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    On this date, 26 April 2006, Daryl Linnie Mack was the last person executed by lethal injection in Nevada. He needed a suicide assist and got his wish.


     Daryl Linnie Mack
    Daryl Linnie Mack, a 47 year-old black male, was voluntarily executed by lethal injection at the Nevada State Prison in Carson City, Nevada on April 26, 2006. Mack was found guilty of the 1988 murder of Betty Jane May, a 55 year-old white female. Mack, who was 30 years old when he committed the capital crime, was sentenced to death on May 15, 2002. He was the 1019th execution carried out in US since 1976.


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     It is necessary that I should die for my people; but my spirit will rise from the grave and the whole world will know that I was right.

    The last will and testament of Adolf Hitler was prompted by Hitler receiving a telegram from Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring asking for confirmation of Göring's succession, combined with news of Heinrich Himmler's attempted negotiations of surrender with the western Allies and reports that Red Army troops were within a block or two of the Reich Chancellery. It was dictated by Hitler to his secretary Traudl Junge in his Berlin Führerbunker on 29 April 1945, the day he and Eva Braun married. They committed suicide the next day on 30 April, two days before the surrender of Berlin to the Soviets on 2 May, and just over a week before the end of World War II in Europe on 8 May. It consisted of two separate documents, a will and a political testament.


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                On May 1, 1945 and 2011, 66 years apart on the same date, both Adolf Hitler’s and Osama Bin Laden’s death were announced. I will post information about comparing the two evil leaders’ characters. 

     

    Adolf Hitler (left) and Osama Bin Laden (right)
    1945 – World War II: A German newsreader officially announces that Adolf Hitler has "fallen at his command post in the Reich Chancelleryfighting to the last breath against Bolshevism and for Germany". The Soviet flag is raised over the Reich Chancellery, by order of Stalin.

    2011 - Barack Obama announces that Osama bin Laden, the suspected mastermind behind the September 11 attacks has been killed by United States special forces in Abbottabad, Pakistan. Due to the time difference between the United States and Pakistan, bin Laden was actually killed on May 2.


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    On this date, May 6, 2011, Jeffrey Motts was executed by lethal injection in South Carolina for the prison homicide of his cellmate, Charles Martin on May 12, 2005. Ten years before the prison murder, he had killed two people in a robbery. Please go to this previous blog post to learn more.

      
    Jeffrey Motts

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    John Lincoln Clem (August 13, 1851 – May 13, 1937) was a United States Army general who served as a drummer boy in the Union Army in the American Civil War. He gained fame for his bravery on the battlefield, becoming the youngest noncommissioned officer in Army history. He retired from the Army in 1915, having attained the rank of Brigadier General in the Quartermaster Corps. When advised he should retire, he requested to be allowed to remain on active duty until he became the last veteran of the Civil War still on duty in the Armed Forces. By special act of Congress on August 29, 1916, he was promoted to major general one year after his retirement.


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    Michael Bruce Ross
    (Nov. 21, 1998 mugshot)

    Michael Bruce Ross (July 26, 1959 – May 13, 2005) was an American serial killer. In 2005, he was executed by the state of Connecticut, making it the first execution in Connecticut (and the whole of New England) since 1960.

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    On this date, May 22, 2001, Terrance Anthony James was executed by lethal injection in Oklahoma. He was convicted of murdering his cellmate, Mark Allen Berry on February 6, 1983.

      

    Terrance Anthony James



    Please go to this previous blog post to learn more.

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    On this date, 22 May 1946, a SS Nazi War Criminal, Karl Hermann Frank was executed by hanging in public. Please go to this previous blog post to learn more.



