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  • 07/17/15--07:22: BUK MISSILE SYSTEM


  •  
    Buk-M1-2 SAM system. 9A310M1-2 self-propelled launcher. MAKS, Zhukovskiy, Russia, 2005.
    A mobile Buk surface-to-air missile launcher, similar to that believed to have been used in the incident


    9K37 Buk
    NATO reporting name:
    SA-11 Gadfly, SA-17 Grizzly

     
    Buk-M1-2 air defence system in 2010. Command post 9C470M1-2, TELAR 9A310M1-2 and a TEL 9A39M1-2 from the backside. Static display at Engineering technologies 2010 exposition.
     
    Type
    Medium range SAM system
    Place of origin
    Soviet Union
    Service history
    In service
    1979–present
    Used by
    Wars
    Production history
    Designer
    Almaz-Antey:
    Tikhomirov NIIP (lead designer)
    Lyulev Novator (SA missile designer)
    MNIIRE Altair (naval version designer)
    NIIIP (surveillance radar designer)
    DNPP (missiles)
    UMZ (TELARs)
    MZiK (TELs)
    Variants
    9K37 "Buk", 9K37M, 9K37M1 "Buk-M1", 9K37M1-2 "Buk-M1-2", 9K37M1-2A, 9K317 "Buk-M2", "Buk-M3"
    naval: 3S90 (M-22), 3S90M, 3S90E1, 3S90M1
    The Buk missile system (Russian: "Бук"; “beech” (tree), /bʊk/) is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile systems developed by the Soviet Union and its successor state, the Russian Federation, and designed to fight cruise missiles, smart bombs, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles.

    The Buk missile system is the successor to the NIIP/Vympel 2K12 Kub (NATO reporting name SA-6 "Gainful"). The first version of Buk adopted into service carried the GRAU designation 9K37 and was identified in the west with the NATO reporting name "Gadfly" as well as the US Department of Defense designation SA-11.

    With the integration of a new missile the Buk-M1-2 and Buk-M2 systems also received a new NATO reporting name Grizzly and a new DoD designation SA-17. The latest incarnation "Buk-M3" is scheduled for production.

    A naval version of the system, designed by MNIIRE Altair (currently part of GSKB Almaz-Antey) for the Russian Navy, according to Jane's Missiles & Rockets, received the GRAU designation 3S90M1 and will be identified with the NATO reporting name Gollum and a DoD designation SA-N-7C. The naval system is scheduled for delivery in 2014.

    Buk-M2 SAM In Action
    Published on Sep 14, 2012
    Please visit my channel @ http://www.youtube.com/user/vexed123
    The Buk missile system (Russian: "Бук"; English: beech) is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union and Russian Federation and designed to engage cruise missiles, smart bombs, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles.
    The Buk missile system is the successor to the NIIP/Vympel 2K12 Kub (NATO reporting name SA-6 "Gainful"). The first version of Buk adopted into service carried the GRAU designation 9K37 and was identified in the west with the NATO reporting name "Gadfly" as well as the US Department of Defense designation SA-11. Since its initial introduction into service the Buk missile system has been continually upgraded and refined with the latest incarnation carrying the designation 9K317 "Buk-M2"



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    MH17 Crash

     
                I will post information about the MH17 Crash on July 17, 2014 from Wikipedia and other links.

    9M-MRD, the aircraft shot down, photographed in October 2011

    Shootdown summary
    Date
    17 July 2014
    Summary
    Site
    Near Hrabove, Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine
    48°8′17″N38°38′20″ECoordinates: 48°8′17″N38°38′20″E
    Passengers
    283
    Crew
    15
    Fatalities
    298
    Survivors
    0
    Aircraft type
    Operator
    9M-MRD
    Flight origin
    Destination
    Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 (MH17/MAS17) was a scheduled international passenger flight from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur that crashed on 17 July 2014 after being shot down, killing all 283 passengers and 15 crew on board. The Boeing 777-200ERairliner lost contact about 50 km (31 mi) from the Ukraine–Russia border and crashed near Torez in Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine, 40 km (25 mi) from the border.

    The crash occurred during the Battle in Shakhtarsk Raion, part of the ongoing war in Donbass, in an area controlled by the Donbass People's Militia. According to American and German intelligence sources, the plane was shot down by pro-Russian insurgents using a Buksurface-to-air missile fired from the territory which they controlled. The Russian government blamed the Ukrainian government. The Dutch Safety Boardis currently leading an investigation into the incident and issued a preliminary report on 9 September 2014; a final accident report is expected in October 2015.

    A Bellingcat analysis of open-source evidence indicated that Russian-backed separatists were in control of a Buk missile launcher on 17 July and transported it from Donetsk to Snizhne while three eyewitnesses told the BBC that such a missile launcher was operated by a crew that seemed to be Russian in the area on that date. US sources attributed the downing to a missile fired from separatist-controlled territory, with their judgement based on sensors that traced the path of the missile, analysis of shrapnel patterns in the wreckage, voice print analysis of separatists' conversations in which they claimed credit for the strike, as well as photos and other data from social media sites.

