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    Theodore Roosevelt

    “Courage, hard work, self-mastery, and intelligent effort are all essential to successful life.”
    America and the World War (1915)

    – Teddy Roosevelt, the 26thPresident of the United States

    Complete Sentence: In this world it is as true of nations as of individuals that the things best worth having are rarely to be obtained in cheap fashion. There is nothing easier than to meet in congresses and conventions and pass resolutions in favor of virtue. There is also nothing more futile unless those passing the resolutions are willing to make them good by labor and endurance and active courage and self-denial. Readers of John Hay’s poems will remember the scorn therein expressed for those who “resoloot till the cows come home,” but do not put effort back of their words. Those who would teach our people that service can be rendered or greatness attained in easy, comfortable fashion, without facing risk, hardship, and difficulty, are teaching what is false and mischievous. Courage, hard work, self-mastery, and intelligent effort are all essential to successful life. As a rule, the slothful ease of life is in inverse proportion to its true success. This is true of the private lives of farmers, business men, and mechanics. It is no less true of the life of the nation which is made up of these farmers, business men, and mechanics.

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                On this date, January 7, 1979, Phnom Penh falls to the advancing Vietnamesetroops, driving out Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge. In order to remember that day and to denounce that atrocities of the Pol Pot, I will post information about the Killing Fields from Wikipedia and other links.

    Skulls in a massive display at the Killing Fields (PHOTO SOURCE:

    A commemorative stupa filled with the skulls of the victims at the Killing Field of Choeung Ek.

    The Killing Fields (Khmer: វាលពិឃាតviel pi-kʰiet) are a number of sites in Cambodia where large numbers of people were killed and buried by the Khmer Rouge regime, during its rule of the country from 1975 to 1979, immediately after the end of the Cambodian Civil War(1970–1975).

    Analysis of 20,000 mass grave sites by the DC-Cam Mapping Program and Yale University indicate at least 1,386,734 victims of execution. Estimates of the total number of deaths resulting from Khmer Rouge policies, including disease and starvation, range from 1.7 to 2.5 million out of a 1975 population of roughly 8 million. In 1979, communist Vietnam invaded Democratic Kampuchea and toppled the Khmer Rouge regime.

    Cambodian journalist Dith Pran coined the term "killing fields" after his escape from the regime. A 1984 film, The Killing Fields, tells the story of Dith Pran, played by another Cambodian survivor Haing S. Ngor, and his journey to escape the death camps.

    The Killing Fields: Choeung Ek, near Phnom Penh, Cambodia. These are the bones of young children who were killed by Khmer Rouge soldiers.

    Mass grave at the Killing Field of Choeung Ek.


    he Khmer Rouge regime arrested and eventually executed almost everyone suspected of connections with the former government or with foreign governments, as well as professionals and intellectuals. Ethnic Vietnamese, ethnic Thai, ethnic Chinese, ethnic Cham, Cambodian Christians, and the Buddhist monkhood were the demographic targets of persecution. As a result, Pol Pot is sometimes described as "the Hitler of Cambodia" and "a genocidal tyrant." Martin Shaw described the Cambodian genocide as "the purest genocide of the Cold War era."

    Ben Kiernan estimates that about 1.7 million people were killed. Researcher Craig Etcheson of the Documentation Center of Cambodia suggests that the death toll was between 2 and 2.5 million, with a "most likely" figure of 2.2 million. After 5 years of researching some 20,000 grave sites, he concludes that, "these mass graves contain the remains of 1,386,734 victims of execution." A UN investigation reported 2–3 million dead, while UNICEF estimated 3 million had been killed. Demographic analysis by Patrick Heuveline suggests that between 1.17 and 3.42 million Cambodians were killed, while Marek Sliwinski suggests that 1.8 million is a conservative figure. Even the Khmer Rouge acknowledged that 2 million had been killed—though they attributed those deaths to a subsequent Vietnamese invasion. By late 1979, UN and Red Cross officials were warning that another 2.25 million Cambodians faced death by starvation due to “the near destruction of Cambodian society under the regime of ousted Prime Minister Pol Pot,” who were saved by international aid after the Vietnamese invasion.

    Cambodia's ethnic minorities constituted 15 percent of the population in pre-Khmer Rouge era. Of the 400,000 Vietnamese who lived in Cambodia before 1975, some 150–300,000 were expelled by the previous Lon Nol regime. When Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge came to power, there remained about 100–250,000 Vietnamese in the country. Almost all of them were repatriated by December 1975.

    The Chinese community (about 425,000 people in 1975) was reduced to 200,000 during the next four years. In the Khmer Rouge's Standing Committee, four members were of Chinese ancestry, two Vietnamese, and two Khmers. Some observers argue that this mixed composition makes it difficult to argue that there was an intent to kill off minorities. R.J. Rummel, an analyst of political killings, argues that there was a clear genocidal intent:

    One estimate is that out of 40,000 to 60,000 monks, only between 800 and 1,000 survived to carry on their religion. We do know that of 2,680 monks in eight monasteries, a mere seventy were alive as of 1979. As for the Buddhist temples that populated the landscape of Cambodia, the Khmer Rouge destroyed 95 percent of them, and turned the remaining few into warehouses or allocated them for some other degrading use. Amazingly, in the very short span of a year or so, the small gang of Khmer Rouge wiped out the center of Cambodian culture, its spiritual incarnation, its institutions....As part of a planned genocide campaign, the Khmer Rouge sought out and killed other minorities, such as the Moslem Cham. In the district of Kompong Xiem, for example, they demolished five Cham hamlets and reportedly massacred 20,000 that lived there; in the district of Koong Neas only four Cham apparently survived out of some 20,000.

    Rooms of the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum contain thousands of photos taken by the Khmer Rouge of their victims.


    The judicial process of the Khmer Rouge regime, for minor or political crimes, began with a warning from the Angkar, the government of Cambodia under the regime. People receiving more than two warnings were sent for "re-education," which meant near-certain death. People were often encouraged to confess to Angkar their "pre-revolutionary lifestyles and crimes" (which usually included some kind of free-market activity; having had contact with a foreign source, such as a U.S. missionary, international relief or government agency; or contact with any foreigner or with the outside world at all), being told that Angkar would forgive them and "wipe the slate clean." This meant being taken away to a place such as Tuol Sleng or Choeung Ek for torture and/or execution.

    The executed were buried in mass graves. In order to save ammunition, the executions were often carried out using poison, spades or sharpened bamboo sticks. In some cases the children and infants of adult victims were killed by having their heads bashed against the trunks of Chankiri trees. The rationale was "to stop them growing up and taking revenge for their parents' deaths."

    Some victims were required to dig their own graves; their weakness often meant that they were unable to dig very deep. The soldiers who carried out the executions were mostly young men or women from peasant families.

    Prosecution for crimes against humanity

    In 1997 the Cambodian government asked for the UN's assistance in setting up a genocide tribunal. It took nine years to agree to the shape and structure of the court – a hybrid of Cambodian and international laws – before the judges were sworn in in 2006. The investigating judges were presented with the names of five possible suspects by the prosecution on July 18, 2007. On September 19, 2007 Nuon Chea, second in command of the Khmer Rouge and its most senior surviving member, was charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity. He will face Cambodian and foreign judges at the special genocide tribunal. On July 26, 2010 Kang Kek Iew (aka Comrade Duch), director of the S-21 prison camp, was convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to 35 years' imprisonment. His sentence was reduced to 19 years, as he had already spent 11 years in prison. On February 2, 2012, his sentence was extended to life imprisonment by the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia.


    The best known monument of the Killing Fields is at the village of Choeung Ek. Today, it is the site of a Buddhist memorial to the victims, and Tuol Sleng has a museum commemorating the genocide. The memorial park at Choeung Ek has been built around the mass graves of many thousands of victims, most of whom were executed after they had been transported from the S-21 Prison in Phnom Penh. The utmost respect is given to the victims of the massacres through signs and tribute sections throughout the park. Many dozens of mass graves are visible above ground, many which have not been excavated yet. Commonly, bones and clothing surface after heavy rainfalls due to the large number of bodies still buried in shallow mass graves. It is not uncommon to run across the bones or teeth of the victims scattered on the surface as one tours the memorial park. If these are found, visitors are asked to notify a memorial park officer or guide.

    A survivor of the genocide, Dara Duong, founded The Killing Fields Museumin Seattle, Washington, USA.

