major challenge, if not resulting in a bloodbath.

    The brutal policies of Egypt’s hawks have also transformed the opposition. At a 2013 sit-in protesting Morsi’s ouster, the Muslim Brotherhood’s Supreme Guide, Mohamed Badie, declared, in what became a rallying cry for the movement, “Our peacefulness is stronger than their bullets.” But, with Badie having since been sentenced to death in multiple cases (including one related to attacks on police stations in the southern province of Minya), the phrase has become the subject of bitter mockery among young political activists, including Brotherhood members.

    Rassd, a Brotherhood-affiliated news website, recently published a letter by the group’s former secretary-general, Mahmoud Ghozlan, asserting that the “revolution” will continue to be nonviolent.
    But it also published harsh criticism of Ghozlan’s position by young Brotherhood activists — a notable development for an organization in which dissent is rarely publicized.

    In fact, anger among younger members has become so acute that the Brotherhood has allegedly changed some 65 percent of its leadership, according to Ahmed Abdel-Rahman, the head of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood Administrative Office Abroad (a new body that organizes the thousands of Brotherhood members now in exile).

    The organization has also adopted a harsher line, having publicly stated that the “reformist” approach that its government took after winning parliamentary and presidential elections in 2011 and 2012 was “wrong,” and that excluding non-Islamist revolutionary youth groups was a “major mistake.”

    Given Egypt’s mass death sentences, extrajudicial violence and the dominance of hawks in the security and the military establishments, together with the rhetorical, behavioral and organizational changes within the Muslim Brotherhood, the chances of reconciliation are fading by the day. In an environment in which “compromise” is regarded as a dirty word, Egypt’s future appears to be far from bright.

    Omar Ashour is senior lecturer in security studies at the University of Exeter and an associate fellow at Chatham House in London. He is the author of “The De-Radicalization of Jihadists: Transforming Armed Islamist Movements.” © Project Syndicate, 2015


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  • 04/30/16--00:48: THE SATANIC BIBLE
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                On this date, April 30, 1966, the Church of Satan is established at the Black House in San Francisco.

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  • 04/30/16--00:49: NAZISM AND OCCULTISM
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    On this date, April 30, 1945, Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide after being married for one day.


    A headline in the U.S. Army newspaper Stars and Stripes announcing Hitler's death.
    Adolf Hitler killed himself by gunshot on 30 April 1945in his Führerbunkerin Berlin. His wife Eva (née Braun) committed suicide with him by taking cyanide. That afternoon, in accordance with Hitler's prior instructions, their remains were carried up the stairs through the bunker's emergency exit, doused in petrol, and set alight in the Reich Chancellery garden outside the bunker. Records in the Soviet archives show that their burnt remains were recovered and interred in successive locations until 1970, when they were again exhumed, cremated, and the ashes scattered.

    Accounts differ as to the cause of death; one states that he died by poison only and another that he died by a self-inflicted gunshot while biting down on a cyanide capsule. Contemporary historians have rejected these accounts as being either Soviet propaganda or an attempted compromise in order to reconcile the different conclusions. One eye-witness recorded that the body showed signs of having been shot through the mouth, but this has been proven unlikely. There is also controversy regarding the authenticity of skull and jaw fragments which were recovered. In 2009, American researchers performed DNA tests on a skull Soviet officials had long believed to be Hitler's. The tests revealed that the skull was actually that of a woman less than 40 years old. The jaw fragments which had been recovered were not tested.


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    One may dislike Hitler's system and yet admire his patriotic achievement. If our country were defeated, I hope we should find a champion as indomitable to restore our courage and lead us back to our place among the nations.
    ["Hitler and His Choice", The Strand Magazine (November 1935).]

    AUTHOR: Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, PC, DL, FRS, RA(30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill was also an officerin the British Army, a historian, a writer (as Winston S. Churchill), and an artist. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature, and was the first person to be made an honorary citizen of the United States.
    Churchill was born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough, a branch of the Spencer family. His father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer; his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. As a young army officer, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer War. He gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns.
    At the forefront of politics for fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty as part of Asquith'sLiberal government. During the war, he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli Campaigncaused his departure from government. He then briefly resumed active army service on the Western Front as commander of the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He returned to government under Lloyd Georgeas Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, then Secretary of State for the Colonies. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Baldwin'sConservativegovernment of 1924–1929, controversially returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standardat its pre-war parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy.
    Out of office and politically "in the wilderness" during the 1930s because of his opposition to increased home rule for India and his resistance to the 1936 abdication of Edward VIII, Churchill took the lead in warning about Nazi Germany and in campaigning for rearmament. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlainon 10 May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister. His speeches and radio broadcasts helped inspire British resistance, especially during the difficult days of 1940-1 when the British Commonwealth and Empire stood almost alone in its active opposition to Adolf Hitler. He led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured.
    After the Conservative Party lost the 1945 election, he became Leader of the Opposition to the Labour Government. He publicly warned of an "Iron Curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. After winning the 1951 election, Churchill again became Prime Minister. His second term was preoccupied by foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, and a UK-backed coup d'état in Iran. Domestically his government laid great emphasis on house-building. Churchill suffered a serious stroke in 1953 and retired as Prime Minister in 1955, although he remained a Member of Parliament until 1964. Upon his death aged ninety in 1965, Elizabeth II granted him the honour of a state funeral, which saw one of the largest assemblies of world statesmen in history.[1] Named the Greatest Britonof all time in a 2002 poll, Churchill is widely regarded as being among the most influential people in British history, consistently ranking well in opinion polls of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom.