    Immediately after the crash, a post appeared on the VKontakte social media profile attributed to Russian Colonel Igor Girkin, leader of the Donbass separatists, claiming responsibility for shooting down an AN-26, but after it became clear that a civilian aircraft had been shot down, the separatists denied any involvement, and the post was taken down. Russia has said that Ukraine "bears full, total responsibility" for the crash because it happened in Ukrainian airspace. The Ukrainian government states the missile was launched by "Russian professionals and coordinated from Russia". In June 2015, Buk manufacturer, the Russian concern Almaz-Anteyannounced that MH17 had been downed by a 9М38М1 Buk-M1 missile.

    Malaysia said intelligence reports on the downing of MH17 were "pretty conclusive", but more investigation was necessary to be certain that a surface-to-air missile brought down the plane, after which they would look at the criminal side. The German Federal Intelligence Service reportedly concluded that the plane was shot down by pro-Russian separatists using a captured Ukrainian Buk system.

    CT scans of MH17 victims showed "non-aircraft metal" and on 19 December 2014 the Ukrainian security service said that some of the bodies contained metal fragments that indicated the plane was shot down by a surface-to-air missile. Preliminary evidence from the ongoing Dutch investigation has concluded that the plane was most likely downed by a Russian unit that was probably manned by a Russian crew, though other possibilities have not yet been ruled out.

    The crash of Flight 17 was the fifth Boeing 777 hull loss. The crash was Malaysia Airlines' worst incident and its second of the year, after the disappearance of Flight 370 four months earlier.

    The Phone Calls after the MH17 Crash.


    OTHER LINKS:










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  • 07/18/15--01:45: MEIN KAMPF


  •             90 years ago on this date, July 18, 1925, Adolf Hitler published his personal manifesto Mein Kampf. I will post information about this book from Wikipedia and other links.

    REMINDER: Keep in mind, I am not antisemitic and I have Jewish friends too. I do it for educational purposes.

    Dust jacket of the book Mein Kampf, written by Adolf Hitler. Courtesy of the New York Public Library Digital Collection. (1926 to 1927)


    Author
    Adolf Hitler
    Country
    Germany
    Language
    German
    Genre
    Autobiography, Political theory
    Publisher
    Publication date
    18 July 1925
    Published in English
    13 October 1933 (abridged)
    1939 (full)
    Media type
    Hardback
    Pages
    720
    ISBN
    Followed by
    Zweites Buch (unpublished)

    Mein Kampf(pronounced [maɪ̯n kampf], "My Struggle") is an autobiographical manifesto by National Socialist leader Adolf Hitler, in which he outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Volume 1 of Mein Kampf was published in 1925 and Volume 2 in 1926. The book was edited by Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess.

    Hitler began dictating the book to Hess while imprisoned for what he considered to be "political crimes" following his failed Putsch in Munich in November 1923. Although Hitler received many visitors initially, he soon devoted himself entirely to the book. As he continued, Hitler realized that it would have to be a two-volume work, with the first volume scheduled for release in early 1925. The governor of Landsberg noted at the time that "he [Hitler] hopes the book will run into many editions, thus enabling him to fulfill his financial obligations and to defray the expenses incurred at the time of his trial."

    Title

    Hitler originally wanted to call his forthcoming book Viereinhalb Jahre (des Kampfes) gegen Lüge, Dummheit und Feigheit, or Four and a Half Years (of Struggle) Against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice. Max Amann, head of the Franz Eher Verlag and Hitler's publisher, is said to have suggestedthe much shorter "Mein Kampf" or "My Struggle".

    Contents

    The arrangement of chapters is as follows:
    • Volume One: A Reckoning
      • Chapter 1: In the House of my Parents
      • Chapter 2: Years of Study and Suffering in Vienna
      • Chapter 3: General Political Considerations Based on my Vienna Period
      • Chapter 4: Munich
      • Chapter 5: The World War
      • Chapter 6: War Propaganda
      • Chapter 7: The Revolution
      • Chapter 8: The Beginning of my Political Activity
      • Chapter 9: The "German Workers' Party"
      • Chapter 10: Causes of the Collapse
      • Chapter 11: Nation and Race
      • Chapter 12: The First Period of Development of the National Socialist German Workers' Party
    • Volume Two: The National Socialist Movement
      • Chapter 1: Philosophy and Party
      • Chapter 2: The State
      • Chapter 3: Subjects and Citizens
      • Chapter 4: Personality and the Conception of the Völkisch State
      • Chapter 5: Philosophy and Organization
      • Chapter 6: The Struggle of the Early Period – the Significance of the Spoken Word
      • Chapter 7: The Struggle with the Red Front
      • Chapter 8: The Strong Man Is Mightiest Alone
      • Chapter 9: Basic Ideas Regarding the Meaning and Organization of the Sturmabteilung
      • Chapter 10: Federalism as a Mask
      • Chapter 11: Propaganda and Organization
      • Chapter 12: The Trade-Union Question
      • Chapter 13: German Alliance Policy After the War
      • Chapter 14: Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy
      • Chapter 15: The Right of Emergency Defense
    • Conclusion
    • Index
    Analysis