    A Chankiri Tree or Killing Tree was a tree in the Cambodian Killing Fields against which children and infants were smashed because their parents were accused of crimes against the Khmer Rouge. It was so the children "wouldn't grow up and take revenge for their parents' deaths". Some of the soldiers laughed as they beat the children against the trees. Not to laugh could have indicated sympathy, making oneself a target.

    A Chankiri Tree. The sign reads "Chankiri Tree against which executioners beat children"

    Mass graves at Choeung Ek, near Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Killing Fields in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
    Buddhist stupa
    62 meters
    Beginning date

    Choeung Ek(Khmer: ជើងឯក[cəəŋ aek]), the site of a former orchard and mass grave of victims of the Khmer Rouge - killed between 1975 and 1979 - about 17 km south of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, is the best-known of the sites known as The Killing Fields, where the Khmer Rouge regime executed over one million people between 1975 and 1979. Mass graves containing 8,895 bodies were discovered at Choeung Ek after the fall of the Khmer Rouge regime. Many of the dead were former political prisoners who were kept by the Khmer Rouge in their Tuol Sleng detention center.

    Today, Choeung Ek is a memorial, marked by a Buddhist stupa. The stupa has acrylic glass sides and is filled with more than 5,000 human skulls. Some of the lower levels are opened during the day so that the skulls can be seen directly. Many have been shattered or smashed in.

    Tourists are encouraged by the Cambodian government to visit Choeung Ek. Apart from the stupa, there are pits from which the bodies were exhumed. Human bones still litter the site.

    On May 3, 2005, the Municipality of Phnom Penh announced that they had entered into a 30-year agreement with JC Royal Co. to develop the memorial at Choeung Ek. As part of the agreement, they are not to disturb the remains still present in the field.

    The film The Killing Fields is a dramatized portrayal of events like those that took place at Choeung Ek.


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                Officer Gregg Winters died from his injuries on January 8, 1991. He was shot by Michael Allen Lambert on December 28, 1990 in Indiana. The Cop Killer was executed by lethal injection 16 years later on June 15, 2007. Let us hear from the slain cop’s family on Unit 1012 Blog. 

    Officer Gregg William Winters

    Gregg William Winters

    Muncie Police Department, Indiana
    End of Watch: Tuesday, January 8, 1991

    Bio & Incident Details
    Tour:4 years
    Badge #167
    Incident Date:12/28/1990
    Weapon:Handgun; .25 caliber
    Suspect:Executed in 2007

    Officer Gregg Winters succumbed to gunshot wounds suffered 11 days earlier after being shot while transporting a prisoner.

    Officer Winters had arrested the subject for public intoxication and he was placed in the rear seat of his squad car after being searched by another officer. Approximately one-eighth mile from the jail, the handcuffed subject was able to pull out a concealed .25-caliber semi-automatic handgun and shoot Officer Winters in the back of the head and neck five times.

    The suspect was convicted of murder and sentenced to death. On June 15, 2007, he was executed by lethal injection.

    Officer Winters had served with the Muncie Police Department for four years. He is survived by his wife, two sons and a brother who serves as a deputy chief with the Muncie Police Department.

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                Jared Lee Loughner was sentenced to 140 years imprisonment for shooting six people dead in Tuscon, Arizona on January 8, 2011. So obvious that he did not want to be put to death, it was a good idea that the death penalty can be used for plea bargaining, to make trials faster. I will post information about him from Wikipedia.


    Front view of federal mug shot of Jared Lee Loughner taken while in custody of U.S. Marshals in Phoenix, Arizona.
    September 10, 1988 (age 25)
    Tucson, Arizona, U.S.
    Mountain View High School (dropped out)
    Pima Community College (withdrew)
    Known for
    2011 Tucson shooting
    Criminal charge
    49, including 2 first-degree murder of federal employees (federal), 4 first-degree murder (state), attempted murder of a member of Congress (federal), 2 attempted murder of federal employees (federal), 10 attempted first-degree murder (state)
    Criminal status
    Pled guilty on August 7, 2012 to all charges, sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole

    Jared Lee Loughner (born September 10, 1988) is an American who pleaded guilty to 19 charges of murder and attempted murder in connection with the shooting near Tucson, Arizona, on January 8, 2011, in which he shot and severely injured U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords, his target, and killed six people, including Chief U.S. District Court Judge John Roll, as well as a 9-year-old bystander Christina-Taylor Green. Loughner shot and injured 12 other people, and one man was injured while subduing him.

    Acquaintances said that Loughner's personality had changed markedly in the years prior to the shooting, a period when he was also abusing alcohol and drugs. He had been suspended from Pima Community College in September 2010 because of his bizarre behavior and disruptions in classes and the library. After his arrest, two medical evaluations diagnosed him as paranoid schizophrenic and incompetent to stand trial. He was medicated while in jail as part of his treatment. He was again judged incompetent in May 2012. In August 2012, he was judged competent to stand trial, and at the hearing, he pleaded guilty to 19 counts. In November 2012, he was sentenced to life in prison without parole.

    Personal background

    Loughner is the only child of Randy and Amy Loughner. They were described by a neighbor as a very private family. Amy Loughner worked for the City Parks Department. Journalists did not determine if Randy Loughner worked outside the house. While Loughner had friends in high school, neighbors noted that in the years following, he kept more to himself and did not respond to others.

    Behavior change

    Loughner attended Mountain View High School, and dropped out in 2006. Around this time, when he was about eighteen years old, those who knew him noted a change in his personality. Kelsey Hawkes, who dated Loughner for several months in high school, later said she could not believe it was him after hearing of his arrest. "I've always known him as the sweet, caring Jared", said Hawkes, 21, then a student at the University of Arizona.

    At some point, Loughner was fired from his job at a Quiznos restaurant, with his manager saying he had undergone a personality transformation. After this, Loughner briefly volunteered at a local animal shelter, walking dogs, but he was asked not to return. The shelter manager later said, "He was walking dogs in an area we didn't want dogs walked...he didn't understand or comprehend what the supervisor was trying to tell him. He was just resistant to that information."

    Tong Shan, a former friend and classmate of Loughner's, recalled observing significant changes in his attitude and demeanor a year prior to the shooting. Shan, who became friends with Loughner on the day of their high school graduation, said that they would often spend time together after class in college but lost touch after the semester ended. When they met again in mid-2010, Shan recalled that Loughner appeared, "Radically different. [...] From the way he was talking to me [online]... you can see. It was just questions and questions and random, weird questions that didn't go together," she said. "He wanted to know everything...he would just trip out." Recounting her early experiences with Loughner in light of the shooting, Shan said Loughner was "a good person that just somehow changed so much. I don't know what the hell happened to him."

    Shan stated that her last encounter with Loughner was in October 2010, after he was suspended and dropped out of college and just before he purchased the semi-automatic handgun used in the massacre. She said that while Loughner was "anti-government," he never appeared violent, nor did he mention his plans to buy a gun.

    According to court records, Loughner had two previous offenses: in October 2007, he was cited in Pima County for possession of drug paraphernalia and on October 13, 2008, he was charged after defacing a street sign in Marana, near Tucson (which was dismissed following the completion of a diversion program in March 2009).

    Substance use

    Zach Osler, a high school classmate of Loughner's, and his closest friend, indicated that Loughner's life began to unravel after his high school girlfriend broke up with him. He began to abuse alcohol and other drugs, specifically Salvia divinorum (a natural hallucinogen illegal in some states). Another longtime friend, Kylie Smith, added that Loughner had used cannabis (marijuana), psychedelic mushrooms, and LSD around that same time. After struggling with drugs for more than two years, Loughner quit using marijuana (as well as alcohol and tobacco) in late 2008 and has not used it since, according to one of his longtime friends. The U.S. Army confirmed that Loughner had been rejected as "unqualified" for service in 2008. According to military sources, Loughner admitted to marijuana use on numerous occasions during the application process.

    Former classmate Caitie Parker remembered Loughner as a "pot head". Loughner has a history of drug use, having been arrested in September 2007 for possession of marijuana and drug paraphernalia. "I haven't seen him in person since '07," Parker recalled in early 2011. "I'm looking back at this [as] a 14–19 year old...who knows if any of us knew what for sure we were yet."

    In the months leading up to the shooting, Loughner's parents became increasingly alarmed at their son's behavior at one point resorting to disabling his car every night in order to keep him home. At one point his father confiscated his son's shotgun and both urged him to get help.