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    QUOTE: Demons are willing to send millions of babies to heaven, if they can make millions of murderers on earth. Psalm 106:37-39


    AUTHOR: John Stephen Piper(born January 11, 1946) is founder and teacher of desiringgod.org and chancellor of Bethlehem College & Seminary in Minneapolis, Minnesota. He is a Calvinist Baptist preacher and author who served as Pastor for Preaching and Vision of Bethlehem Baptist Church in Minneapolis, Minnesota for 33 years. His books include ECPA Christian Book Award winners Spectacular Sins, What Jesus Demands from the World, Pierced by the Word, and God's Passion for His Glory, and bestsellers Don't Waste Your Lifeand The Passion of Jesus Christ. The evangelicalorganization Desiring God is named for his book Desiring God: Meditations of a Christian Hedonist (1986).

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    Robert "Rob" O'Neill (born 10 April 1976) is a former United States Navy SEAL and a native of Butte, Montana. He is best known for his claims, made in November 2014, of having fired the head shots that killed Osama bin Laden during the raid on his Abbottabad compound on May 2, 2011.





    INTERNET SOURCE: http://www.thepoliticalinsider.com/navy-seal-robert-oneill-killed-bin-laden/

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    Americans celebrating after the death of Osama bin Laden in front of The White House.

    Deliveredat 11:35pm EDT from the East Room of the White House.

    President Obama announces the death of Al Qaida terrorist organization leader Osama bin Laden
    (31.68 MB, 9 min 28s, help, file info or download)

    Good evening. Tonight, I can report to the American people and to the world that the United States has conducted an operation that killed Osama bin Laden, the leader of al-Qaeda, and a terrorist who's responsible for the murder of thousands of innocent men, women, and children.

    It was nearly 10 years ago that a bright September day was darkened by the worst attack on the American people in our history. The images of Nine-Eleven are seared into our national memory -- hijacked planes cutting through a cloudless September sky; the Twin Towers collapsing to the ground; black smoke billowing up from the Pentagon; the wreckage of Flight 93 in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, where the actions of heroic citizens saved even more heartbreak and destruction.

    And yet we know that the worst images are those that were unseen to the world -- the empty seat at the dinner table; children who were forced to grow up without their mother or their father; parents who would never know the feeling of their child’s embrace; Nearly 3,000 citizenstaken from us, leaving a gaping hole in our hearts.

    On September 11, 2001, in our time of grief, the American people came together. We offered our neighbors a hand, and we offered the wounded our blood. We reaffirmed our ties to each other, and our love of community and country. On that day, no matter where we came from, what God we prayed to, or what race or ethnicity we were, we were united as one American family.

    We were also united in our resolve to protect our nation and to bring those who committed this vicious attack to justice. We quickly learned that the Nine-Eleven attacks were carried out by al Qaeda -- an organization headed by Osama bin Laden, which had openly declared war on the United States and was committed to killing innocents in our country and around the globe. And so we went to war against al Qaeda to protect our citizens, our friends, and our allies.

    Over the last ten years, thanks to the tireless and heroic work of our military and our counterterrorism professionals, we’ve made great strides in that effort. We’ve disrupted terrorist attacks and strengthened our homeland defense. In Afghanistan, we removed the Taliban government, which had given bin Laden and al Qaeda safe haven and support. And around the globe, we worked with our friends and allies to capture or kill scores of al Qaeda terrorists, including several who were a part of the Nine-Eleven plot.

    Yet Osama bin Laden avoided capture and escaped across the Afghan border into Pakistan. Meanwhile, al Qaeda continued to operate from along that border and operate through its affiliates across the world.

    And so shortly after taking office, I directed Leon Panetta, the director of the CIA, to make the killing or capture of bin Laden the top priority of our war against al Qaeda, even as we continued our broader efforts to disrupt, dismantle, and defeat his network.