    In Mein Kampf, Hitler used the main thesis of "the Jewish peril", which posits a Jewish conspiracy to gain world leadership. The narrative describes the process by which he became increasingly antisemitic and militaristic, especially during his years in Vienna. He speaks of not having met a Jewuntil he arrived in Vienna, and that at first his attitude was liberal and tolerant. When he first encountered the anti-semitic press, he says, he dismissed it as unworthy of serious consideration. Later he accepted the same anti-semitic views, which became crucial in his program of national reconstruction of Germany.

    Mein Kampfhas also been studied as a work on political theory. For example, Hitler announces his hatred of what he believed to be the world's two evils: Communism and Judaism. The new territory that Germany needed to obtain would properly nurture the "historic destiny" of the German people; this goal, which Hitler referred to as Lebensraum (living space), explains why Hitler aggressively expanded Germany eastward, specifically the invasions of Czechoslovakia and Poland, before he launched his attack against the Soviet Union. In Mein Kampf Hitler openly states that the future of Germany "has to lie in the acquisition of land in the East at the expense of Russia."

    During his work, Hitler blamed Germany's chief woes on the parliamentof the Weimar Republic, the Jews, and Social Democrats, as well as Marxists, though he believed that Marxists, Social Democrats, and the parliament were all working for Jewish interests. He announced that he wanted to completely destroy the parliamentary system, believing it to be corrupt in principle, as those who reach power are inherent opportunists.

    Antisemitism

    While historians diverge on the exact date Hitler decided to forcibly emigrate the Jewish people to Madagascar, few place the decision before the mid 1930s. First published in 1925, Mein Kampf shows the ideas that crafted Hitler's personal grievances and ambitions for creating a New Order.

    The racial laws to which Hitler referred resonate directly with his ideas in Mein Kampf. In his first edition of Mein Kampf, Hitler stated that the destruction of the weak and sick is far more humane than their protection. Apart from his allusion to humane treatment, Hitler saw a purpose in destroying "the weak" in order to provide the proper space and purity for the "strong".

    Popularity

    Although Hitler originally wrote this book mostly for the followers of National Socialism, it grew in popularity. He accumulated a tax debt of 405,500 Reichsmark(very roughly in 2015 €1.4 million or US$ 1.5 million) from the sale of about 240,000 copies by the time he became chancellor in 1933 (at which time his debt was waived).

    After Hitler rose to power, the book gained a large amount of popularity. (Two other books written by party members, Gottfried Feder's Breaking The Interest Slavery and Alfred Rosenberg'sThe Myth of the Twentieth Century,have since lapsed into comparative literary obscurity, and no translation of Feder's book from the original German is known.) The book was in high demand in libraries and often reviewed and quoted in other publications. Hitler had made about 1.2 million Reichsmarks from the income of his book in 1933, when the average annual income of a teacher was about 4,800 Mark. During Hitler's years in power, the book was given free to every newlywed couple and every soldier fighting at the front. By 1939 the book had sold 5.2 million copies in 11 languages. By the end of the war, about 10 million copies of the book had been sold or distributed in Germany.

    After becoming chancellor of Germany in 1933, Hitler began to distance himself from the book and dismissed it as "fantasies behind bars" that were little more than a series of articles for the Völkischer Beobachter and later told Hans Frankthat "If I had had any idea in 1924 that I would have become Reich chancellor, I never would have written the book."

    There are currently six e-book versions of Mein Kampf available for sale. In 2014 two of these version reached the 12th and 15th spots on the iTunes Politics and Current Events section. The same year a digital version of the book reached number one on the Amazon Propaganda and Political Psychology chart.

    Contemporary observations

    Mein Kampf,in essence, lays out the ideological program Hitler established for the German revolution, by identifying the Jews and "Bolsheviks," as racially and ideologically inferior and threatening, and "Aryans" and National Socialists as racially superior and politically progressive. Hitler's revolutionary goals included expulsion of the Jews from Greater Germany and the unification of German peoples into one Greater Germany. Hitler desired to restore German lands to their greatest historical extent, real or imagined.

    Due to its racist content and the historical effect of Nazism upon Europe during World War II and the Holocaust, it is considered a highly controversial book. Criticism has not come solely from opponents of Nazism. Italian Fascist dictator and Nazi ally Benito Mussolini was also critical of the book, saying that it was "a boring tome that I have never been able to read" and remarked that Hitler's beliefs, as expressed in the book, were "little more than commonplace clichés".

    One direct opponent of National Socialism, Konrad Heiden, observed that the content of Mein Kampf is essentially a political argument with other members of the Nazi Party who had appeared to be Hitler's friends, but whom he was actually denouncing in the book's content – sometimes by not even including references to them.