    Loughner withdrew from Pima Community College after he was asked to obtain a mental health clearance.
    Suspension from college

    From February to September 2010, while a student at Pima Community College, Loughner had five contacts with college police for classroom and library disruptions. Some of his teachers complained to the administration about his disruptions and bizarre behavior, as they thought it a sign of mental illness and feared what he might do. On September 29, 2010, college police also discovered a YouTube video shot by Loughner, in which his spoken commentary stated that the college was illegal according to the United States Constitution. He described his school as "one of the biggest scams in America".

    The college decided to suspend Loughner and sent a letter to his parents, to consult with them and him together. The college told Loughner that if he wanted to return, he needed to resolve his code of conduct violations and obtain a mental health clearance (indicating, in the opinion of a mental health professional, that his presence did not constitute a danger to himself or others). On October 4, Loughner and his parents met with campus administrators and Loughner indicated he would withdraw from the college. During Loughner's time at Pima, a classmate said she worried that he might commit a school shooting. One of his teachers has claimed a similar suspicion after the Tucson shooting. He never submitted to a mental health evaluation and did not return to the college.

    Several college classmates recalled an incident in which Loughner, during a class discussion, had mocked and laughed at a young woman who was describing her abortion. One classmate described Loughner's reaction as "wildly inappropriate". "(Loughner) started making comments about terrorism and laughing about killing the baby," former classmate Don Coorough recalled to ABC News. Yet another classmate, Lydian Ali, recalled that "a girl had written a poem about an abortion. It was very emotional and she was teary eyed and he said something about strapping a bomb to the fetus and making a baby bomb out of it."

    Expressed views

    Views on politics

    Records show that Loughner was registered as an Independent and voted in 2006 and 2008, but not in 2010. A YouTube channel under an account called "Classitup10" was linked to Loughner. (There have been numerous copies of 'impostor accounts' such as 'JaredLoughner' and 'Classitup1O'.)

    Loughner's high school friend Zach Osler said, "He did not watch TV; he disliked the news; he didn't listen to political radio; he didn't take sides; he wasn't on the Left; he wasn't on the Right." A former classmate, Caitie Parker, who attended high school and college with Loughner, described his political views prior to 2007, prior to his personality transformation, as "left wing, quite liberal,""radical."

    In the aftermath of the shooting, the Anti-Defamation League reviewed messages by Loughner, and concluded that there was a "disjointed theme that runs through Loughner's writings", which was a "distrust for and dislike of the government." It "manifested itself in various ways"– for instance, in the belief that the government used the control of language and grammar to brainwash people, the notion that the government was creating "infinite currency" without the backing of gold and silver, or the assertion that NASA was faking spaceflights.

    Dislike for Gabrielle Giffords

    According to a former friend, Bryce Tierney, Loughner had expressed a longstanding dislike for Gabrielle Giffords. Tierney recalled that Loughner had often said that women should not hold positions of power. He repeatedly derided Giffords as a "fake". This belief intensified after he attended her August 25, 2007 event when she did not, in his view, sufficiently answer his question: "What is government if words have no meaning?" Loughner kept Giffords' form letter, which thanked him for attending the 2007 event, in the same box as an envelope which was scrawled with phrases like "die bitch" and "assassination plans have been made". Zane Gutierrez, a friend, later told the New York Times that Loughner's anger would also "well up at the sight of President George W. Bush, or in discussing what he considered to be the nefarious designs of government."

    Conspiracy theories

    His friend Zach Osler noted that conspiracy theories had a profound effect on Loughner, particularly the online film Zeitgeist: The Movie, with which friends claimed Loughner held an obsession. He was a member of the message board Above Top Secret, which discussed conspiracy theories; members of the site did not respond warmly to his posts. Loughner espoused conspiracy theories about the 9/11 attacks, the New World Order, and beliefs in a 2012 apocalypse, among other controversial viewpoints. Reports appearing after the shooting noted similarities between the statements made by Loughner and those publicized by the conspiracy theorist David Wynn Miller. The Anti-Defamation League's report also confirmed Loughner's longstanding interest in conspiracy theories.

    Views on religion

    Journalists had speculated that Loughner was anti-Semitic due to his attack on Rep. Giffords, who is Jewish, but the Anti-Defamation League's analysis of the messages by Loughner found that he had a more generalized dislike of religion, and of government. Loughner declined to state his religion in his Army application. In his "Final Thoughts" video, Loughner stated, "No, I won't trust in God!" This comment, possibly a reference to the U.S. motto "In God We Trust," which appears on U.S. currency, comes after a complaint that U.S. currency is not backed by gold or silver, indicating Loughner believed the currency was untrustworthy.

    Roadside sign at the scene the day of the shooting.
    Tucson shooting

    Main article: 2011 Tucson shooting


    Loughner allegedly purchased the 9mm Glock pistol used in the shooting from a Sportsman's Warehouse in Tucson on November 30, 2010. The night before the shooting, at 2:05 a.m. he left a message on a friend's voicemail saying, "Hey man, it's Jared. Me and you had good times. Peace out. Later." In a MySpace post the morning of the shooting at 4:12 am, he wrote, "Goodbye friends. Please don't be mad at me. The literacy rate is below 5%. I haven't talked to one person who is literate. I want to make it out alive. The longest war in the history of the United States. Goodbye. I'm saddened with the current currency and job employment. I had a bully at school. Thank you. P.S. --plead the fifth!"

    Photos on the MySpace page showed a close-up picture of a handgun sitting atop a document titled "United States History."

    The attack

    On January 8, 2011, at 7:04 a.m. MST, Loughner went to a Walmart store in the Foothills Mall to purchase ammunition, but left that store and completed his purchase at a Walmart on North Cortaro Road at 7:28 a.m. He was stopped by Arizona Game and Fish Department officer Alen Edward Forney at 7:34 a.m. for running a red light, but once the officer determined there were no outstanding warrants for Loughner, he was allowed to proceed to his destination with a warning to drive carefully. Loughner took a taxi to a Safeway supermarket location in Casas Adobes, where Rep. Giffords was holding a constituents meeting. The shooting occurred at 10:10 a.m. MST.

    Loughner opened fire on Giffords from close range, as well as numerous bystanders, killing six people. Thirteen other people were injured by gunfire, and one person was injured while fleeing the scene of the shooting. Giffords, the apparent target of the attack, was shot in the head and critically injured.

    A picture of Loughner taken by the Pima County Sheriff's Office's forensic unit, which saw widespread distribution via media outlets
    Arrest and legal proceedings


    Loughner was subdued by bystanders and was arrested by police, saying, "I plead the Fifth," as he was taken into custody. A photograph taken by the Pima County Sheriff's Office's forensic unit was released to the media on January 10, 2011 and published on front pages nationwide. The Washington Postdescribed the picture as "smirking and creepy, with hollow eyes ablaze," while the art director for the New York Times said the photo was featured on the front page because it "was the picture of the day [...] it was intense and arresting. It invited you to look and study, and wonder."

    Charges and imprisonment

    Loughner was charged in federal court with one count of attempted assassination of a member of Congress, two counts of murder of a federal employee (Giffords' aide and Judge Roll), and two counts of attempting to murder a federal employee, based on his injury of two of Giffords' aides. He was indicted on three of the charges on January 19, 2011. Loughner was held without bail in the Federal Correctional Institution at Phoenix, kept isolated from other inmates 23 hours a day and allowed out of his cell for one hour a day to shower and exercise. On February 24, 2011, he was transferred to the United States Penitentiary in Tucson.

    Attorney Judy Clarke, a former federal public defender who in the past had represented suspects in several high profile murder and terrorism cases, was appointed to represent Loughner in federal court. The entire federal judiciary of the state of Arizona recused themselves from hearing the case because of their ties to fellow judge, John Roll, who was killed. Federal prosecutors opposed motions to move the case outside of Arizona because of pre-trial publicity. At the direction of Ninth Circuit Appeals court Chief Judge Kozinski, the federal case was assigned to the San Diego-based judge, Larry Alan Burns (from the Southern District of California).

    Prosecutors representing Arizona, which has concurrent jurisdiction in the matter, announced they intended to file murder and attempted murder charges on behalf of the other victims, those who were not members of Congress or federal employees (although they could legally file charges on behalf of all the victims). Arizona law does not permit a verdict of "not guilty by reason of insanity", but does allow for a verdict of "guilty but insane."