    Then, last August, after years of painstaking work by our intelligence community, I was briefed on a possible lead to bin Laden. It was far from certain, and it took many months to run this thread to ground. I met repeatedly with my national security team as we developed more information about the possibility that we had located bin Laden hiding within a compound deep inside Pakistan. And finally, last week, I determined that we had enough intelligence to take action, and authorized an operation to get Osama bin Laden and bring him to justice.

    Today, at my direction, the United States launched a targeted operation against that compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan. A small team of Americans carried out the operation with extraordinary courage and capability. No Americans were harmed. They took care to avoid civilian casualties. After a firefight, they killed Osama bin Laden and took custody of his body.

    For over two decades, bin Laden has been al Qaeda’s leader and symbol, and has continued to plot attacks against our country and our friends and allies. The death of bin Laden marks the most significant achievement to date in our nation’s effort to defeat al Qaeda.

    Yet his death does not mark the end of our effort. There’s no doubt that al Qaeda will continue to pursue attacks against us. We must –- and we will -- remain vigilant at home and abroad.

    As we do, we must also reaffirm that the United States is not –- and never will be -– at war with Islam. I’ve made clear, just as President Bush did shortly after Nine-Eleven, that our war is not against Islam. Bin Laden was not a Muslim leader; he was a mass murderer of Muslims. Indeed, al Qaeda has slaughtered scores of Muslims in many countries, including our own. So his demise should be welcomed by all who believe in peace and human dignity.

    Over the years, I’ve repeatedly made clear that we would take action within Pakistan if we knew where bin Laden was. That is what we’ve done. But it’s important to note that our counterterrorism cooperation with Pakistan helped lead us to bin Laden and the compound where he was hiding. Indeed, bin Laden had declared war against Pakistan as well, and ordered attacks against the Pakistani people.

    Tonight, I called President Zardari, and my team has also spoken with their Pakistani counterparts. They agree that this is a good and historic day for both of our nations. And going forward, it is essential that Pakistan continue to join us in the fight against al Qaeda and its affiliates.

    The American people did not choose this fight. It came to our shores, and started with the senseless slaughter of our citizens. After nearly ten years of service, struggle, and sacrifice, we know well the costs of war. These efforts weigh on me every time I, as Commander-in-Chief, have to sign a letter to a family that has lost a loved one, or look into the eyes of a service member who’s been gravely wounded.

    So Americans understand the costs of war. Yet as a country, we will never tolerate our security being threatened, nor stand idly by when our people have been killed. We will be relentless in defense of our citizens and our friends and allies. We will be true to the values that make us who we are. And on nights like this one, we can say to those families who have lost loved ones to al Qaeda’s terror: justice has been done.

    Tonight, we give thanks to the countless intelligence and counterterrorism professionals who’ve worked tirelessly to achieve this outcome. The American people do not see their work, nor know their names. But tonight, they feel the satisfaction of their work and the result of their pursuit of justice.

    We give thanks for the men who carried out this operation, for they exemplify the professionalism, patriotism, and unparalleled courage of those who serve our country. And they are part of a generation that has borne the heaviest share of the burden since that September day.

    Finally, let me say to the families who lost loved ones on 9/11 that we have never forgotten your loss, nor wavered in our commitment to see that we do whatever it takes to prevent another attack on our shores.

    And tonight, let us think back to the sense of unity that prevailed on 9/11. I know that it has, at times, frayed. Yet today’s achievement is a testament to the greatness of our country and the determination of the American people.

    The cause of securing our country is not complete. But tonight, we are once again reminded that America can do whatever we set our mind to. That is the story of our history, whether it’s the pursuit of prosperity for our people, or the struggle for equality for all our citizens; our commitment to stand up for our values abroad, and our sacrifices to make the world a safer place.

    Let us remember that we can do these things not just because of wealth or power, but because of who we are: one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

    Thank you. May God bless you. And may God bless the United States of America.

    END 11:44 P.M. EDT


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                70 years ago on this date, 7 May 1946, exactly one year after his arrest and four days before his 52nd birthday, Mussert was executed by a firing squad on the Waalsdorpervlakte, a site near The Hague, where hundreds of Dutch citizens had been killed by the Nazi regime.

                I will post information about this Dutch Nazi Collaborator, Anton Mussert from Wikipedia.


