Churchill wanted Hitler sent to the electric chair
Chris Hastings, Arts Correspondent
12:01AM GMT 01 Jan 2006
Sir Winston Churchill, Britain's wartime Prime Minister, planned to execute Adolf Hitler in the electric chair if the Nazi leader fell into Allied hands.
Declassified documents reveal that Churchill was opposed to Allied plans for war crimes trials and wanted summarily to execute leading Nazi figures including Hitler who he regarded as "the mainspring of evil" and a "gangster".
They also show that he was willing, against the advice of his Cabinet colleagues, to "wipe out" defenceless German villages in retaliation for Nazi atrocities in Czechoslovakia.
The disclosures are contained in notebooks kept by Sir Norman Brook, the former wartime deputy cabinet secretary, who kept an account of proceedings in a form of shorthand.
On July 6, 1942, according to his notes, the Prime Minister said: "Contemplate that if Hitler falls into our hands we shall certainly put him to death.
"Not a Sovereign who could be said to be in hands of Ministers, like Kaiser. This man is the mainspring of evil. Instrument - electric chair, for gangsters no doubt available on lend-lease."
Churchill's choice of the electric chair was despite the fact that it was never used in Britain before the final abolition of the death penalty in 1965.
Sir Norman's notebooks, which are being made public by the National Archives at Kew, reveal Churchill to be a ruthless commander who was prepared to override moral and legal considerations to defeat Germany.
On July 7, 1943, Churchill argued passionately that leading Nazis who fell into British hands should be treated as "outlaws" and shot rather than put on trial.
"I suggested that U.N. to draw up a list of 50 or so wd. be declared as outlaws by the 33 Nations. (Those not on the list might be induced to rat!) If any of these found by advancing troops, nearest offr. of brigade rank shd. call a military court to establish identity and shd. then execute w'out higher authority."
The papers also show that he was willing to "bump of" Himmler and shoot German prisoners of war should Germany begin doing the same to British prisoners.
Churchill's own six volume history of the conflict, The Second World War, makes no reference to this disagreement over war crimes trials and includes just a passing reference to "the unexpectedly ultra-respectable, 'no executions without trial' line being taken by Stalin".
Equally controversial will be the revelation in the notebooks, that Churchill wanted the RAF to wipe out German villages in retaliation for the massacre of civilians in Lidice, a Czech village, which was razed to the ground by the SS.
The Prime Minister abandoned his plan only in the face of opposition from Cabinet colleagues. On June 15, 1942, he said: "My instinct is strongly the other way... I submit (unwillingly) to the view of Cabinet against."
It may be that Churchill would have lived to regret the raids. Within weeks of authorising bombing raids on the German town of Dresden in 1945 he began to question the wisdom of the policy. He would later say that the deaths of up to 30,000 German civilians raised a "query against the conduct of Allied bombers".
The notebooks also reveal Churchill's preferred method for dealing with Gandhi, the Indian nationalist leader, who embarked on a hunger strike in 1942.
Churchill, almost alone among his Cabinet colleagues, did not see the need to cave into the Gandhi's demands even though many observers believed he only had days to live.
He finally agreed for a reprieve on condition that Gandhi's release did not cause Britain to lose face. On January 7, 1943 he asked colleagues: "Why give way to h-strike by Gandhi?
"Let him out as an act of State, rather than an act of submission to G' will. I wd. keep him there and let him do as he likes... But if you are going to let him out because he strikes, then let him out now... Tell Viceroy."
Churchill was equally dismissive of Gen Charles de Gaulle, one of Britain's closest allies, who he believed suffered from "an insensate ambition" and who was the "greatest living barrier to re-union and restoration of France".
The notebooks reveal that the plight of Jewish communities in Europe and the Middle East was a frequent topic of discussion at Cabinet.
On December 14, 1942, Churchill asked Anthony Eden, his Foreign Secretary, whether reports about "the wholesale massacre of Jews" by "electrical methods" were true.