    In The Second World War,Winston Churchill wrote that he felt that after Hitler's ascension to power, no other book deserved more intensive scrutiny.

    The American literary theorist and philosopher Kenneth Burke wrote a rhetorical analysis of the work, The Rhetoric of Hitler's "Battle", which revealed its underlying message of aggressive intent.

    German publication history

    While Hitler was in power (1933–1945), Mein Kampf came to be available in three common editions. The first, the Volksausgabe or People's Edition, featured the original cover on the dust jacket and was navy blue underneath with a gold swastika eagle embossed on the cover. The Hochzeitsausgabe, or Wedding Edition, in a slipcase with the seal of the province embossed in gold onto a parchment-like cover was given free to marrying couples. In 1940, the Tornister-Ausgabe was released. This edition was a compact, but unabridged, version in a red cover and was released by the post office, available to be sent to loved ones fighting at the front. These three editions combined both volumes into the same book.

    A special edition was published in 1939 in honour of Hitler's 50th birthday. This edition was known as the Jubiläumsausgabe, or Anniversary Issue. It came in both dark blue and bright red boards with a gold sword on the cover. This work contained both volumes one and two.

    It was considered a deluxe version, relative to the smaller and more common Volksausgabe.
    The book could also be purchased as a two-volume set during Hitler's reign, and was available in soft cover and hardcover. The soft cover edition contained the original cover (as pictured at the top of this article). The hardcover edition had a leather spine with cloth-covered boards. The cover and spine contained an image of three brown oak leaves.

    English translations

    Dugdale abridgement

    Reynal and Hitchcock translation

    Murphy translation

    Stackpole translation and controversy

    Cranston translation and controversy

    7.6Manheim translation

    7.6.1Excerpts

    7.6.2Official Nazi translation

    Sales and royalties

    Current availability

    Canada

    India

    Russia

    Sweden

    Turkey

    United States

    Online availability

    Republication in Germany after 2015

    Sequel

    After the party's poor showing in the 1928 elections, Hitler believed that the reason for his loss was the public's misunderstanding of his ideas. He then retired to Munich to dictate a sequel to Mein Kampf to expand on its ideas, with more focus on foreign policy.

    Only two copies of the 200-page manuscript were originally made, and only one of these was ever made public. The document was neither edited nor published during the Nazi era and remains known as Zweites Buch, or "Second Book". To keep the document strictly secret, in 1935 Hitler ordered that it be placed in a safe in an air raid shelter. It remained there until being discovered by an American officer in 1945.

    The authenticity of the document found in 1945 has been verified by Josef Berg (former employee of the Nazi publishing house Eher Verlag) and Telford Taylor (former Brigadier General U.S.A.R. and Chief Counsel at the Nuremberg war-crimes trials).

    In 1958, the Zweites Buch was found in the archives of the United States by American historian Gerhard Weinberg. Unable to find an American publisher, Weinberg turned to his mentor – Hans Rothfels at the Institute of Contemporary History in Munich, and his associate Martin Broszat – who published Zweites Buch in 1961. A pirated edition was published in English in New York in 1962. The first authoritative English edition was not published until 2003 (Hitler's Second Book: The Unpublished Sequel to Mein Kampf,ISBN 1-929631-16-2).

    OTHER LINKS:








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                 On this date, July 20, 1944, Adolf Hitler survives an assassination attempt led by German Army Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg. Please go to this previous blog post to read a Speech of Hitler. 


    Benito Mussolini visits Hitler's headquarter Wolfsschanzenear Rastenburg (Ketrzyn) in East Prussia in the day of 20 july attenat. The view of destroyed corridor of barrack (There is Dr Paul Schmidt - Mussolini's interpreter in the background).




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                On this date, July 23, 2008, Dale Leo Bishop was executed by lethal injection in Mississippi. He was convicted of the December 10, 1998 murder of Marcus James Gentry. I was speechless when his last words encouraged those abolitionists to vote for President Obama if they want to end the death penalty. Please also go to this Unit1012 Blog Post to read this article on Obama.


    Dale Leo Bishop



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                Christopher Scott Emmett was executed by lethal injection in Virginia on July 24, 2008. He murdered John F. Langley on April 27, 2001. Notice that he only spent seven years on death row after being sentenced to death on November 2, 2001! He is just like the D.C Sniper and Michael William Lenz, who also spent about 7 years on Death Row before being terminated from the face of the earth.

    Christopher Scott Emmett


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    I will post information about the League of German Girls from Wikipedia and other links. 

    German Girls' League poster



    BDM Untergauwimpel, Deutsches Reich 1934-1945
     
    League of German Girls
    Bund Deutscher Mädel


    Formation
    1930
    Extinction
    1945
    Type
    Female Youth organization
    Legal status
    Defunct, Illegal
    Region served
    Nazi Germany
    Leader
    Baldur von Schirach, Trude Mohr
    Parent organization
    Nazi Party

    The League of German Girls or (cognate) Band of German Maidens (German: Bund Deutscher Mädel, BDM) was the girls' wing of the Nazi Party youth movement, the Hitler Youth. It was the only female youth organization in Nazi Germany.