    Initial pleading and additional charges

    On January 24, 2011, Loughner appeared at the Sandra Day O'Connor U.S. Courthouse in Phoenix, before Judge Larry Alan Burns from San Diego. Loughner, whose hair had partially regrown since his arrest, smiled while presented with the charges related to the shooting, including the attempted killing of Giffords and two of her aides. Loughner's attorney, Judy Clarke, requested that Judge Burns select a plea on her client's behalf, to which a plea of not guilty was recorded. When Burns asked Clarke if Loughner understood the charges against him, she replied that they were "not raising that issue" at the time. She did not object to a request by prosecutors to have future hearings moved back to Tucson. On March 3, 2011, a federal grand jury indicted Loughner on additional charges of murder and attempted murder for a total of 49 counts. On March 9, 2011, Loughner pleaded not guilty to all 49 charges.

    Relationship with lawyers

    On May 25, 2011, Judge Burns stated, "I got some letters declaring some conflict with his counsel...I intend to table them at this time. At such a point that his competency is restored, if he wants to bring up the matter of counsel, he can renew it then." The judge suppressed the letters from the court record.

    Medico-legal proceedings

    On May 25, 2011, Judge Burns ruled Loughner was then incompetent to stand trial, based on two medical evaluations. Court proceedings were suspended while Loughner, who had been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia, received psychiatric treatment at the psychiatric wing of the U.S. Medical Center for Federal Prisoners in Springfield, Missouri. He was scheduled to appear in court on September 21, 2011, but that hearing was delayed until September 28, 2011, when the judge reviewed whether he could understand the charges against him and could assist in his own defense. (Loughner’s lawyers unsuccessfully objected to him appearing at the hearing.) Loughner disrupted the court hearing with an outburst, and was carried from the court room. According to the New York Times, Loughner believed he succeeded in killing Giffords, and clashed with his lawyer when she informed him that the congresswoman had survived. He was judged still incompetent to stand trial following medical evaluations and a hearing in May 2011.

    Forced medication rulings

    On June 26, 2011, Judge Burns ruled that prison doctors could forcibly medicate Loughner with antipsychotic drugs in order to treat him to restore him to competency for trial.

    But, on July 12, 2011, a three-judge federal appeals panel from the Ninth Circuit ruled that Loughner could refuse anti-psychotic medication, since he "has not been convicted of a crime, is presumptively innocent and is therefore entitled to greater constitutional protections than a convicted inmate." However, the ruling stated that it "does not preclude prison authorities from taking other measures to maintain the safety of prison personnel, other inmates and Loughner himself, including forced administration of tranquilizers".

    A week after the ruling, prison medical authorities resumed forcible treatment of Loughner with the antipsychotic risperidone, this time citing Washington v. Harper and stating the purpose of treatment was the need to control the danger he posed to himself and others in prison, rather than rendering him fit for trial. Loughner's defense team submitted an emergency motion to the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, claiming that this treatment was in violation of their ruling and seeking an immediate injunction to halt treatment. The request for an injunction was denied by the court, allowing treatment to continue pending a full hearing into the matter. Arguments began on August 30 as to the lawfulness of this treatment. In March 2012, a federal appeals court denied a request by Loughner's lawyers to halt his forced medication.

    On May 24, 2012 a federal judge ordered a competency hearing for June 27 (later postponed until August 7) to determine Loughner's mental fitness to stand trial. He remained at a federal prison hospital in Missouri pending the entry of his plea. A request by Loughner's lawyers to rehear arguments on forced medication was denied on June 5, 2012.

    Guilty plea and sentencing

    On Tuesday, August 7, 2012, Judge Burns found Loughner competent to stand trial based on medical evaluations. Loughner pleaded guilty to 19 counts at the hearing, which spared him the death penalty. The hearing began with Loughner listening calmly to testimony from Dr. Christina Pietz, Loughner's forensic psychologist, who testified that he had displayed depressive symptoms in 2006 and was formally diagnosed with schizophrenia in 2011. Dr. Pietz said that she believed that, after having been forcibly medicated for more than a year, Loughner had expressed remorse and was a changed individual. She said that he was competent to stand trial and agree to a plea. Sentencing was set for November 15, 2012 at 10 a.m. local time. The sentence could not include the death penalty, because the guilty plea bargain was made with an assurance that it would not be sought; Loughner under the law faced a mandatory sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. Former U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords and her husband, retired NASA astronaut Mark Kelly, U.S. Representative Ron Barber, a former aide to Mrs. Giffords, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder, and the U.S. Attorney for Arizona, John S. Leonardo, had all approved the plea. It was offered and accepted after consultation with them and with the families of the other victims.

    By pleading guilty in the deal, Loughner automatically waived his right to any further appeals and cannot later alter his plea to an insanity plea. Loughner must pay a restitution of $19 million, $1 million for each of the victims. He forfeited the weapons he used in the incident, and any money earned from efforts to sell his story. Loughner calmly answered that he understood each charge, and signed his initials after each page of the agreement and shakily signed his name to it, dated August 6.

    On November 8, 2012, Loughner appeared in front of U.S. District Court Judge Larry Alan Burns in a court in Tucson. He was sentenced to serve seven consecutive life terms plus 140 years in prison without parole. Even though he was convicted and sentenced in federal court, there was still a possibility that Loughner could be tried for murder and other crimes in Arizona court. Pima County Attorney Barbara LaWall declared later that afternoon that she would not prosecute Jared Loughner on behalf of the State of Arizona. LaWall explained that her decision would afford the victims and their families, as well as the community in Tucson and Pima County, an opportunity to move forward with their lives. She said that, after speaking and consulting personally with each of the surviving victims and with the family members of those killed, it was clear that they would not be benefitted by a State prosecution. Surviving victims and family members told LaWall that they are “completely satisfied with the federal prosecution”, that “justice has been served”, and that the federal sentence is “suitably severe”. He is currently serving his seven life sentences plus 140 years at The United States Medical Center for Federal Prisoners in Springfield, MO.

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                On this date, 9 January 2009, a Salakau gangster in Singapore, Tan Chor Jin A.K.A The One-Eyed Dragon was executed by hanging in Singapore. He shot and killed nightclub owner Lim Hock Soon at the latter's apartment at Serangoon Ave 4 in the early hours of the morning on 15 February 2006. The weapon used was believed to be a Beretta 92. A total of 5 shots were fired. Good that he was executed 3 years after the murder, not live on Death Row for decades. 

    In February 2006, something happened in Singapore that really shocked the nation and chilled the bones of everyone who later heard or read the news as the story unfolded. It was a cold-blooded killing carried out in typical ganglang fashion but with a gun ! Most gang-related murders were carried out with weapons such as choppers, parangs, daggers and bearing-scrapers in the past. Singapore, with our strict anti-gun laws, have made gun-related killings a rare occurrence. The mandatory death penalty awaits those dealing death with guns and bullets.

    In the early hours of that 15th February morning, Tan Chor Jin, then 39 years old a secret society gangster and reputed top hitman, barged into the flat of Lim Hock Soon age 40, a nite-club owner, threatened him, his wife, 13 year old daughter and maid. Holding both a gun and a knife, he forced Lim to tie up the other three before firing 6 shots at point-blank range into Lim. 5 of the shots hit the victim in the face, head and body, killing him almost instantly. The killer then ransacked the flat for money and valuables and escaped in a waiting car driven by one of his ss underlings. He directed the driver to a canal where he threw away the weapons of death. Tan Chor Jin alias "The One Eyed Dragon" because he had been blinded in one eye, then fled to M'sia where he remained in hiding for 9 days before he was surprised and cornered in a hotel by special CID forces.

    He was subsequently taken back to S'pore by CID officers and was charged for the capital crime of murder by firearms. In his trial at the High Court, he initially defended himself despite being cautioned that he was entitled to legal counsel. The trial lasted slightly over a week and he was found guilty and sentenced to death. After all appeals were finally rejected, this One Eyed Dragon met his own fate with Death on 9th January 2009.

    Before his hanging at Changi Prison, he did something that was commendable. He decided to donate some of his organs including his kidneys which went to Mr Tang Wee Sung of CK Tang Dept Store ( The story made big news in the media ).

    Tan Chor Jin left behind a wife and 2 young kids in M'sia. He also had a mistress with 2 kids.

    He was a high-ranking member of the 369 secret society sometimes also known as "salakau". He was a known hitman.