Eden tells him that "Jews are being withdrawn from Norway and sent to Poland, for some such purposes evidently". Eden, is, however, unable to "confirm the method" of killing.
Churchill, himself, seems to have been more concerned with the fate of "Poles, not Jews" as the war drew to a close. On March 28, 1945, he said: "Actually we have a very small Jewish population compared with other countries. I'm only concerned with Poles - and Poles who have really fought."
Sir Norman also records on June 11, 1945, that Churchill described Russia's advance into Central Europe as "one of the most terrible events in history".
Despite the USSR's advances Churchill still believed there was a place for British values. On July 12, 1943, he said: "Propagate our language all over world is best method. Harmonises with my ideas for future of world. This will be the English speaking century."
Summary: Barton murdered his fourth wife, Kimbirli Jo Barton, at their home in Waynesville after they had gotten in a domestic dispute that morning. He called and threatened Kimbirli several times the day of the killing before persuading her to come to the house to get her belongings. When Kimbirli arrived, he appeared and shot Kimbirli once in the shoulder and then again in the back at close range. His uncle and Kibirli's 17 year old daughter witnessed the shooting. Barton then shot himself with an upward blast to the chin, leaving just a scar below his ear. Barton has a history of arrests for burglary, assault, drug and DUI charges and violence against women. He beat one of his ex-wives with a shotgun, stabbed her three times, cut her throat and left her for dead, but she survived. Kimbirli had known Barton for many years, but the couple had just married two years earlier while Barton was in prison for the attempted murder of his ex-wife in Kentucky.
Man executed less than 4 years after killing wife; FIRST LETHAL INJECTION WITH NEW PROCEDURES," by Alan Johnson. (Thursday, July 13, 2006)
What Rocky Barton started when he put a shotgun to his chin after killing his wife three years ago, the state of Ohio finished yesterday. Barton, 49, was executed at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility near Lucasville. His death by injection occurred without incident at 10:27 a.m.
In a sense, Barton died a little every day since Jan. 16, 2003, when he shot and killed Kimbirli Barton, the woman he said he loved more than anyone else and could not live without.
Consumed by guilt, Barton said he deserved to die and didn’t want to "have to wait around no 10, 20 years and go through the appeals process." From crime to punishment, it was the shortest time in Ohio’s 22 executions during the past seven years. Donald and Wilma Barton, the condemned man’s parents, and two of his victim’s daughters, Tiffany and Jamie Reising, witnessed the execution from a few feet away, separated by a sheet of glass.
Following Barton's execution, Reising said she's reaching the point where she can forgive Barton, but not yet. She said she doesn't want to carry hate in her heart for the rest of her life. Barton, who did not seek clemency from Gov. Bob Taft, had asked the trial court to sentence him to death. A judge ruled last week that he was competent to give up his appeals.
Jamie Reising, 21, who watched Barton kill her mother, was given permission to leave the Warren County jail to witness the execution. She is serving time on a drug charge. "This is closure for our family,"she said afterward. "He took the glue that was holding us together."
In June 2015, the Federal Supreme Court sentenced an Emirati woman, Alaa Bader al-Hashemi, to death for the murder of Ibolya Ryan and planting a handmade bomb in an Egyptian-American doctor's home in Abu Dhabi. The woman committed the crime in December 2014 and was executed at dawn on July 13, 2015. This is the only time that a prisoner has been executed within such a short time frame and this is the one of the few cases of a woman being executed.
Let us not forget Ibolya Ryan, a Romanian American Teacher from Colorado who was murdered in Abu Dhabi on December 1, 2014. Justice was swift and sure as the killer, was executed by firing squad on July 13, 2015, only 7 months after the crime.
I will post information about this case from Wikipedia.
Murder of Ibolya Ryan
American teacher Ibolya Balazi Ryan (left inset), the mother of three was stabbed to death in an Abu Dhabi mall restroom by a niqab-clad woman (right inset). The blood stains are from videos released by the police. (Al Bayan)
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
1 December 2014
Ala'a Badr Abdullah al-Hashemi
The murder was committed by a woman wearing black gloves and a veiled niqab, who proved to be unknown to the victim. After committing the murder, the perpetrator planted a bomb at the home of an Arab–American physician. These attacks, taking place in the wake of a spate of recent attacks on Westerners in Saudi Arabia, attracted international coverage and raised concerns in the international security and business communities.