    At first, the League consisted of two sections: the Jungmädel, or Young Girls' League, for girls ages 10 to 14, and the League proper for girls ages 14 to 18. In 1938, a third section was introduced, the Faith and Beauty Society (BDM-Werk Glaube und Schönheit), which was voluntary and open to girls between the ages of 17 and 21.

    With the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945, the organization de facto ceased to exist. On 10 October 1945, it was outlawed by the Allied Control Council along with other Nazi Party organizations. Under Section 86of the German Criminal Code, the Hitler Youth is an "unconstitutional organisation" and the distribution or public use of its symbols, except for educational or research purposes, are not permitted.

    Members of the BDM, 1935
     
    Hitler Youth and League of German Girls in China, 1935
    History

    The Bund Deutscher Mädel had its origins as early as the 1920s, in the first Mädchenschaftenor Mädchengruppen, also known as Schwesternschaften der Hitler-Jugend (Sisterhood of the Hitler Youth). In 1930 it was founded as the female branch of the Hitler Youth movement. Its full title was Bund Deutscher Mädel in der Hitler-Jugend (League of German Girls in the Hitler Youth). In the final electioneering campaigns of 1932, Hitler inaugurated it with a mass meeting featuring the League; on election eve, the League and Hitler Youth staged "evening of entertainment." It did not attract a mass following until the Nazis came to power in January 1933.

    Soon after taking office as 'Reichsjugendführer' on 17 June 1933, Baldur von Schirach issued regulations that suspended or forbid existing youth organizations ('concurrence'). Those youth groups were compulsorily integrated into the BDM, which was declared to be the only legally permitted organization for girls in Germany. Many of the existing organizations closed down to avoid this. These Nazi activities were a part of the Gleichschaltungstarting in 1933. The Reichskonkordat between the Catholic Church and Nazi Germany, signed on July 20, 1933, gave a certain shelter to the Catholic youth ministry, but they were the object of much bullying.

    The "Gesetz über die Hitlerjugend" (law concerning the Hitler Youth) dated 1 December 1936, forced all eligible juveniles to be a member of HJ or BDM. They had to be ethnic Germans, German citizens and free of hereditary diseases. Girls had to be 10 years of age to enter this League.

    The BDM was run directly by Schirach until 1934, when Trude Mohr, a former postal worker, was appointed to the position of BDM-Reichsreferentin, or National Speaker of the BDM, reporting directly to Schirach. After Mohr married in 1937, she was required to resign her position (the BDM required members to be unmarried and without children in order to remain in leadership positions), and was succeeded by Dr. Jutta Rüdiger, a doctor of psychology from Düsseldorf, who was a more assertive leader than Mohr but nevertheless a close ally of Schirach, and also of his successor from 1940 as HJ leader, Artur Axmann. She joined Schirach in resisting efforts by the head of the NS-Frauenschaft (Nazi Woman's League), Gertrud Scholtz-Klink, to gain control of the BDM. Rüdiger led the BDM until its dissolution in 1945.

    As in the HJ, separate sections of the BDM existed, according to the age of participants. Girls between the ages of 10 and 14 years old were members of the Young Girl's League (Jungmädelbund, JM), and girls between the ages of 14 and 18 were members of the Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM) proper. In 1938, a third section was added, known as Faith and Beauty (Glaube und Schönheit), which was voluntary and open to girls between 17 and 21 and was intended to groom them for marriage, domestic life, and future career goals. Ideally, girls were to be married and have children once they were of age, but importance was also placed on job training and education.

    At the beginning of World War II, the Reichsarbeitsdienstbecame compulsory also for young women. It lasted half a year. Many young women became 'Blitzmädel' (Wehrmachthelferin or female combat soldiers) during World War II.

    While these ages are general guidelines, there were exceptions for members holding higher (salaried) leadership positions, starting at the organizational level of "Untergau". As regards lower (honorary) positions, even members of the JM could apply for them after two years of membership and would then obtain such a position typically at the age of 13. The higher leadership, however, was recruited from members over 18 and was expected to maintain salaried office for no more than 10 years, and to leave the BDM at the age of 30 by the latest. As a general rule, members had to leave when they married and especially when they had children.

    The BDM uniform was a full blue skirt, middy blouse and heavy marching shoes.

    BDM Untergauwimpel, Deutsches Reich 1934-1945
    Leaders

    Trude Mohrwas appointed the first Reichsreferentin in June 1934. Her main initiative was to nourish a new way of living for the German youth, stating


    Our volk need a generation of girls which is healthy in body and mind, sure and decisive, proudly and confidently going forward, one which assumes its place in everyday life with poise and discernment, one free of sentimental and rapturous emotions, and which, for precisely this reason, in sharply defined feminity, would be the comrade of a man, because she does not regard him as some sort of idol but rather as a companion! Such girls will then, by necessity, carry the values of National Socialism into the next generation as the mental bulwark of our people.