    The victim he killed was his one-time close friend and fellow ss member in the AS Tong.

    Tan Chor Jin A.K.A One-eyed Dragon (PHOTO SOURCE:

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             On this date, January 9, 2013, 70-year-old Dennis Stanworth phoned the Police to confess that he had murdered his own mother. Keep in mind; he had murdered two teenage girls in 1966. Those murders had all happened in the State of California. The SAFE California and the A.C.L.U are as usual keeping quiet about it. Dennis Stanworth’s case is similar to the one of Robert Lee Massiewho had his death sentence overturned, only to be paroled to kill again in California.

                I will post the story of Dennis Stanworth from several internet sources.

    Dennis Stanworth in 2013, left, and in the 1960s ( (Mike Jory/Times-Herald; Contra Costa County Sheriff's Office)

    Released Killer Accused of Murdering Own Mother
    January 11, 2013 2:09 PM By Nastacia Leshchinskaya

    In 1966, Dennis Stanworth shot and killed two teenage girls. He had seen Susan Box, 15, and Caree Collison, 14, walking in Pinole, Ca., and offered them a ride. He then forced them to walk away from the road at gunpoint and ordered them to undress. When Collison tried to escape, Stanworth told her that if she ran, he’d kill her friend. She came back, and he shot them both in the head. He then performed sex acts on Box’s body. Prior to the murders, Stanworth raped two adult women and one 17-year-old girl. In 1969, Standworth pleaded guilty to murder, kidnapping, rape and other charges.

    Stanworth was sentenced to death. He had confessed to everything and, while in prison, was remorseful. He actively objected to an appeal on his behalf, stating“The fact is I did it and I am guilty as charged and there is no doubt to that fact. I had a fair and impartial trial and swear that the conviction, which has resulted in the sentence of death is valid.” However, state law requires automatic appeals of death sentences, even against the wishes of the defendant. Based on several issues, including the dismissal of numerous jurors who objected to capital punishment, Stanworth’s death sentence was overturned. In 1979, he was released on parole under the condition that he register as a sex offender. Now, decades later, he’s accused of killing his 90-year-old mother.

    According to Vallejo police, Stanworth, 70, called 911 Wednesday claiming to have killed his mother, Nellie Turner Stanworth, known to friends as “Nellie Belle.” A neighbor in the American Canyon mobile home park where Nellie Stanworth lived believed that the woman had been dead for over a month, because, according to NBC, that’s what Stanworth had told him. Instead, say police, her body was found in Stanworth’s home in the Hiddenbrooke neighborhood of Vallejo.

    A relative of Caree Collison had a feeling Stanworth would strike again, telling ABC, “I knew, I knew something was going to happen; he’s such an evil man.”

    Dennis Stanworth is led from San Mateo County Jail after he was arrested in the rape of a young woman in 1966. Photo: Barney Peterson (PHOTO SOURCE:

    1972 death penalty decision has lasting impact

    Monday, March 04, 2013

    It's a shocking case: a convicted double-murderer is released from prison, and later calls police to tell them he had killed again. Vallejo's Dennis Stanworth is one of dozens of California inmates released from death row in the years after a 1972 Supreme Court decision overturning the death penalty.

    In 1966 Stanworth was sentenced to death for the brutal kidnapping, rape and murder of two 15-year-old Pinole teens, Caree Collison and Susan Box. Their family members are still haunted by the crime.

    "He had them strip and Caree ran and he yelled at her if you don't come back, I'm going to kill your friend. She came back and he shot her in the head," a family member said.

    Stanworth sat on San Quentin's death row for seven years. Then everything changed.

    "The first step was when the California Supreme Court and U.S. Supreme Court determined that the death penalty was unconstitutional," Uncommon Law's Keith Whattley said.

    That meant, by the mid-1970s, 174 death row inmates had their sentences reduced to life in prison. At the time, California did not have life without parole, so all were eligible for release.

    Besides Stanworth, the group included Charles Manson and Sirhan Sirhan, who murdered Robert Kennedy in 1968. Manson and Sirhan were not released, but Stanworth and 50 others were eventually set free.

    Among them was Robert Massie, who was convicted of murder in 1965 and sentenced to death. In 1978 he was paroled; eight months later, he murdered a San Francisco liquor store owner. In 2001, after the death penalty was reinstated, Massie was executed.

    "Even if they're rehabilitated, they've already done something that can't be undone," Parents of Murdered Children spokesperson misty Foster said. "Those people are never coming back, so how do say their life is only worth 20 or 25 years?"

    Stanworth was released in 1990. The parole board cited his good behavior and "excellent work record." Stanworth settled in Vallejo, re-married and lived a quiet life in a gated golf course community where some neighbors even knew of his past.

    "I figured he had paid for his mistakes according to the law," neighbor Irving Vanderberg said.

    But on Jan. 11, Vallejo police arrested Stanworth for killing his 90-year-old mother Nellie Stanworth at his home.

    While the Stanworth case and a handful of others are certainly troubling, they are also the exception when it comes to death row inmates and convicted murderers who've been granted parole.

    "I think it's hard for the public to grasp this," UC Berkeley Death Penalty Clinic Director Elisabth Semel said. "People who've been convicted of murder have a better rate of success, that is a lower recidivism rate, than individuals who commit other types of crimes."

    A 2011 Stanford study found the recidivism rate for paroled murderers is less than 1 percent, much lower than the 49 percent rate for California parolees.

    Keith Wattley is an Oakland attorney who represents lifers in prison, many of them murderers. He says several factors contribute to their success if they are released, much of it based on what they do, while behind bars.

    "Decades of self-help and therapy programs, dealing with addictions and alcoholism from the past and finding support going forward," he said.

    According to the California Department of Corrections, of the 107 death row inmates in Stanworth's "class of '72," 42 were paroled. Twelve of them committed new felonies.

    Some worry the exceptions, like Stanworth's case, will prompt lawmakers to overreact by passing new laws to keep prisoners behind bars a lot longer. But those who've been touched by the violence of men like Stanworth say a sentence is a sentence.

    "I know they don't have a lot of rooms there for them, but when they're that bad, put them in a 6 by 10 foot cage and forget about them; they're animals," Caree Collison's family member said.

    Stanworth is awaiting trial for the murder of his mother. If convicted, he could receive the death penalty.

    (Copyright ©2013 KGO-TV/DT. All Rights Reserved.) 

    In 1968, Dennis Stanworth was on Death Row for killing two teenage girls he picked up hitchhiking in Pinole. Now 70, Stanworth has reportedly told police that he killed his 90-year-old mother. (PHOTO SOURCE:

    Vallejo suspect's past spans 46 years, two rejected death sentences
    /By Jessica A. York and Tony Burchyns/Times-Herald staff writers

    Vallejo Times Herald
    Posted:01/11/2013 01:01:45 AM PST

    A Vallejo man who gladly accepted a death sentence after killing two Pinole teenagers more than 45 years ago, has been arrested at his home for killing his mother.

    Vallejo Police said that Dennis Stanworth, 70, called the Vallejo Police Communications Center about 11:55 a.m. Wednesday, and claimed during the span of about a seven- or eight-minute call with a dispatch supervisor that he had killed his own mother, Vallejo police Lt. Jim O'Connell said Thursday.

    Officers responded to Stanworth's home at 2500 block of Marshfield Road, near the Hiddenbrooke Golf Club, where the suspect directed them to an undisclosed area where they discovered the deceased victim.

    Police said a search warrant was obtained for the residence, a house Stanworth lives in with his wife and father-in-law, and a subsequent search revealed evidence of the crime. Police have refused to release details about where they found Stanworth's mother, Nellie Turner Stanworth, 90. It also remained unclear Thursday why Stanworth's mother was at the Vallejo home.

    American Canyon resident

    The victim had been a resident of the Olympia Mobilodge of Napa in American Canyon. Ronda Bensing, another park resident, told the Times-Herald that Stanworth had moved his mother out of the park about 10 weeks ago and told her she was going to be placed in an assisted living facility in Vallejo.

    Bensing said Stanworth's mother returned two weeks later, complaining about her new living situation.

    Later, Bensing said Stanworth told her he was taking her to live with her sister. Then, about six weeks ago, Stanworth visited the mobile home park and said his mother had passed away, Bensing said.

    "We have been so distraught," Bensing said. "We were friends and neighbors for eight years ... we are just trying to find closure ... it is just wrenching."