The stabbing, which took place in Boutik Mall, an Abu Dhabi shopping mall located on Al Reem Island, and was caught on tape in a routine surveillance video, unsettled citizens and the foreign population of Abu Dhabi because acts of terrorism are such a rare event in the United Arab Emirates.
The Emirates have classified the murder as a lone wolf terrorist attack inspired by terrorist ideology acquired online.
Police in the United Arab Emirates made an arrest in the deadly stabbing of a Colorado teacher at an Abu Dhabi mall.
At the beginning of the investigation, authorities left open the possibility the murderer could have been a man in disguise. Two days after the murder, on 3 December, Abu Dhabi Police released a statement that, "Investigations are still under way to identify the suspect's identity and gender. Witnesses reported that the culprit was fully covered wearing an abaya, black gloves and face cover." Abu Dhabi Security Media Department at the Ministry of Interior posted a video on its official YouTube channel, showing CCTVfootage of the suspect, dubbed the “Reem Island Ghost”, who stabbed the American kindergarten teacher Ibolya on Monday afternoon on Al Reem Island in Abu Dhabi. On the CCTV footage, people on the scene can be seen reacting to the killing. One mother with a young child can be seen hurrying him away while security guards move towards the corridor. People appear to be alerted to something happening in the toilets and while a security guard moves along the corridor into them, the suspect moves towards the elevators. The video then shows the assailant fleeing the scene following the crime that took place inside the washroom of a shopping mall, wearing a black abaya, black gloves and the face-covering veil known as niqab.
Police said the victim was stabbed to death with a "sharp tool" following an argument in a women's restroom. On the surveillance footage, the robed suspect is seen stepping off an elevator, briefly interacting with a security guard, then taking a newspaper before walking toward the restroom. Some 90 minutes later, the suspected attacker runs back into the lobby as shoppers scatter, shakes off a woman who tries to stop the suspect, and boards an elevator to a parking garage before fleeing. The tape ends with footage of a bloody trail of footprints leading from one of the restroom stalls.
On the morning of Thursday 4 December, news sources mentioned that Abu Dhabi Police were able to catch the killer. Later during the day, General HH Sheikh Saif bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior in UAE, said that the security and police forces arrested the suspected "Niqabi" woman for the brutal murder of the American teacher. He emphasized that the suspect was identified in less than 24 hours, and arrested in less than 48 hours. He explained that after committing her first crime, the "Niqabi" suspect went to another building located at the Abu Dhabi Corniche where she planted a primitive bomb on the doorstep of an Egyptian American doctor's house. The police forces were able to dismantle the bomb time before it detonated.
Sheikh Saif described the crime as “a slap to every noble human value that the UAE cherishes- all of which are derived from the teachings of Islam and the genuine Arab heritage.” He stressed that the UAE vigorously defends such civilized values both on its own soil and outside of its borders, and expressed his deep sorrow to witness such crimes in a country that is characterized by security and safety.
There was a conflict in information about the real identity of the murderer. While international news coverage mentioned that the murderer was 38-year-old Yemen-born U.A.E. citizen Dalal al Hashemi, UAE based newspapers mentioned on December 4 that the murderer was not called Dalal al Hashemi. A few months later, UAE based news coverages started to refer to the murderer as Alaa Bader Abdullah, also called Ala'a Badr Abdullah al-Hashemi.
The woman was reported to have been executed in 2015.
Security videos show, and police reports confirm, that Ryan's murderer returned to her car and drove to the home of an Egyptian-American ex-pat physician where she planted a bomb, which was discovered by the physician's son before it could explode. The physician's 13-year-old son discovered the bomb on his way to evening prayers at mosque. According to WAM, the materials used in the homemade bomb were "primitive".