     Karl Hermann Frank


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  • 05/23/17--02:50: BONNIE AND CLYDE


  • Bonnie Elizabeth Parker (October 1, 1910 – May 23, 1934) and Clyde Chestnut Barrow a.k.a. Clyde Champion Barrow (March 24, 1909 – May 23, 1934) were American criminals who traveled the central United States with their gangduring the Great Depression, robbing people and killing when cornered or confronted. At times, the gang included his older brother Buck Barrow and his wife Blanche, Raymond Hamilton, W. D. Jones, Joe Palmer, Ralph Fults, and Henry Methvin. Their exploits captured the attention of the American public during the "Public Enemy Era," between 1931 and 1935. Though known today for their dozen-or-so bank robberies, the two preferred to rob small stores or rural gas stations. The gang is believed to have killed at least nine police officers and several civilians. The couple were eventually ambushed and killed by law officers near the town of Sailes, in Bienville Parish, Louisiana. Their reputation was revived and cemented in American pop folklore by Arthur Penn's 1967 film Bonnie and Clyde.
    Even during their lifetimes, their depiction in the press was at considerable odds with the hardscrabble reality of their life on the road, especially for Bonnie Parker. She was present at a hundred or more felonies during the two years she was Barrow's companion, but she was not a machine gun-wielding killer as depicted in the newspapers, newsreels, and pulp detective magazines of that time. Gang member W. D. Jones later testified he could not recall ever having seen her shoot at a law officer. Bonnie's reputation as a cigar-smoking gun moll grew out of a playful snapshot police found at an abandoned hideout. It was released to the press and published nationwide. While Parker did chain smokeCamel cigarettes, she never smoked cigars.
    According to historian Jeff Guinn, the hideout photos led to Parker's glamorization and the creation of legends about the gang. He writes:
    John Dillinger had matinee-idol good looks and Pretty Boy Floyd had the best possible nickname, but the Joplin photos introduced new criminal superstars with the most titillating trademark of all—illicit sex. Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker were wild and young, and undoubtedly slept together.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bonnie_and_Clyde

    Bonnie and Clyde in March 1933 in a photo found by police at the Joplin, Missouri hideout

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  • 05/22/17--14:00: BONNIE AND CLYDE


  •             On this date, May 23, 1934, Infamous American bank robbers Bonnie and Clyde are ambushed by police and killed in Bienville Parish, Louisiana. I will post information about these criminal duos from Wikipedia and other links. 

     
    Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow, sometime between 1932 and 1934, when their exploits in Arkansas included murder, robbery, and kidnapping. Contrary to popular belief the two never married. They were in a long standing relationship. Posing in front of a 1932 Ford V-8 automobile.

    Bonnie Elizabeth Parker (October 1, 1910 – May 23, 1934) and Clyde Chestnut Barrow a.k.a. Clyde Champion Barrow (March 24, 1909 – May 23, 1934) were American criminals who traveled the central United States with their gangduring the Great Depression, robbing people and killing when cornered or confronted. At times, the gang included his older brother Buck Barrow and his wife Blanche, Raymond Hamilton, W. D. Jones, Joe Palmer, Ralph Fults, and Henry Methvin. Their exploits captured the attention of the American public during the "Public Enemy Era," between 1931 and 1935. Though known today for their dozen-or-so bank robberies, the two preferred to rob small stores or rural gas stations. The gang is believed to have killed at least nine police officers and several civilians. The couple were eventually ambushed and killed by law officers near the town of Sailes, in Bienville Parish, Louisiana. Their reputation was revived and cemented in American pop folklore by Arthur Penn's 1967 film Bonnie and Clyde.

    Even during their lifetimes, their depiction in the press was at considerable odds with the hardscrabble reality of their life on the road, especially for Bonnie Parker. She was present at a hundred or more felonies during the two years she was Barrow's companion, but she was not a machine gun-wielding killer as depicted in the newspapers, newsreels, and pulp detective magazines of that time. Gang member W. D. Jones later testified he could not recall ever having seen her shoot at a law officer. Bonnie's reputation as a cigar-smoking gun moll grew out of a playful snapshot police found at an abandoned hideout. It was released to the press and published nationwide. While Parker did chain smokeCamel cigarettes, she never smoked cigars.