    Anton Mussert

    Anton Mussert in 1945

    Leader of the NSB
    In office
    13 December 1942 – 7 May 1945
    Serving with Reichskommissar Artur Seyss-Inquart
    Member of the House of Representatives of the Netherlands
    In office
    May 1937 – December 1942
    Personal details
    Born
    Anton Adriaan Mussert
    11 May 1894
    Werkendam, Netherlands
    Died
    7 May 1946 (aged 51)
    The Hague, Netherlands
    Nationality
    Dutch
    Political party
    National Socialist Movement (NSB)
    Spouse(s)
    Maria Witlam
    Alma mater
    Delft University of Technology (M.Eng)
    Occupation
    Politician
    Civil engineer

    Anton Adriaan Mussert (Dutch pronunciation:[ˈɑntɔm ˈmɵsərt]; 11 May 1894 – 7 May 1946) was one of the founders of the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB) and its formal leader. As such, he was the most prominent Dutch fascist before and during World War II. During the war, he was able to keep this position, due to the support he received from the Germans. After the war, he was convicted and executed for high treason.

    Biography

    Early life

    He was born in 1894 in Werkendam, in the northern part of the province of Noord-Brabantin the Netherlands. He showed from an early age talent for technical matters and he chose to study civil engineering in the DelftUniversity of Technology. In the 1920s, he became active in several extreme right organisations such as the Dietsche Bond which advocated a Greater Netherlands including Flanders (Dutch-speakingBelgium).

    Foundation of the Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging

    On 14 December 1931, he, Cornelis van Geelkerken, and ten others founded the Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging(NSB) (literally, the National Socialist Movement), a Dutch counterpart to the German National Socialists, the Nazis. In its early years, the NSB boasted that its membership included several hundred Jews, until the German party directed a more anti-Semitic course.

    A 1933 demonstration at Utrecht attracted only 600 protestors. A year later, the NSB rallied 25,000 demonstrators in Amsterdam. The NSB received 300,000 votes in the 1935 parliamentary elections. In the 1937 voting, it polled a little more than half as much. Thereafter, Mussert worked toward preventing resistance to a German invasion.

    Role during the war


    1940

    A state of siege was declared by the Dutch government in April 1940 after the foreign correspondent for the New York Times, Vladimir Poliakov, spread the false news that Mussert's followers were preparing to kidnap Queen Wilhelmina as part of a coup. On 10 May, German troops invaded the Netherlands and Mussert was permitted to suppress all political parties other than the NSB.

    Mussert was not appointed prime minister of the occupied nation. Instead, Austrian Nazi Artur Seyss-Inquart was appointed as the Reichskommissar, while Berlin summoned Mussert to control his uncooperative countrymen. Mussert responded by working with the Gestapo in stopping resistance to the German occupation. On 21 June 1940 Mussert agreed to have NSB members train with the SS-Standarte 'Westland'. On 11 September, Mussert instructed Henk Feldmeijer, to organise the Nederlandsche SS (Dutch SS) as a division of the NSB. Mussert had nothing to do with the raising of an all-Dutch volunteer SS unit, the SS-Freiwilligen-Legion Niederlande. Regardless, thousands of Dutch citizens were arrested.

    Following years

    During the subsequent occupation, over 100,000 Dutch Jews were rounded up and transported to concentration campsin Germany, German-occupied Poland and German-occupied Czechoslovakia. By the time these camps were liberated, few Dutch Jews survived.

    In February 1941, Mussert agreed and oversaw the formation of the 23rd SS Volunteer Panzer Grenadier Division Nederland, which trained in Hamburg. In November 1941, the legion was ordered to the Eastern front near Leningrad, under the overall command of Army Group North. The division acquitted itself well alongside its German allies, but suffered large losses.

    On 8 December 1941, the independent Dutch administration in the Dutch East Indies declared war on Japan, the ally of Nazi Germany. After the Japanese invasion and occupation and the subsequent internment of 100,000 Dutch civilians and 50,000 military personnel, Mussert requested a meeting with Hitler. On 13 December 1942, Hitler declared Mussert to be "'Leider van het Nederlandse Volk" (Leader of the Dutch People).

    Having lost control of the Dutch SS and the military units that were serving in the Wehrmacht to his Nazi masters, Mussert had his last meeting with Hitler in May 1943, where he was told that he would never have political control. Following the unsuccessful Operation Market Garden in September 1944, that included a supporting strike by Dutch railway workers, the German authorities forbade food transport by rail, resulting in the Hongerwinter of 1944/45, during which 20,000 died. Throughout the crisis, Mussert stayed silent, for fear of losing what little power he had left.

    By the end of the war, 205,901 Dutch men and women had died. The Netherlands had the highest per capita death rate of all German-occupied countries in Western Europe, 2.36%. Another 30,000 died in the Dutch East Indies, either while fighting the Japanese or in camps as Japanese POWs. Dutch civilians were held in those camps as well.