The Security Media Department posted a dramatic YouTube video explaining the details of the crime which included images taken from CCTV. The video also highlighted the search and inspection procedures conducted by the police and security forces, which eventually led to the arrest of the suspect and solved the mystery behind the crime. There are also shots showing the same white SUV that the suspect was seen driving from the scene of the crime. Blood can be seen on the steering wheel and a black suitcase - identical to the one she allegedly carried to the doctor's apartment - are also shown in the police video. In the 4th of December video, the suspect is also seen heading towards the doctor's home with a small black suitcase. A security guard said he saw her enter and then leave quickly. The bomb was spotted when the doctor's son was going to mosque in the evening to pray and noticed the strange object in front of the house. Colonel Rashid Bourshid, head of the criminal investigation department, said: 'The doctor who was targeted with the bomb, 46-year-old MH, informed the security guard about the strange package in front of his door. The guard in turn informed the police who rushed to the spot and evacuated the site. They dismantled the bomb and identified its primitive components that included small gas cylinders, a lighter, glue, and nails to cause maximum injuries when detonated.'
Ryan was a Romanian-born US citizen. She was a mother of 11-year-old twins who lived with her in Abu Dhabi and a 13-year-old daughter, who lived with Ryan's ex-husband, Paul Ryan, in Vienna. She self-described as a Hungarian, born and raised in Romania, who taught in four countries including the United States over the past 15 years. She and her husband moved to Sopron, Hungary with their 3 children about 8 years before her death, and subsequently divorced.
Classification as terrorism
The move to classify the incident as an act of terrorism was not taken lightly in Abu Dhabi, where the economy depends on the labor of hundreds of thousands of ex-pats and on tourism. According to an unnamed security official in the U.A.E. and reported by the official WAM (Emirates News Agency), shortly before the attack the killer had, logged on to terrorist websites, and “acquired the terrorism ideology and learned how to manufacture explosives.” According to WAM, the “crimes she had committed are the result of a personal instigation and a lone terrorist act.”
The economy of the UAE depends on the tight security for which its member states are noted.
The murder followed a September 2014 statement by Abu Muhammad al-Adnani, spokesman for the self-described Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant urging Muslims to murder Westerners and people from any country participating in attacks on the Islamic State — "kill him in any manner or way however it may be." The Emirate has taken an important and well-publicized role in that war. The attack can be viewed as part of a "trend of terrorist acts through inspiration rather than a direct order from militant groups", including the 2014 Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu ramming attack, the beheading of French tourist Herve Gourdel in Algeria, and recent killings of Danish and American nationals in Saudi Arabia.
The UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office(FCO) issued new security warnings on 5 December, advising that indiscriminate attacks could be made on foreigners in the Gulf States and elsewhere, “Attacks could be directed against British interests. There is considered to be a heightened threat of terrorist attack globally against UK interests and British nationals, from groups or individuals motivated by the conflict in Iraq and Syria.”
The US State Department's Overseas Security Advisory Council(OSAC) issued a new security advisory, urging Americans in the Gulf to vary their routines and schedules. American Security officials had previously warned ex-pats working in the Middle East of a jihadist web posting urging attacks on teachers in American schools.
A fundraising effort was launched by the recruitment firm involved with bringing Ryan to Abu Dhabi in order to bring Ryan's body home and provide for her children's education. The Ryan family took control of the fund weeks later and repurposed it to assist Ryan's family in Romania.
The expat community in Abu Dhabi was shaken by the murder; security in Abu Dhabi is tight and the country is usually considered safe for foreign workers.
In late June 2015, the Federal Supreme Courtin Abu Dhabi sentenced to deaththe accused Emirati woman, Alaa Bader al-Hashemi, for the crimes. The ruling was made by the supreme court, and could not be appealed. Hashemi had reportedly requested the court for psychological help, on account of a chronic mental illness and "unreal visions". However, psychiatric tests ordered by the court showed that she had been aware of her actions and that her mental condition was not found to have affected her actions.