    According to historian Jeff Guinn, the hideout photos led to Parker's glamorization and the creation of legends about the gang. He writes:


    John Dillinger had matinee-idol good looks and Pretty Boy Floyd had the best possible nickname, but the Joplin photos introduced new criminal superstars with the most titillating trademark of all—illicit sex. Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker were wild and young, and undoubtedly slept together.


    Bonnie Parker
     
    Bonnie Parker from Bonnie and Clyde standing in front of a Ford Model 18 (aka Ford V-8).

    Parker with 1932 Ford V-8 B-400 convertible coupe.
    Born
    Bonnie Elizabeth Parker
    October 1, 1910
    Rowena, Texas
    Died
    Cause of death
    Gunshot wound by law enforcement
    Resting place
    Crown Hill Memorial Park
    Dallas, Texas
    Nationality
    American
    Spouse(s)
    Roy Thornton (m. 1926–34; her death)

    Bonnie Parker

    Clyde Chestnut Barrow was born into a poor farming family in Ellis County, Texas, near Telico, a town just southeast of Dallas. He was the fifth of seven children of Henry Basil Barrow (1874 – 1957) and Cumie Talitha Walker (1874 – 1942). The family migrated, piecemeal, to Dallas in the early 1920s as part of a wave of resettlement from the impoverished nearby farms to the urban slum known as West Dallas. The Barrows spent their first months in West Dallas living under their wagon. When father Henry had put together enough money to buy a tent, it was a significant improvement for the family.

    Clyde was first arrested in late 1926, after running when police confronted him over a rental car he had failed to return on time. His second arrest, with brother Buck, came soon after, this time for possession of stolen goods (turkeys). Despite having legitimate jobs during the period 1927 through 1929, he also cracked safes, robbed stores, and stole cars. After sequential arrests in 1928 and 1929, he was sent to Eastham Prison Farm in April 1930. While in prison, Barrow used a lead pipe to crush the skull of another inmate, Ed Crowder, who had sexually assaulted him repeatedly. This was Clyde Barrow's first killing. Another inmate serving a life sentence took the blame, however. Barrow convinced another inmate to use an axe to chop off two of Barrow's toes in order to excuse him from working hard labor in the fields; Barrow would walk with a limp for the rest of his life as a result. Unbeknown to Barrow, his mother successfully petitioned a release for him, six days after his intentional injury.

    Paroled on February 2, 1932, Barrow emerged from Eastham a hardened and bitter criminal. His sister Marie said, "Something awful sure must have happened to him in prison because he wasn't the same person when he got out." A fellow inmate, Ralph Fults, said he watched Clyde "change from a schoolboy to a rattlesnake."

    In his post-Eastham career, Barrow chose smaller jobs, robbing grocery stores and gas stations, at a rate far outpacing the ten or so bank robberies attributed to him and the Barrow Gang. His favored weapon was the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle(called a BAR). According to John Neal Phillips, Barrow's goal in life was not to gain fame or fortune from robbing banks, but to seek revenge against the Texas prison system for the abuses he suffered while serving time.

    Clyde Barrow
     
    Clyde Champion Barrow Mug Shot - Dallas 6048
    Clyde Barrow in 1926, aged 17
    Born
    Clyde Chestnut Barrow
    March 24, 1909
    Ellis County, Texas
    Died
    Cause of death
    Gunshot wound by law enforcement
    Resting place
    Western Heights Cemetery
    Dallas, Texas
    Nationality
    American
    Height
    5 ft 6 in (1.68 m)

    Clyde Barrow

    Clyde Chestnut Barrow was born into a poor farming family in Ellis County, Texas, near Telico, a town just southeast of Dallas. He was the fifth of seven children of Henry Basil Barrow (1874 – 1957) and Cumie Talitha Walker (1874 – 1942). The family migrated, piecemeal, to Dallas in the early 1920s as part of a wave of resettlement from the impoverished nearby farms to the urban slum known as West Dallas. The Barrows spent their first months in West Dallas living under their wagon. When father Henry had put together enough money to buy a tent, it was a significant improvement for the family.