    Death

    Upon the surrender of Germany, Mussert was arrested at the NSB office in The Hague on 7 May 1945. He was convicted of high treason on 28 November after a two-day trial, and was sentenced to death on 12 December. He appealed to Queen Wilhelmina for clemency. She refused. On 7 May 1946, exactly one year after his arrest and four days before his 52nd birthday, Mussert was executed by a firing squad on the Waalsdorpervlakte, a site near The Hague, where hundreds of Dutch citizens had been killed by the Nazi regime.

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    Winston Churchill left a legacy of global conflict and crimes against humanity
    Garikai Chengu
    Global Research
    Sat, 23 Jan 2016 21:15 UTC

    Sunday January 24th 2016 marks the anniversary of the death of one of the most lionized leaders in the Western world: Sir Winston Churchill.

    The current British Prime Minister, David Cameron, has called Churchill "the greatest ever Prime Minister", and Britons have recently voted him as the greatest Briton to have ever lived.

    The story that British schoolbooks tell children about Churchill is of a British Bulldog, with unprecedented moral bravery and patriotism. He, who defeated the Nazis during World War II and spread civilisation to indigenous people from all corners of the globe. Historically, nothing could be further from the truth.

    To the vast majority of the world, where the sun once never set on the British empire, Winston Churchill remains a great symbol of racist Western imperialist tyranny, who stood on the wrong side of history.

    The myth of Churchill is Britain's greatest propaganda tool because it rewrites Churchill's true history in order to whitewash Britain's past imperialist crimes against humanity. The Churchill myth also perpetuates Britain's ongoing neo-colonial and neo-liberal policies, that still, to the is day, hurt the very people around the world that Churchill was alleged to have helped civilise.

    The same man whose image is polished and placed on British mantelpieces as a symbol of all that is Great about Britain was an unapologetic racist and white supremacist. "I hate Indians, they are a beastly people with a beastly religion", he once bellowed. As Churchill put it, Palestinians were simply "barbaric hordes who ate little but camel dung."

    In 1937, he told the Palestine Royal Commission:


    "I do not admit for instance, that a great wrong has been done to the Red Indians of America or the black people of Australia. I do not admit that a wrong has been done to these people by the fact that a stronger race, a higher-grade race, a more worldly wise race to put it that way, has come in and taken their place."

    It is unsurprising that when Barack Obama became President, he returned to Britain a bust of Churchill which he found on his desk in the Oval office. According to historian Johann Hari, Mr. Obama's Kenyan grandfather, Hussein Onyango Obama, was imprisoned without trial for two years and was tortured on Churchill's watch, for daring to resist Churchill's empire.

    Apart from being an unrepentant racist, Churchill was also a staunch proponent of the use of terrorism as a weapon of war.
    During the Kurdish rebellion against the British dictatorship in 1920, Churchill remarked that he simply did not understand the "squeamishness" surrounding the use of gas by civilized Great Britain as a weapon of terror."I am strongly in favour of using gas against uncivilised tribes, it would spread a lively terror," he remarked.

    In the same year, as Secretary of State for War, Churchill sent the infamous Black and Tans to Ireland to fight the IRA. The group became known for vicious terrorist attacks on civilians which Churchill condoned and encouraged.

    While today Britons celebrate Churchill's legacy, much of the world outside the West mourns the legacy of a man who insisted that it was the solemn duty of Great Britain to invade and loot foreign lands because in Churchill's own words Britain's "Aryan stock is bound to triumph".

    Churchill's legacy in the Far East, Middle East, South Asia and Africa is certainly not one of an affable British Lionheart, intent on spreading civilization amongst the natives of the world. To people of these regions the imperialism, racism, and fascism of a man like Winston Churchill can be blamed for much of the world's ongoing conflicts and instability.

    As Churchill himself boasted, he "created Jordan with a stroke of a pen one Sunday afternoon," thereby placing many Jordanians under the brutal thumb of a throneless Hashemite prince, Abdullah. Historian Michael R. Burch recalls how the huge zigzag in Jordan's eastern border with Saudi Arabia has been called "Winston's Hiccup" or "Churchill's Sneeze" because Churchill carelessly drew the expansive boundary after a generous lunch.

    Churchill also invented Iraq. After giving Jordan to Prince Abdullah, Churchill, the great believer in democracy that he was, gave Prince Abdullah's brother Faisal an arbitrary patch of desert that became Iraq. Faisal and Abdullah were war buddies of Churchill's friend T. E. Lawrence, the famous "Lawrence of Arabia".

    Much like the clumsy actions in Iraq of today's great Empire, Churchill's imperial foreign policy caused decades of instability in Iraq by arbitrarily locking together three warring ethnic groups that have been bleeding heavily ever since. In Iraq, Churchill bundled together the three Ottoman vilayets of Basra that was predominantly Shiite, Baghdad that was Sunni, and Mosul that was mainly Kurd.