Ahmed Al Dhanhani, Attorney General for the State Security Prosecution, announced that on Monday morning, July 13, 2015, the ruling of The State Security Circuit of the Federal Supreme Court No. 73 of 2015 on the execution of Alaa Bader Abdullah had been carried out, following the approval of President His Highness Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan.
In this hour I was responsible for the fate of the German people, and thereby I became the supreme judge of the German people. I gave the order to shoot the ringleaders in this treason, and I further gave the order to cauterise down to the raw flesh the ulcers of this poisoning of the wells in our domestic life. Let the nation know that its existence—which depends on its internal order and security—cannot be threatened with impunity by anyone! And let it be known for all time to come that if anyone raises his hand to strike the State, then certain death is his lot.
- Adolf Hitler, Speech to the Reichstag (13 July 1934)
On this date, 13 July 1934, Adolf Hitler gave a speech to the Reichstag justifying the Rohm Purge.
Adolf Hitler-Speech to the Reichstag
Berlin, July 13, 1934
Deputies! Men of the German Reichstag!
Acting on behalf of the Reich Government, the President of the Reichstag, Hermann Göring, has called you together today in order to give me an opportunity to enlighten the Volk before this body, the highest appointed forum of the nation, concerning events which will hopefully live on in our history for all time as both a sad reminder and a warning.
Out of a combination of objective circumstances and personal guilt, of human incompetence and human defects, a crisis arose in our young Reich which all too easily may have brought about truly destructive consequences for an indeterminate period of time.
The purpose of my remarks is to explain to you and thus to the nation how they came about and were overcome. The contents of my remarks will be completely frank. Only in respect to scope must I impose upon myself limitations necessitated, on the one hand, by consideration to the interests of the Reich and, on the other, by the boundaries drawn by the feeling of shame.
Street riots, barricade fighting, mass terror, and an individualistic propaganda of disintegration today trouble nearly all countries throughout the world. In Germany as well, a few isolated fools and criminals of this type are still making repeated attempts to ply their destructive trade. Since the defeat of the Communist Party, we have experienced, albeit growing constantly weaker, one attempt after another to establish Communist organizations with varying degrees of anarchist character and to put them to work. Their methods are always the same. While portraying the present lot as unbearable, they extol the Communist paradise of the future and, in doing so, are practically only waging war for hell. For the consequences of their victory in a country like Germany could be nothing other than destructive.
However, the trial run of their capability and of the consequences of their rule have, in the concrete case, already produced results so clear to the German Volk that the overwhelming majority, particularly of the German workers, has recognized this Jewish-international benefactor of mankind and inwardly defeated it.
The National Socialist State will wage a Hundred Years’ War, if necessary, to stamp out and destroy every last trace within its boundaries of this phenomenon which poisons and makes dupes of the Volk (Volksvernarrung).
The second group of discontented is comprised of those political leaders who regard their futures as having been settled by January 30 but who have never been able to reconcile themselves to the irreversibility of this fact.
The more Time veils their own incompetence with the merciful cloak of forgetfulness, the more they believe themselves entitled to gradually reintroduce themselves to the mind of the Volk. However, because their incompetence then was not a matter of time but a matter of inborn incompetence, they are equally unable today to prove their worth by positive, useful work but instead perceive their purpose in life as being fulfilled by voicing criticism which is as underhanded as it is false. The Volk does not belong to them either. They can neither seriously threaten the National Socialist State nor seriously damage it in any way.
A third group of destructive elements is made up of those revolutionaries who were shaken and uprooted in 1918 in regard to their relation to the State and who thus have lost all inner connection to a regulated human social order.
They have become revolutionaries who pay homage to the revolution for its own sake and would like to see it become a permanent state of affairs.155 All of us once suffered from the horrible tragedy that, as obedient and dutiful soldiers, we were suddenly faced by a revolt of mutineers who actually succeeded in gaining possession of the State. Each of us had originally been trained to abide by the laws, to respect authority and to show obedience to the commands and orders it issues, and instilled with an inner devotion to the representatives of the State.