    Bensing said Stanworth had frequently visited his mother, taking her shopping and administering insulin shots in the afternoon.

    On Wednesday, detectives interviewed Stanworth, who O'Connell said was cooperative with police, and later arrested him on suspicion of murder.

    O'Connell declined to say how or where police believe the victim was killed or where her body was found. He said police investigators were still interviewing witnesses Thursday and did not want any news reports to influence their answers.

    As for motive, O'Connell would not speculate, but said police "have a couple different ideas" and expect witness interviews to flesh out the details.

    Violent background

    The suspect has a long and violent criminal history that had apparently ceased, at least since his arrival in Vallejo in the late 1990s, O'Connell said. Stanworth is apparently unemployed, and described as retired on his sex offender registration, O'Connell said.

    "Our registration detective talked to him every year, but no complaints regarding him had come in," O'Connell said of Stanworth. "(He did not stand out) other than for the nature of the crimes for which he was convicted. Those are fairly egregious."

    As Stanworth had completed his parole, he would not have been under police oversight if it were not for his sex offender status dating back more than four decades.

    O'Connell was referring to two murder convictions in 1966. Stanworth had pleaded guilty to kidnapping, raping and shooting two Pinole girls, both 15, on Aug. 1, 1966 after he picked them up hitchhiking.

    According to Times-Herald reports at the time, Stanworth, then 24, a Pinole house painter and cook, admitted killing and raping Susan Box and Caree Lee Collison at a Point Wilson beach area in Pinole. Their bodies were discovered two days after the attacks. Found at the crime scene in a coma with head wounds, Collison never recovered consciousness and died on Sept. 12, 1966.

    Months after the attacks, Stanworth also admitted abducting and raping at least four other women, including three in Contra Costa County and one in San Mateo County, court records show. He eventually was caught after raping one woman who, after briefly passing out during the attack and coming to, untied herself, and reported to police who arrested Stanworth several hours later in her car.

    When Stanworth testified during his trial's penalty phase, his defense attorney asked him why he had confessed to police about the killings.

    "I couldn't live with it no more... I just had to tell somebody," Stanworth replied in a sobbing voice. "I told them everything I done and wanted to get it all off my chest. I was always sorry after I got through and even apologized sometimes."

    Stanworth mounted no opposition to being sentenced to execution, and published reports at the time said that after the jury voted to send him to the gas chamber, he gratefully shook his lawyer's hand.

    Fought appeals

    Under California law, death sentences are automatically appealed. Stanworth, according to court records, wanted no part of an appeal, and said he wanted to die. He repeatedly said the state should waste no more money on him, that he had accepted his death sentence, and did not wish to contest it.

    In a letter to the courts, Stanworth, then 27, wrote: "I know that I will never see the freedom of the outside world again, I have dishonored my family's name ... I understand that I and I alone must suffer for my actions and I understand also that the law holds me to task for my actions.

    "I cannot continue living with cloud over my head, please be merciful and give me an endless sleep as soon as you cans...... all I want, is to die."

    Despite Stanworth's pleas the state Supreme Court reduced his death sentence to life imprisonment. The Aug. 20, 1969 ruling cited a number of grounds, including that prosecutors had rejected a dozen prospective jurors for cause because they expressed opposition to capital punishment. The justices held that under a U.S. Supreme Court decision, such opposition alone should not disqualify a juror from considering a death penalty decision.

    The following July, another Contra Costa jury sentenced Stanworth to death, but that sentence was reduced once again in June 1974 based on the state Supreme Court's ruling in 1972 that the state's gas chamber constituted "cruel and unusual punishment."

    He was eventually released on parole in 1990, according to the state Department of Corrections.

    Contributing to this article were MediaNews Group staff writer Matthias Gafni and Times-Herald staff writer Sarah Rohrs. Contact staff writer Jessica A. York at (707) 553-6834 or Follow her on Twitter @JYVallejo.

    Dennis Stanworth in 1966 (Associated Press file photo) (PHOTO SOURCE:

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    Ten years ago on this date, 13 January 2004, a Serial killer, Dr. Harold Shipman nicknamed Doctor Death, committed suicide by hanging himself in his cell at Wakefield Prison in West Yorkshire. Since the United Kingdom had abolished the death penalty, he did his victims a favour by sentencing himself to death.

    Harold Shipman mug shot from Wakefield Prison

    14 January 1946
    Nottingham, England
    13 January 2004 (aged 57)
    HM Prison Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England
    Cause of death
    Suicide by hanging
    Other names
    "Dr. Death"
    Criminal penalty
    Life imprisonment plus 4 years for forgery

    Number of victims
    Span of killings
    England, United Kingdom
    Date apprehended
    7 September 1998

    Harold Fredrick Shipman (14 January 1946 – 13 January 2004) was a British doctor and one of the most prolific serial killers in recorded history by proven murderswith up to 250 murders being ascribed to him.

    On 31 January 2000, a jury found Shipman guilty of 15 murders. He was sentenced to life imprisonment and the judge recommended that he never be released.

    After his trial, the Shipman Inquiry, chaired by Dame Janet Smith, began on 1 September 2000. Lasting almost two years, it was an investigation into all deaths certified by Shipman. About 80% of his victims were women. His youngest victim was a 41-year-old man.[2] Much of Britain's legal structure concerning health care and medicine was reviewed and modified as a direct and indirect result of Shipman's crimes. Shipman is the only British doctor who has been found guilty of murdering his patients.

    Shipman died on 13 January 2004, after hanging himself in his cell at Wakefield Prison in West Yorkshire.

    Early life and career

    Harold Frederick Shipman was born in Bestwood council estate in Nottingham, England, the second of four children of Vera and Harold Shipman, a lorry driver. His working class parents were devout Methodists. Shipman was particularly close to his mother, who died of lung cancer when he was 17. Her death came in a manner similar to what later became Shipman's own modus operandi: in the later stages of her disease, she had morphine administered at home by a doctor. Shipman witnessed his mother's pain subside in spite of her terminal condition, up until her death on 21 June 1963.

    Shipman studied medicine at Leeds School of Medicine and graduated in 1970. He started work at Pontefract General Infirmary in Pontefract, West Riding of Yorkshire, and in 1974 took his first position as a general practitioner (GP) at the Abraham Ormerod Medical Centre in Todmorden, West Yorkshire. In 1975 he was caught forging prescriptions of pethidine for his own use. He was fined £600, and briefly attended a drug rehabilitation clinic in York. He became a GP at the Donneybrook Medical Centre in Hyde, Greater Manchester, in 1977.

    Shipman continued working as a GP in Hyde throughout the 1980s and founded his own surgery at 21 Market Street in 1993, becoming a respected member of the community. In 1983, he was interviewed on the Granada television documentary World in Action on how the mentally ill should be treated in the community.


    In March 1998, Dr Linda Reynolds of the Brooke Surgery in Hyde, prompted by Deborah Massey from Frank Massey and Son's funeral parlour, expressed concerns to John Pollard, the coroner for the South Manchester District, about the high death rate among Shipman's patients. In particular, she was concerned about the large number of cremation forms for elderly women that he had needed countersigned. The matter was brought to the attention of the police, who were unable to find sufficient evidence to bring charges; the Shipman Inquiry later blamed the police for assigning inexperienced officers to the case. Between 17 April 1998, when the police abandoned the investigation, and Shipman's eventual arrest, he killed three more people. His last victim was Kathleen Grundy, a former Mayor of Hyde, who was found dead at her home on 24 June 1998. Shipman was the last person to see her alive, and later signed her death certificate, recording "old age" as cause of death.

    Grundy's daughter, lawyer Angela Woodruff, became concerned when solicitor Brian Burgess informed her that a will had been made, apparently by her mother. There were doubts about its authenticity. The will excluded her and her children, but left £386,000 to Shipman. Burgess told Woodruff to report it, and went to the police, who began an investigation. Grundy's body was exhumed, and when examined was found to contain traces of diamorphine (heroin), often used for pain control in terminal cancer patients. Shipman was arrested on 7 September 1998, and was found to own a typewriter of the type used to make the forged will.

    The police then investigated other deaths Shipman had certified, and created a list of 15 specimen cases to investigate. They discovered a pattern of his administering lethal doses of diamorphine, signing patients' death certificates, and then falsifying medical records to indicate that they had been in poor health.