    Ask almost anyone outside of Iraq who is responsible for the unstable mess that Iraq is in today and they are likely to say one word, either "Bush" or "America". However, if you asked anyone within Iraq who is mainly responsible for Iraq's problems over the last half century and they are likely to simply say "Churchill".

    Winston Churchill convened the 1912 Conference in Cairo to determine the boundaries of the British Middle Eastern mandate and T.E. Lawrence was the most influential delegate. Churchill did not invite a single Arab to the conference, which is shocking but hardly surprising since in his memoirs Churchill said that he never consulted the Arabs about his plans for them.

    The arbitrary lines drawn in Middle Eastern sand by Churchillian imperialism were never going to withstand the test of time. To this day, Churchill's actions have denied Jordanians, Iraqis, Kurds and Palestinians anything resembling true democracy and national stability.

    The intractable Israeli-Palestinian conflict can also be traced directly back to Churchill's door at number 10 Downing Street and his decision to hand over the "Promised Land" to both Arabs and Jews. Churchill gave practical effect to the Balfour declaration of 1917, which expressed Britain's support for the creation of a Jewish homeland, resulting in the biggest single error of British foreign policy in the Middle East.

    Churchill's legacy in Sub-Saharan Africa and Kenya in particular is also one of deep physical and physiological scars that endure to this day.

    Of greater consequence to truth and history should be a man's actions, not merely his words. Whilst Churchill has become one of the most extensively quoted men in the English speaking world, particularly on issues of democracy and freedom, true history speaks of a man whose actions revolved around, in Churchill's own words, "a lot of jolly little wars against barbarous peoples".

    One such war was when Kikuyu Kenyans rebelled for their freedom only to have Churchill call them "brutish savage children" and force 150,000 of them into "Britain's Gulag".

    Pulitzer-prize winning historian, Professor Caroline Elkins, highlights Churchill's many crimes in Kenya in her book Britain's Gulag: The Brutal End of Empire in Kenya. Professor Elkins explains how Churchill's soldiers "whipped, shot, burned, and mutilated Mau Mau suspects", all in the name of British "civilization". It is said that President Obama's grandfather Hussein Onyango Obama never truly recovered from the torture he endured from Churchill's men.

    The Nobel Prize-winning economist Amartya Sen has proved how in Bengal in 1943 Churchill engineered one of the worst famines in human history for profit.

    Over three million civilians starved to death whilst Churchill refused to send food aid to India. Instead, Churchill trumpeted that "the famine was their own fault for breeding like rabbits." Churchill intentionally hoarded grain to sell for profit on the open market after the Second World War instead of diverting it to starving inhabitants of a nation controlled by Britain. Churchill's actions in India unquestionably constituted a crime against humanity.

    Churchill was also one of the greatest advocates of Britain's disastrous divide-and-rule foreign policy.

    Churchill's administration deliberately created and exacerbated sectarian fissures within India's independence movement, between Indian Hindus and Muslims that have had devastating effects on the region ever since.

    Prior to India's independence from Britain, Churchill was eager to see bloodshed erupt in India, so as to prove that Britain was the benevolent "glue holding the nation together". For Churchill, bloodshed also had the added strategic advantage that it would also lead to the partition of India and Pakistan. Churchill's hope was this partition would result in Pakistan remaining within Britain's sphere of influence. This, in turn, would enable the Great Game against the Soviet empire to continue, no matter the cost to innocent Indian and Pakistanis. The partition of India with Pakistan caused the death of about 2.5 million people and displaced some 12.5 million others.

    According to writer, Ishaan Tharoor, Churchill's own Secretary of State for India, Leopold Amery, compared his boss's understanding of India's problems to King George III's apathy for the Americas. In his private diaries Amery vented that "on the subject of India, Churchill is not quite sane" and that he didn't "see much difference between Churchill's outlook and Hitler's."

    Churchill shared far more ideologically in common with Hitler than most British historians care to admit. For instance, Churchill was a keen supporter of eugenics, something he shared in common with Germany's Nazi leadership, who were estimated estimated to have killed 200,000 disabled people and forcibly sterilised twice that number. Churchill drafted a highly controversial piece of legislation, which mandated that the mentally ill be forcibly sterilized. In a memo to the Prime Minister in 1910, Winston Churchill cautioned, "the multiplication of the feeble-minded is a very terrible danger to the race". He also helped organise the International Eugenics Conference of 1912, which was the largest meeting of proponents of eugenics in history.

    Churchill had a long standing belief in racial hierarchies and eugenics. In Churchill's view, white protestant Christians were at the very top of the pyramid, above white Catholics, while Jews and Indians were only slightly higher than Africans.