    In 1937 after marrying ObersturmführerWolf Bürkner, she became pregnant and resigned her duties.

    Jutta Rüdiger (1910 - 2001) was a special case. She joined the BDM only in 1933, at the age of 23 and after having finished her doctorate in psychology. She obtained honorary positions instantly in 1933 and early 1934, was promoted to her first salaried position (leader of Untergau Ruhr-Lower Rhine) in June 1935 and was appointed Reichsreferentin for the BDM (head of the BDM) in November 1937 (aged 27), succeeding Trude Mohr, who had vacated the position on her marriage, as Nazi policy required. She kept this position even until the German defeat, when she had reached the age of 34.

    Clementine zu Castell-Rüdenhausen (b. 1912), a countess and member of the higher Franconian aristocracy, was appointed leader of Gau Unterfranken in 1933, at the age of 21, which also seems to have been the age when she joined the BDM, as no earlier date of membership nor any previous lower positions are recorded in her case. She was appointed head of "Faith and Beauty" in January 1938, a few days before her 26th birthday, and was discharged in September 1939 because of her marriage with Wilhelm "Utz" Utermann in October 1939. She was followed by an Austrian member, Annemarie Kaspar (b. 1917), who had been appointed Untergauführerin at the age of 20 in March 1938 and became head of B&B two weeks before her 22nd birthday. She too married and was discharged in May 1941, to be replaced in June 1941 by Martha Middendorf (b. 1914), who was 27 at the time of her appointment and was discharged already in February 1942, as she too had married. From this time on, Jutta Rüdiger, who was no candidate for marriage but living in lifelong partnership with her comrade Hedy Böhmer, took over to lead the B&B directly, thus holding both leadership positions until 1945.

    Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM) Abzeichen: 1. Reichsreferentin; 2. Obergauführerin; 3. Gauführerin; 4. Untergauführerin; 5. Gauführerin; 6. Untergaufüherin; 7. Ringführerin; 8. Gruppenführerin

    In 1939, a new uniform was introduced for regional and national leaders within the League of German Girls, and along with the new uniforms came new rank insignia for leaders. These new rank insignia took the form of a silver, and for higher ranks, gold bullion embroidered open-winged eagle on a black (white, on the summer tunic) shield with various types of borders to indicate grade. They were worn on the left chest of the tunic.

    Berlin girls of the BDM, haymaking, 1939

    Training and activities

    The BDM used campfire romanticism, summer camps, folklorism, tradition, and sports to indoctrinate girls within the National Socialist belief system, and to train them for their roles in German society: wife, mother, and homemaker. Their Home Evenings revolved around domestic training, but Saturdays involved strenuous outdoor exercise and physical training. The purpose of these activities was to promote good health, which would enable them to serve their people and their country. The "home evenings"—ideally to be conducted in specially built homes—also included world view training, with instruction in history. This instruction would include learning the Horst Wessel song, the Nazi holidays, stories about Hitler Youth martyrs, and facts about their locality and Germans culture and history. Physical education included track and field sports like running and the long jump, gymnastics (e.g. somersaulting and tightrope walking), route-marching, and swimming. The importance of self-sacrifice for Germany was heavily emphasized; a Jewish woman, reflecting on her longing to join the League of German Girls, concluded that it had been the admonishment for self-sacrifice that had drawn her most. The League was particularly regarded as instructing girls to avoid Rassenschandeor racial defilement, which was treated with particular importance for young females.

    Holiday trips offered by HJ and BDM - i.e. skiing in winter and tent camps in summer - were affordable; children from poor families got subsidies. These offers were popular.

    The League encouraged rebellion against parents. Der Giftpilz presented the propaganda of a German girl being ordered to visit a Jewish doctor by her mother; the girl protested on the grounds of what she had learned at BDM meetings, and while at the office, remembered the warnings in time to escape being molested by the doctor. This caused her mother to agree that the BDM had clearly been in the right.

    Ilsa McKee noted that the lectures of Hitler Youth and the BDM on the need to produce more children produced several illegitimate children, which neither the mothers nor the possible fathers regarded as problematic. These and other behaviors taught led parents to complain that their authority was being undermined. In 1944, a group of parents complained to the court that the leaders of the League were openly telling their daughters to have illegitimate children. Public opinion attributed a great deal of sexual laxity to the members.

    The preparation camps for the Landdienst of girls and boys often lay nearby. 900 of the girls participating in the 1936 Reichsparteitagin Nürnberg came back pregnant. In 1937, a prohibition came out saying that camping was forbidden to the BDM.

    Jungmadelwere only taught, the BDM was involved in community service, political activities and other activities being considered as useful at that time.

    Before entering any occupation or advanced studies, the girls, like the boys in Hitler Youth, had to complete a year of land service ("Landfrauenjahr"). Although working on a farm was not the only approved form of service, it was a common one; the aim was to bring young people back from the cities, in the hope that they would then stay "on the land" in service of Nazi blood and soil beliefs. Another form of service was as a domestic work in a family with many children.