    Prescription For Murder, a book by journalists Brian Whittle and Jean Ritchie, reports two theories on why Shipman forged the will: one is that he wanted to be caught because his life was out of control; the other theory put forward is that he planned to retire at age 55 and then leave the United Kingdom.

    Add caption

    Trial and imprisonment

    Shipman's trial, presided over by Mr Justice Forbes, began on 5 October 1999. Shipman was charged with the murders of Marie West, Irene Turner, Lizzie Adams, Jean Lilley, Ivy Lomas, Muriel Grimshaw, Marie Quinn, Kathleen Wagstaff, Bianka Pomfret, Norah Nuttall, Pamela Hillier, Maureen Ward, Winifred Mellor, Joan Melia and Kathleen Grundy, all of whom had died between 1995 and 1998.

    On 31 January 2000, after six days of deliberation, the jury found Shipman guilty of killing 15 patients by lethal injections of diamorphine, and forging the will of Kathleen Grundy. The trial judge sentenced him to 15 consecutive life sentences and recommended that he never be released. Shipman also received four years for forging the will. Two years later, Home Secretary David Blunkett confirmed the judge's whole life tariff, just months before British government ministers lost their power to set minimum terms for prisoners.

    On 11 February 2000, ten days after his conviction, the General Medical Council formally struck Shipman off its register.

    Shipman consistently denied his guilt, disputing the scientific evidence against him. He never made any statements about his actions. His defence tried, but failed, to have the count of murder of Mrs Grundy, where a clear motive was alleged, tried separately from the others, where no obvious motive was apparent. His wife, Primrose, was apparently in denial about his crimes as well.

    Although many other cases could have been brought to court, the authorities concluded it would be hard to have a fair trial, in view of the enormous publicity surrounding the original trial. Also, given the sentences from the first trial, a further trial was unnecessary. The Shipman Inquiry concluded Shipman was probably responsible for about 250 deaths. The Shipman Inquiry also suggested that he liked to use drugs recreationally.

    Despite the prosecutions of Dr John Bodkin Adams in 1957, Dr Leonard Arthur in 1981, and Dr Thomas Lodwig in 1990 (amongst others), Shipman is the only doctor in British legal history to be found guilty of killing patients. According to historian Pamela Cullen, Adams had also been a serial killer—potentially killing up to 165 of his patients between 1946 and 1956, but as he "was found not guilty, there was no impetus to examine the flaws in the system until the Shipman case. Had these issues been addressed earlier, it might have been more difficult for Shipman to commit his crimes." H. G. Kinnell, writing in the British Medical Journal, also speculates that Adams "possibly provided the role model for Shipman".


    Harold Shipman committed suicide by hanging in his cell at Wakefield Prison at 06:20 on 13 January 2004, on the eve of his 58th birthday, and was pronounced dead at 08:10. A Prison Service statement indicated that Shipman had hanged himself from the window bars of his cell using bed sheets. Some British tabloids expressed joy at his suicide and encouraged other serial killers to follow his example; The Sun ran a celebratory front page headline, "Ship Ship hooray!"

    Some of the victims' families said they felt cheated, as his suicide meant they would never have the satisfaction of Shipman's confession, and answers as to why he committed his crimes. The Home Secretary David Blunkett noted that celebration was tempting, saying: "You wake up and you receive a call telling you Shipman has topped himself and you think, is it too early to open a bottle? And then you discover that everybody's very upset that he's done it."

    Despite The Sun's celebration of Shipman's suicide, his death divided national newspapers, with the Daily Mirror branding him a "cold coward" and condemning the Prison Service for allowing his suicide to happen. The Independent, on the other hand, called for the inquiry into Shipman's suicide to look more widely at the state of Britain's prisons as well as the welfare of inmates. In The Guardian, an article by Sir David Ramsbotham (former Chief Inspector of Prisons) suggested that whole life sentencing be replaced by indefinite sentencing as these would at least give prisoners the hope of eventual release and reduce the risk of their committing suicide as well as making their management easier for prison officials.

    Shipman's motive for suicide was never established, although he had reportedly told his probation officer that he was considering suicide so that his widow could receive a National Health Service (NHS) pension and lump sum, even though he had been stripped of his own pension. His wife received a full NHS pension, which she would not have been entitled to if he had died after the age of 60. Shipman had been encouraged to take part in courses which would have had him confess his guilt. After refusing, he became emotional and close to tears when privileges — including the opportunity to telephone his wife — were removed. Privileges had been returned the week before the suicide. Additionally, Primrose, who had consistently believed that Shipman was innocent, might have begun to suspect his guilt. According to Shipman's ex-cellmate Tony Fleming, Primrose had recently written a letter to her husband, exhorting him to "tell me everything, no matter what".


    In January 2001, Chris Gregg, a senior West Yorkshire detective, was selected to lead an investigation into 22 of the West Yorkshire deaths. Following this, The Shipman Inquiry into Shipman's activities submitted in July 2002 concluded that he had killed at least 215 of his patients between 1975 and 1998, during which time he practised in Todmorden, West Yorkshire (1974–1975), and Hyde, Greater Manchester (1977–1998). Dame Janet Smith, the judge who submitted the report, admitted that many more suspicious deaths could not be definitively ascribed to him. Most of his victims were elderly women in good health.

    In her sixth and final report, issued on 24 January 2005, Smith reported that she believed that Shipman had killed three patients, and she had serious suspicions about four further deaths, including that of a four-year-old girl, during the early stage of his medical career at Pontefract General Hospital, West Riding of Yorkshire. Smith concluded the probable number of Shipman's victims between 1971 and 1998 was 250. In total, 459 people died while under his care, but it is uncertain how many of those were Shipman's victims, as he was often the only doctor to certify a death.

    The Shipman Inquiry also recommended changes to the structure of the General Medical Council.

    The General Medical Council charged six doctors who signed cremation forms for Shipman's victims with misconduct, claiming they should have noticed the pattern between Shipman's home visits and his patients' deaths. All these doctors were found not guilty. Shipman's widow, Primrose Shipman, was called to give evidence about two of the deaths during the inquiry. She maintained her husband's innocence both before and after the prosecution.

    In October 2005, a similar hearing was held against two doctors who worked at Tameside General Hospital in 1994, who failed to detect that Shipman had deliberately administered a "grossly excessive" dose of morphine.

    A 2005 inquiry into Shipman's suicide found that it "could not have been predicted or prevented," but that procedures should nonetheless be re-examined.
    In 2005, it came to light that Shipman might have stolen jewellery from his victims. Over £10,000 worth of jewellery had been found stashed in his garage in 1998, and in March 2005, with Primrose Shipman pressing for it to be returned to them, police wrote to the families of Shipman's victims asking them to identify the jewellery.

    Unidentified items were handed to the Assets Recovery Agency in May. In August the investigation ended: 66 pieces were returned to Primrose Shipman and 33 pieces, which she confirmed were not hers, were auctioned. The proceeds of the auction went to Tameside Victim Support. The only piece returned to a murdered patient's family was a platinum-diamond ring, for which the family were able to provide a photograph as proof of ownership.
    A memorial garden to Shipman's victims, called the Garden of Tranquillity, opened in Hyde Park (Hyde) on 30 July 2005.

    As of early 2009, families of the victims of Shipman were still seeking compensation for the loss of their relatives. In September 2009, it was announced that letters written by Shipman during his prison sentence were to be sold at auction, but following complaints from victims' relatives and the media, the letters were removed from sale.

    In media and popular culture

    Harold and Fred (They Make Ladies Dead) was a 2001 strip cartoon in Viz, also featuring serial killer Fred West. Extracts from the strip were subsequently merchandised as a coffee mug.

    Shipman, a television dramatisation of the case, was made in 2002 and starred James Bolam in the title role. The case was also referenced in an episode of the 2003 television series Diagnosis: Unknown called "Deadly Medicine" (Season 2, Episode 17, 2003). Shipman's activities also inspired D.A.W., an episode of the American TV series Law & Order: Criminal Intent. In it, the police investigate a physician who they discover has killed 200 of his patients.

    Both The Fall and Jonathan King released songs about Shipman. The Fall's song is, "What About Us?", from the 2005 album Fall Heads Roll. King's song became controversial when, six months after its release, it was reported to be in Shipman's defence, urging listeners not to "fall for a media demon".

    A Canadian film, Fatal Trust, directed by Philippe Gagnon and starring Amy Jo Johnson, came out in 2006 and makes a non-specific reference to the Shipman case just before the closing credits. It also seems to have been partly inspired by his story.