    Historian, Mr. Hari, rightfully points out, "the fact that we now live in a world where a free and independent India is a superpower eclipsing Britain, and a grandson of the Kikuyu 'savages' is the most powerful man in the world, is a repudiation of Churchill at his ugliest - and a sweet, ironic victory for Churchill at his best."

    Amid today's Churchillian parades and celebratory speeches, British media and schoolbooks may choose to only remember Churchill's opposition to dictatorship in Europe, but the rest of the world cannot choose to forget Churchill's imposition of dictatorship on darker skinned people outside of Europe. Far from being the Lionheart of Britain, who stood on the ramparts of civilisation, Winston Churchill, all too often, simply stood on the wrong side of history.

    Churchill is indeed the Greatest Briton to have ever lived, because for decades, the myth of Churchill has served as Britain's greatest propaganda tool to bolster national white pride and glorify British imperial culture.


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    "Where books are burned, human beings are destined to be burned too."

    -       Heinrich Heine

    On this date, 10 May 1933, in Germany, the Nazis stage massive public book burnings. I will post information about this event from Wikipedia and other links.


    Opernplatz, Berlin book burnings

    The Nazi book burnings were a campaign conducted by the German Student Union to ceremonially burn books in Nazi Germany and Austria in the 1930s. The books targeted for burning were those viewed as being subversive or as representing ideologies opposed to Nazism. These included books written by Jewishpacifist, classical liberal, anarchist, socialist, and communistauthors, among others.

    The book-burning campaign

    On April 8, 1933, the Main Office for Pressand Propagandaof the German Student Union proclaimed a nationwide "Action against the Un-German Spirit", which was to climax in a literary purge or "cleansing" ("Säuberung") by fire. Local chapters were to supply the press with releases and commissioned articles, sponsor well-known Nazi figures to speak at public gatherings, and negotiate for radio broadcast time. On the 8th of April, the Student Union also drafted the Twelve Theses which deliberately evoked Martin Luther and the historic burning of "Un-German" books at the Wartburg festival on the 300th anniversary of the posting of Luther's Ninety-Five Theses. The theses called for a "pure" national language and culture. Placards publicized the theses, which attacked "Jewish intellectualism", asserted the need to "purify" German language and literature, and demanded that universities be centres of German nationalism. The students described the "action" as a response to a worldwide Jewish "smear campaign" against Germany and an affirmation of traditional German values.

    On 10 May 1933, in an act of ominous significance, the students burnedupwards of 25,000 volumes of "un-German" books, thereby presaging an era of uncompromising state censorship. In many university towns, nationalist students marched in torch lit parades against the "un-German" spirit. The scripted rituals of this night called for high Nazi officials, professors, rectors, and student leaders to address the participants and spectators. At the meeting places, students threw the pillaged, banned books into the bonfires with a great joyous ceremony that included live music, singing, "fire oaths," and incantations. In Berlin, some 40,000 people gathered in the square at the State Opera to hear Joseph Goebbels deliver a fiery address: "No to decadence and moral corruption!" Goebbels enjoined the crowd. “Yes to decency and morality in family and state! I consign to the flames the writings of Heinrich Mann, Ernst Gläser, Erich Kästner.”


    The era of extreme Jewish intellectualism is now at an end. The breakthrough of the German revolution has again cleared the way on the German path...The future German man will not just be a man of books, but a man of character. It is to this end that we want to educate you. As a young person, to already have the courage to face the pitiless glare, to overcome the fear of death, and to regain respect for death - this is the task of this young generation. And thus you do well in this midnight hour to commit to the flames the evil spirit of the past. This is a strong, great and symbolic deed - a deed which should document the following for the world to know - Here the intellectual foundation of the November Republic is sinking to the ground, but from this wreckage the phoenix of a new spirit will triumphantly rise.
    — Joseph Goebbels, Speech to the students in Berlin


    Not all book burnings took place on 10 May as the German Student Union had planned. Some were postponed a few days because of rain. Others, based on local chapter preference, took place on 21 June, the summer solstice, a traditional date of celebration. Nonetheless, in 34 university towns across Germany the "Action against the Un-German Spirit" was a success, enlisting widespread newspaper coverage. And in some places, notably Berlin, radio broadcasts brought the speeches, songs, and ceremonial incantations "live" to countless German listeners.