    The 'Faith and Beauty' organizations offered groups where girls could receive further education and training in fields that interested them. Some of the works groups that were available were arts and sculpture, clothing design and sewing, general home economics, and music.

    Das deutsche Mädel was the Nazi magazine directed at these girls.

    BDM Girls march by during a gymnastics exercise – 1941



    Wartime service

    The outbreak of war altered the role of the BDM, though not as radically as it did the role of the boys in the HJ, who were to be fed into the German Wehrmacht(armed forces) or the National Labor Service (Reichsarbeitsdienst, RAD, six months) as soon as they turned 18. The BDM helped the war effort in many ways. Younger girls collected donations of money, as well as goods such as clothing or old newspapers for the Winter Relief and other Nazi charitable organizations. Many groups, particularly BDM choirs and musical groups, visited wounded soldiers at hospitals or sent care packages to the front. Girls knitted socks, grew gardens, and engaged in similar tasks.
    Girls also helped stage the celebrations after the de facto capitulation of France (see Second Armistice at Compiègne, 22 June 1940).

    The older girls volunteered as nurses' aides at hospitals, or to help at train stations where wounded soldiers or refugees needed a hand. After 1943, as Allied air attacks on German cities increased, many BDM girls went into paramilitary and military services ("Wehrmachtshelferin"), where they served as FlakHelpers, signals auxiliaries, searchlightoperators, and office staff. Unlike male HJs, BDM girls took little part in the actual fighting or operation of weaponry, although some Flak Helferinnen operated anti-aircraft guns.

    Many older girls, with Hitler Youth were sent to Poland as part of the Germanisationefforts. These girls, along with Hitler Youth, were first to oversee the eviction of Poles to make room for new settlers and ensure they did not take much from their homes, as furniture and the like were to be left there for the settlers. Their task were then to educate ethnic Germans, either living in Poland or resettled there from the Baltic states, according to German ways. This included instruction in the German language, as many spoke only Polish or Russian. They also had to organize the younger ones into the League. Because many Hitler Youth leaders were drafted into the military, the task of organizing the boys into Hitler Youth also fell heavily on the League. They were also to provide help on the farm and in the household. As the only contact with German authorities, they were often requested to help with the occupation authorities, and they put on various entertainments such as songfests to encourage the down-spirited new settlers. Some members were sent to the colony of Hegewald for such efforts even when they had to receive gas masks and soldier escorts.

    Conversely, the young Polish girls who were selected for "racially valuable traits" and sent to Germany for Germanizationwere made to join the League as part of the Germanization.

    By 1944, the drafting of boys resulted in most of the "land service" help with the harvest was performed by girls.

    In the last days of the war, some BDM girls, just like some boys of the male Hitler Youth (although not nearly as many), joined with the Volkssturm(the last-ditch defense) in Berlin and other cities in fighting the invading Allied armies, especially the Russians. Officially, this was not sanctioned by the BDM's leadership which opposed an armed use of its girls even though some BDM leaders had received training in the use of hand-held weapons (about 200 leaders went on a shooting course which was to be used for self-defense purposes). After the war, Dr. Jutta Rüdiger denied that she had approved BDM girls using weapons, and this appears to have been the truth.

    Some BDM girls were recruited into the Werwolf groups which were intended to wage guerrilla war in Allied-occupied areas.

    BDM Girls put up a recruitment poster, it says “Girls join us, you belong to us” in 1933

    BDM Girls and boys from the Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth) celebrate Midsummer in 1933.


    Decomposition

    The 'Kontrollratsgesetz Nr. 2' (enacted 10 October 1945) by the Allied Control Council forbade the NSDAP and all its sub-organizations, including the BDM. Their properties were confiscated.

    OTHER LINKS:









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  • 07/25/15--10:54: BOKO HARAM
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  • 07/27/15--05:45: PRO LIFE QUOTE BY LILA ROSE


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    Lila Rose Quote

    AUTHOR:Lila Grace Rose (born July 27, 1988) is an American pro-life activist and the founder of the pro-life group Live Action. She conducts undercover investigations of abortion facilities in the United States, including affiliates of Planned Parenthood Federation of America.

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                On this date, July 27, 2006, Michael William Lenz was executed by lethal injection in Virginia for the murder of his inmate, Brent Henry Parker on January 16, 2000. Please go to this previous Blog Post to learn more.


    Michael William Lenz


    Victim, Brent Henry Parker


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                I will post information about Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi, the ringleader of ISIS from Wikipedia and other links.

    Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
    Arabic:
    أبو بكر البغدادي






    Native name
    Arabic: إبراهيم عواد إبراهيم علي محمد البدري السامرائي
    Born
    Ibrahim Awwad Ibrahim Ali Muhammad al-Badri al-Samarrai
    28 July 1971 (age 43)
    Near Samarra, Iraq
    Nationality
    Iraqi
    Other names
    Caliph al-Baghdadi
    Caliph Abu Bakr
    Caliph Ibrahim
    Abu Du'a
    'The Invisible Sheikh'
    Known for
    Ringleader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
    Predecessor
    Successor
    Abu Ala al-Afri (Alleged)
    Religion
    Criminal charge
    Abu Du'a is a Specially Designated Global Terrorist under U.S. Executive Order 13224. He is also listed at the United Nations Security Council 1267/1989 al-Qaida Sanctions Committee.
    Military career
    Allegiance
    Jamaat Jaysh Ahl al-Sunnah wa-l-Jamaah
    (2003–2006)
    Mujahideen Shura Council (January 2006–October 2006)
    Islamic State of Iraq (October 2006–April 2013)
    ISIL
    (April 2013–present)
    Years of service
    2003–present
    Rank
    Battles/wars
    War on Terror
    Iraq

    Syria
    Military intervention against ISIL
    Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (Arabic: أبو بكر البغدادي‎, ʾabū bakri l-baḡdādī) is the ringleader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), an Islamic extremist group in western Iraq, Libya, northeast Nigeria and Syria self-styled as the "Islamic State". It is believed that he has been proclaimed by his followers to be a Caliph.

    On 4 October 2011, the U.S. State Department listed al-Baghdadi as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist, and announced a reward of up to US$10 million for information leading to his capture or death. Only the leader of al-Qaeda, Ayman al-Zawahiri, has a larger reward offered for his capture or death (US$25 million).



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                On this date, July 28, 1942, Joseph Stalin issued Order No. 227. I will post information about this grand order from Wikipedia.


    Joseph Stalin on Killing People
    Order No. 227issued on July 28, 1942 was a grand order issued by Joseph Stalin who was acting as the People's Commissar of Defense. It is famous for its line "Not one step back!" (Russian: Ни шагу назад! / Ni shagu nazad!), which became a slogan of Soviet resistance.

    The Order

    During the first part of the Great Patriotic War, the Soviets experienced heavy losses along with mass retreat and desertion. Stalin released order No. 227 to reestablish discipline in the Soviet Army.

    The order itself has a very passionate preamble.

    “Enemy throws to battle new forces and doesn’t encounter its heavy losses, crawls to into Soviet lands, capturing new regions, havocs and destroys our cities and villages, rapes and kills Soviet population… German occupant forces by all means want to take Kubanand Northern Caucasusrich in bread and oil… Units of South front led by scaremongers left Rostovand Novocherkasskwithout serious resistance and without orders from Moscow, they covered their colours with shame.


    "Population of our country loves and respects the Red Army, but now people are disappointed that the Red Army leaves our people to be enslaved by German oppressors and runs further to the east. Some not so smart people comfort themselves by conversations that we can run further to the east, because we have a lot of land, many people and we’ll always have plenty of bread. They use this to justify their infamous actions on the fronts.

    "… but further retreat to the east means to sentence to death our people and our Motherland, every bit of our land given to the enemy will enforce him and will weaken our defense, our Motherland.”


    Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Vasilevsky wrote in his book The Matter of my Whole Life: “…Order N 227 is one of the most powerful document of war years due to patriotic and emotional content… the document was motivated by rough and dark times… while reading it we were thinking to ourselves if we do everything it takes to win the battle.”

    No commander had the right to retreat without an order. Anyone who did so was subject to a military tribunal of the corresponding seniority level.

    Order No. 227 established that each Front must create 1 to 3 penal battalions (штрафбат, штрафной батальон, shtrafbat, shtrafnoy battalion) of up to 800 middle class commanders and high class commanders accused of disciplinary problems, which were sent to the most dangerous sections of the front lines. Each Front had to create penal companies for privates and NCOs. By the end of 1942 there were 24,993 people serving in the penal battalions, which increased to 177,694 people in 1943. The number decreased over the next two years to 143,457 and 81,766 people in 1944 and 1945, respectively, for a total of 427,910 soldiers who were assigned to penal battalions during the course of the war.

    The order also directed that each Army must create "blocking detachments" (barrier troops (заградотряд, заградительный отряд)) which would shoot "cowards" and fleeing panicked troops at the rear.

    Both measures were cited in the preamble of the order as having been successfully used by the Germans during their winter retreat.

    The requirement for Armies to maintain companies of barrier troops was withdrawn after just three months, on October 29, 1942. Intended to galvanize the morale of the hard-pressed Soviet Army and emphasize patriotism, it had a generally detrimental effect and was not consistently implemented by commanders who viewed diverting troops to create barrier units as a waste of manpower, so by October 1942 the idea of regular blocking units was quietly dropped. By 20 November 1944 the blocking units were officially disbanded.


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                On this date, 28 July 2009, two Japanese murderers, Hiroshi Maeue and Yamaji Yukio were both executed by hanging in Japan. Hiroshi Maeue was a Serial Killer, while Yamaji Yukio committed murder when he was a juvenile and he murdered again when he was released.


    Hiroshi Maeue