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    On this date, May 8, 2009, Cop Killer, Thomas Treshawn Ivey was executed by lethal injection in South Carolina for the January 15, 1993 murder of Sergeant Tommy Clyde Harrison Jr. Let us honor this fallen policeman and thank God that justice was served. I got the information about him from ODMPand please go to Unit 1012 blog to hear from the two victims’ families. Do not forget the other victim, Robert Montgomery.


    Sergeant Tommy Clyde Harrison Jr.
    Bio & Incident Details
    Age: 38
    Tour: 10 years
    Badge # 641
    Cause: Gunfire
    Incident Date: 1/15/1993
    Weapon: Handgun; .357 caliber
    Suspect: Executed in 2009

    Sergeant Thomas Harrison was shot and killed in a local mall while attempting to question three subjects who had passed forged checks.

    Unbeknownst to Sergeant Harrison, the suspects had kidnapped a businessman two days earlier and dumped his body in Orangeburg County. As Sergeant Harrison asked one of the subjects questions about their identity, the man pulled out a handgun. As he pulled the weapon out it discharged. The round struck the floor and ricocheted into Sergeant Harrison's abdomen. The suspect then fired five more rounds at Sergeant Harrison at point blank range, killing him.

    The suspect was arrested, convicted of Sergeant Harrison's murder, and sentenced to death. He was executed by lethal injection on May 7, 2009.

    Sergeant Harrison had been with the agency for ten years and was survived by his wife, son, and parents.

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    On this date (15 January 2007), Two Iraqi War criminals were executed by hanging, Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti and Awad Hamed al-Bandar. Please go to this blog post to learn more.

    Awad Hamed al-Bandar, left, former head of Iraq's Revolutionary Court; and Barzan Ibrahim, Saddam's half brother and former intelligence chief.

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                On this date, January 16, 2013, a double Prison Killer, Robert Gleason Jr. was executed by the electric chair in Virginia. I will post the information from Please go to this blog post to see my comments on this killer.

    Robert Gleason Jr.

    Victim, Aaron Cooper
    Summary: Gleason was serving life in prison for the 2007 fatal shooting of Michael Kent Jamerson in Amherst County. The murder was committed to cover up his involvement in a drug gang. In 2009, he became frustrated with prison officials because they refused to move out his new, mentally disturbed cell mate. Gleason hog-tied, beat and strangled 63-year-old Harvey Watson Jr. who was also serving time for murder. Gleason pled guilty. Both in court and in media interviews, Gleason vowed to continue killing if not given the death penalty. While awaiting sentencing at a highly secure prison for the state's most dangerous inmates, Gleason strangled 26-year-old Aaron Cooper through wire fencing that separated their individual cages in a recreation yard in 2010. Cooper was serving a 34 year sentence for Robbery. Gleason again pled guilty, waived appeals, and got his wish after choosing the electric chair over lethal injection.

    Gleason v. Commonwealth, 726 S.E.2d 351 (Va. 2012). (Direct Appeal)
    Gleason v. Pearson, Slip Copy, 2013 WL 139478 (W.D.Va. 2013). (Habeas)

    Final/Special Meal:
    Confidential upon request.

    Final Words:
    “Well, I hope Percy ain’t going to wet the sponge. Put me on the highway to Jackson and call my Irish buddies. Pog mo thoin. God bless." In Irish Gaelic, the phrase “Pog mo thoin,” is translated as "Kiss my ass." 

    Robert Gleason Jr.

    On May 8, 2007, Robert Charles Gleason, Jr. fatally shot Michael Kent Jamerson to death off of Virginia 130 in westerm Amherst County, Virginia. A turkey hunter found his body in a wooded area. He was shot four times; twice to the head and twice to the body. The murder weapon was found on the banks of the James River by a college student who was fishing there. Gleason was part of a methamphetamine drug ring and believed that Jamerson was going to cooperate with the government against the ring. At trial, Gleason burst out with a string of profanities, denouncing the court and was removed. Shortly thereafter, he told the judge he wanted to just "get this over with today" and pled guilty to the murder.

    Two years to the day after the Jamerson murder, Harvey Watson was murdered at Wallens Ridge State Prison. His cellmate, Gleason, was serving a life plus three years sentence for the Jamerson murder and was charged with the "willful, deliberate, and premeditated killing of any person by a prisoner confined in a state or local correctional facility," a capital offense. On December 21, 2010, following an evaluation to confirm his competency, Gleason pled guilty to the murder of Watson in the Circuit Court of Wise County. Gleason confessed under oath, stating that he planned the murder to occur on the two-year anniversary of a previous homicide that he had committed. In 1983, Gleason admitted to binding Watson with torn bed sheets, beating him, taunting him about his impending death, shoving a urine sponge in his face and a sock in his mouth, and finally strangling him with fabric from the sheet. According to Gleason, he concealed the body in his cell for fifteen hours, making excuses for Watson's failure to emerge. Gleason further stated that he planned, once rigor mortis had passed, to dispose of the body in the garbage that was circulated to pick up food trays. Gleason was unsuccessful in disposing of the body before Watson was discovered by prison personnel. Throughout the circuit court proceedings, Gleason consistently repeated that he had no remorse. Rather, knowing that the premeditated murder of an inmate and more than one murder within a three-year period was punishable by the death penalty in Virginia, he commented to the court that he "already had a few other inmates lined up, just in case I didn't get the death penalty, that I was gonna take out." Following Watson's death, Gleason had been moved to solitary confinement in Virginia's "supermax" Red Onion Prison.

    On July 28, 2010, Gleason was in a solitary recreation pen that shared a common wire fence with that of Aaron Cooper. Gleason asked Cooper to try on a "religious necklace" that Gleason was making. Gleason proceeded to strangle Cooper through the wire fence, repeatedly choking Cooper "'til he turned purple," waiting "until his color came back, then going back again" until Cooper finally expired. Gleason described himself laughing at the reaction of the other inmates. He then watched and mocked the prison staff attempting to revive Cooper. Cooper was serving a 34 year sentence for carjacking and robbery. Gleason was charged in the capital murder of Cooper for "the willful, deliberate, and premeditated killing of more than one person within a three-year period." On April 22, 2011, Gleason pled guilty to the murder of Cooper. He informed the court that he had deliberately targeted Cooper so as to make a point to the prosecutor and as a favor to another inmate who was to be released soon, so that the inmate would owe Gleason, and Gleason would then have someone outside the prison to do his bidding. After accepting both guilty pleas, the court conducted a multi-day joint sentencing proceeding, considering evidence and argument by counsel and Gleason. The court also reviewed a pre-sentence report, Gleason having waived a post-sentence report. The court fixed Gleason's sentences at death, finding the aggravating factors of both vileness and future dangerousness in both cases beyond a reasonable doubt, and concluding that these factors were not outweighed by mitigating facts. 

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    On this date, January 17, 2006, Clarence Ray Allen was executed by lethal injection in California. As of today, he is the last person to be put to death by the State of California. Please go this blog post to learn more.

    Clarence Ray Allen
    Please hear from Patricia Pendergrass, the sister of Bryon Schletewitz and read this article by Former Californian Judge, James A. Ardaiz

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                On this date, January 17, 1977, Gary Gilmore was the first person executed in America by the firing squad after the death penalty was reinstated in 1976. He was one of those condemned killers on Death Row who needed a suicide assist, he was executed 6 months after the murders and 3 months after being sentenced to death. What a swift and sure execution!

                Unlike Amrozi the Smiling Assassinand Al Rashidi, Gary Gilmore was very brave when he came face to face with the gunfire, his trademark quote, “Let’s do it!” will always be in the mind of death penalty supporters.

    Portland Police Bureau mug shot of Gary Gilmore

              Everybody knows his trademark quote, “Let’s do it!” but Unit Force 1109 also remembers another quote from him where he criticized the abolitionist for delaying his execution date.

    At a Board of Pardons hearing in November 1976, Gilmore said of the efforts by the ACLU and others to prevent his January 17, 1977, execution:

    "They always want to get in on the act. I don't think they have ever really done anything effective in their lives. I would like them all — including that group of reverends and rabbis from Salt Lake City — to butt out. This is my life and this is my death. It's been sanctioned by the courts that I die and I accept that."

                    What an embarrassment for the ACLU as the first man executed in the United States (since 1976), even criticize them by saying they did nothing effective in their lives.