Now the revolution of deserters and mutineers forced us to inwardly disassociate ourselves from these concepts.
We were unable to muster any respect for the new usurpers. Honor and obedience forced us to refuse to obey; love of the nation and the Vaterland obliged us to wage war on them; the amorality of their laws extinguished in us the conviction of the necessity for complying with them-and hence we became revolutionaries.
However, even as revolutionaries, we had not disassociated ourselves from the obligation to apply to ourselves the natural laws of the sovereign right of our Volk and to respect these laws.
It was not our intention to violate the will and the right of selfdetermination of the German Volk, but to drive away those who violated the nation.
And when finally, legitimated by the trust of this Volk, we drew the consequences from our fourteen-year-long struggle, this was not done in order to unloose a chaos of unreined instincts, but with the sole aim of establishing a new and better order.
For us, the revolution which shattered the Second Germany was nothing other than the tremendous act of birth which summoned the Third Reich into being. We wanted to once again create a State to which every German can cling in love; to establish a regime to which everyone can look up with respect; to find laws which are commensurate with the morality of our Volk; to install an authority to which each and every man submits in joyful obedience.
For us, the revolution is not a permanent state of affairs. When a deathly check is violently imposed upon the natural development of a Volk, an act of violence may serve to release the artificially interrupted flow of evolution to allow it once again the freedom of natural development. However, there is no such thing as a permanent revolution or any type of profitable development possible by means of periodically recurring revolts.
Among the countless files which I was obliged to read through in the past few weeks, I also found a journal with the notes of a man who was cast onto the route of resistance to the laws in 1918 and now lives in a world in which the law itself appears to provoke resistance; an unnerving document, an uninterrupted sequence of conspiracies and plots, an insight into the mentality of people who, without realizing it, have found in nihilism their ultimate creed. Incapable of any real cooperation, determined to take a stand against any kind of order, filled by hatred of every authority as they are, their uneasiness and their restlessness can be quelled only by their permanent mental and conspiratorial preoccupation with the disintegration of whatever exists at the given time. Many of them stormed the State with us in our early period of struggle, but an inner lack of discipline led most of them away from the disciplined National Socialist Movement in the course of the struggle.
The last remnant seemed to have withdrawn after January 30. Their link with the National Socialist Movement was dissolved the moment this itself, as State, became the object of their pathological aversion. As a matter of principle, they are enemies of every authority and thus utterly incapable of being converted. Accomplishments which appear to strengthen the new German State only provoke their even greater hatred. For there is one thing, above all, which all of these oppositional elements principally have in common: they do not see before them the German Volk, but the institution of order they so abhor. They are filled not by a desire to help the Volk, but by the fervent hope that the government will fail in its work to rescue the Volk. Thus they are never willing to admit that an action is beneficial but are instead filled by the will to contest any success as a matter of principle and to extract from every success any potential weaknesses.
This third group of pathological enemies of the State is dangerous because, until a new order has begun to crystallize from a state of chaotic conflict, they represent a reservoir of willing accomplices for every attempt at revolt.
I must, however, now devote my attention to the fourth group, which on occasion-perhaps even unintentionally-nonetheless plies a truly destructive trade. I am speaking of those who belonged to a relatively small class in society, who have nothing to do and thus find the time and the opportunity to deliver oral reports on everything capable of bringing some interesting-and important-variety to their lives which are otherwise completely meaningless.
For while the overwhelming majority in the nation is made to earn its daily bread by toilsome labor, in certain classes of life there are still people whose sole activity consists of doing nothing, followed by more of the same to recuperate from having done nothing. The more pathetic the life of such a drone is, all the more avidly will he seize upon whatever can fill this vacuum with some interesting content.
Personal and political gossip is caught up eagerly and passed on even more eagerly. And because these people, as a result of doing nothing, have no living tie to the masses of the nation’s millions, their lives are delimitated by the scope of the sphere within which they move.
Every bit of prattle which becomes absorbed by these circles throws its reflection back and forth endlessly as between two distorting mirrors.