    All of the following types of literature were to be banned.
    • The works of traitors, emigrants and authors from foreign countries who believe they can attack and denigrate the new Germany (H.G. Wells, Rolland);
    • The literature of Marxism, Communism and Bolshevism;
    • Pacifist literature;
    • Literature with liberal, democratic tendencies and attitudes, and writings supporting the Weimar Republic (Rathenau, Heinrich Mann);
    • All historical writings whose purpose is to denigrate the origin, the spirit and the culture of the German Volk, or to dissolve the racial and structural order of the Volk, or that denies the force and importance of leading historical figures in favor of egalitarianism and the masses, and which seeks to drag them through the mud (Emil Ludwig);
    • Writings of a philosophical and social nature whose content deals with the false scientific enlightenment of primitive Darwinism and Monism (Hackel, Benedict);
    • Books that advocate “art” which is decadent, bloodless, or purely constructivist (Grosz, Dix, Bauhaus, Mendelsohn);
    • Writings on sexuality and sexual education which serve the egocentric pleasure of the individual and thus, completely destroy the principles of race and Volk (Hirschfeld);
    • The decadent, destructive and Volk-damaging writings of “Asphalt and Civilization” literati: (Graf, H. Mann, Stefan Zweig, Wassermann, Franz Blei);
    • Literature by Jewish authors, regardless of the field;
    • Popular entertainment literature that depicts life and life’s goals in a superficial, unrealistic and sickly sweet manner, based on a bourgeois or upper class view of life;
    • Nationalistic and patriotic kitsch in literature.
    • Pornography and explicit literature by Jewish authors.
    • All books degrading German purity.
    Responses

    The blind writer Helen Keller published an Open Letter to German Students:'You may burn my books and the books of the best minds in Europe, but the ideas those books contain have passed through millions of channels and will go on.'”

    Persecuted authors


    Not only German-speaking authors were burned but also French authors like Victor Hugo, André Gide, Romain Rolland, Henri Barbusse, American writers such as Ernest Hemingway, Upton Sinclair, Theodore Dreiser, Jack London, John Dos Passos, and Helen Keller as well as English authors Joseph Conrad, D.H. Lawrence, H.G. Wellsand Aldous Huxley, Irish writer James Joyce and Russian authors including Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Maxim Gorki, Isaac Babel, Vladimir Lenin, Vladimir Nabokov, Leo Tolstoy, Leon Trotsky, Vladimir Mayakovsky, and Ilya Ehrenburg.

    The burning of the books represents a culmination of the persecution of those authors whose verbal or written opinions were opposed to Nazi ideology. Many artists, writers and scientists were banned from working and publication. Their works could no longer be found in libraries or in the curricula of schools or universities. Some of them were driven to exile (like Walter Mehring and Arnold Zweig); others were deprived of their citizenship (for example Ernst Toller and Kurt Tucholsky) or forced into a self-imposed exile from society (e.g. Erich Kästner). For other writers the Nazi persecutions ended in death. Some of them died in concentration camps, due to the consequences of the conditions of imprisonment, or were executed (like Carl von Ossietzky, Erich Mühsam, Gertrud Kolmar, Jakob van Hoddis, Paul Kornfeld, Arno Nadeland Georg Hermann, Theodor Wolff, Adam Kuckhoff, and Rudolf Hilferding). Exiled authors despaired and committed suicide, for example: Walter Hasenclever, Ernst Weiss, Carl Einstein, Walter Benjamin, Ernst Toller, and Stefan Zweig.

    Heinrich Heine, whose work was also burned, wrote in his 1820-1821 play Almansorthe famous admonition, “Dort, wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man am Ende auch Menschen": "Where they burn books, they will in the end also burn people."

    Denazification


    In 1946, the Allied occupation authorities drew up a list of over 30,000 titles, ranging from school books to poetry and including works by such authors as von Clausewitz. Millions of copies of these books were confiscated and destroyed. The representative of the Military Directorate admitted that the order in principle was no different from the Nazi book burnings.

    Artworks were under the same censorship as other media;


    "all collections of works of art related or dedicated to the perpetuation of German militarism or Nazism will be closed permanently and taken into custody.".


    The directives were very broadly interpreted, leading to the destruction of thousands of paintings and thousands more were shipped to deposits in the U.S. Those confiscated paintings still surviving in U.S. custody include, for example, a painting "depicting a couple of middle aged women talking in a sunlit street in a small town".

    Remembrance

    Fighting the Fires of Hate: America and the Nazi Book Burnings is a traveling exhibition produced by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Through historical photographs, documents, and films, it explores how the book burnings became a potent symbol in America’s battle against Nazism and why they continue to resonate with the public—in film, literature, and political discourse-—to this day. In 2014, this exhibition will be displayed in West Fargo, North Dakota; Dallas, Texas; and Missoula, Montana.

    OTHER LINKS:








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    On this date, May 10, 1945, a Nazi War Criminal, Richard Glucks who was one of the Holocaust Perpetrators, committed suicide by swallowing a potassium cyanide capsule.


    Richard Glücks in his SS uniform


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