Because their very beings are filled with a nothingness which they constantly see reflected in those like them, they believe that this phenomenon is universal. They mistake the view of their circle for the view of all. Their doubts, they fancy, constitute the troubles of the entire nation.
In reality, this little colony of drones is only a state within the State, without any living contact with life, with the feelings, hopes and cares of the rest of the Volk. However, they are dangerous, for they are veritable germ-carriers for unrest, uncertainty, rumors, allegations, lies, suspicions, slander, and fear, and thus they contribute to creating a gradually increasing tension until, in the end, it is difficult to recognize or draw the natural boundaries between them and the Volk.
Just as they wreak their havoc in every other nation, they do so in Germany, too. They regarded the National Socialist Revolution as a conversation topic just as interesting as, on the other hand, the fight of the enemies of the National Socialist State.
But one thing is certain: the work of rebuilding our Volk and, with it, the work of our Volk itself is only possible if the German Volk follows its leadership with inner calm, order and discipline and above all if it trusts in its leadership. For it is only the trust and the faith placed in the new State which have enabled us to take on and solve the great tasks put to us by former times.
Even though the National Socialist regime was forced to come to terms with these various groups from the very beginning and has, in fact, come to terms with them, a mood has nonetheless arisen in the past few months which, in the end, could no longer be taken lightly.
The prattle of a new revolution, of a new upheaval, of a new uprising- while at first infrequent-gradually took on such intensity that only a foolhardy leadership of state would have been capable of ignoring it. It was no longer possible to simply dismiss as empty chatter what was put down in hundreds and ultimately thousands of oral and written reports. Even three months ago, the leadership of the Party was convinced that it was simply the foolish gossip of political reactionaries, Marxist anarchists and all sorts of idlers, completely lacking any substantiation in fact.
In mid-March I directed that preparations be made for a new wave of propaganda. It was to make the German Volk immune against any new attempts at poisoning. At the same time, however, I also gave certain Party Offices the order to track down the recurring rumors of a new revolution and, if possible, to locate the source of these rumors.
It was found that tendencies had appeared in the ranks of several highranking SA leaders which naturally gave rise to serious doubts.
At first, there were only isolated manifestations, the inner connections of which were not yet quite clear.
1. Against my express order and contrary to reports given me by former Chief of Staff Röhm, the SA had been blown into such proportions as to necessarily endanger the inner homogeneity of this unique organization.
2. Education in the National Socialist Weltanschauung was becoming more and more neglected in the ranks of these certain SA offices I have mentioned.
3. The natural relations between the Party and the SA slowly began to weaken. Methodical steps were taken, by means of which it was ascertained that endeavors were being made to disengage the SA from the mission which I had assigned to it in order to utilize it for other tasks or interests.
4. Promotions to leadership posts in the SA revealed themselves upon review to be based upon a completely one-sided evaluation of purely external capabilities or, in many cases, on a merely assumed intellectual capacity. The greater number of our oldest and most loyal SA men were increasingly neglected when leaders were appointed and posts filled, while those who had enlisted in 1933 and who are not favored with any especial regard within the Movement were incomprehensibly given priority. In some cases, only a few months of uninterrupted membership in the Party or even only in the SA sufficed for promotion to a higher SA office to which an old SA leader was barred access even after many years of service.
5. The behavior of these individual SA leaders who, for the most part, had in no way grown to become part of the Movement, was as un-National Socialist as, at times, it was positively revolting. However, it could not be overlooked that these circles contained one source of unrest in the Movement, which lay in the fact that their lack of practical National Socialism attempted to veil itself in quite uncalled for demands for a new revolution.
I drew Chief of Staff Röhm’s attention to this and a number of other problems, but this did not result in any noticeable improvement or even in any recognizable reaction to my censures. In the months of April and May, there was a constant increase in these complaints. For the first time, however, during this period I received reports-with supporting documentation-of discussions which had been held by individual high-ranking SA leaders and which can be described in no other terms than “gross insubordination” (große Ungehörigkeit).
For the f