    Clyde was first arrested in late 1926, after running when police confronted him over a rental car he had failed to return on time. His second arrest, with brother Buck, came soon after, this time for possession of stolen goods (turkeys). Despite having legitimate jobs during the period 1927 through 1929, he also cracked safes, robbed stores, and stole cars. After sequential arrests in 1928 and 1929, he was sent to Eastham Prison Farm in April 1930. While in prison, Barrow used a lead pipe to crush the skull of another inmate, Ed Crowder, who had sexually assaulted him repeatedly. This was Clyde Barrow's first killing. Another inmate serving a life sentence took the blame, however. Barrow convinced another inmate to use an axe to chop off two of Barrow's toes in order to excuse him from working hard labor in the fields; Barrow would walk with a limp for the rest of his life as a result. Unbeknown to Barrow, his mother successfully petitioned a release for him, six days after his intentional injury.

    Paroled on February 2, 1932, Barrow emerged from Eastham a hardened and bitter criminal. His sister Marie said, "Something awful sure must have happened to him in prison because he wasn't the same person when he got out." A fellow inmate, Ralph Fults, said he watched Clyde "change from a schoolboy to a rattlesnake."

    In his post-Eastham career, Barrow chose smaller jobs, robbing grocery stores and gas stations, at a rate far outpacing the ten or so bank robberies attributed to him and the Barrow Gang. His favored weapon was the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle(called a BAR). According to John Neal Phillips, Barrow's goal in life was not to gain fame or fortune from robbing banks, but to seek revenge against the Texas prison system for the abuses he suffered while serving time.

    First meeting

    Several accounts describe Bonnie and Clyde's first meeting, but the most credible tells that Bonnie Parker met Clyde Barrow on January 5, 1930 at the home of Clyde's friend Clarence Clay at 105 Herbert Street in the neighborhood of West Dallas. Parker was out of work and was staying with a female friend to assist her with her broken arm. Barrow dropped by the girl's house while Parker was in the kitchen making hot chocolate.

    When they met, both were smitten immediately; most historians believe Parker joined Barrow because she was in love. She remained a loyal companion to him as they carried out their crime spree and awaited the violent deaths they viewed as inevitable.

      
    A snapshot of criminal Bonnie Parker smoking a cigar, seized by police 4-13-1933.
    The Spree

    1932: Early jobs, early murders

    After Barrow was released from prison in February 1932, he and Ralph Fults assembled a rotating core group of associates. The two of them began a series of small robberies, primarily of stores and gas stations; their goal was to collect enough money and firepower to launch a raid of liberation against Eastham prison. On April 19, Bonnie Parker and Fults were captured in a failed hardware store burglary, where they intended to steal firearms, in Kaufman, Texas, and subsequently convicted and jailed. While Parker was released in a few months after the grand jury failed to indict her, Fults was prosecuted and tried; he served time and never rejoined the gang.

    On April 30, Barrow was the driver in a robbery in Hillsboro, Texas, during which the store's owner, J.N. Bucher, was shot and killed. When shown mugshots, the victim's wife identified Barrow as one of the shooters, although he had stayed outside in the car. It was the first time in the crime spree that Barrow was accused of murder.

    Parker was held in jail until June 17, where she wrote poetry to pass the time. When the Kaufman County grand jury convened, it declined to indict her, and she was released. Within a few weeks, she reunited with Barrow.

    On August 5, while Parker was visiting her mother in Dallas, Barrow, Raymond Hamilton and Ross Dyer were drinking alcohol at a country dance in Stringtown, Oklahoma, when Sheriff C.G. Maxwell and his deputy, Eugene C. Moore, approached them in the parking lot. Barrow and Hamilton opened fire, killing the deputy and gravely wounding the sheriff. This was the first time Barrow and his gang killed a lawman; eventually, they reached a total of nine. On October 11, they allegedly killed Howard Hall at his store during a robbery in Sherman, Texas, though historians have considered this unlikely since 1997.

    W. D. Jones had been a friend of the Barrow family since childhood. Only 16 years old on Christmas Eve 1932, he persuaded Barrow to let him join the pair and leave Dallas with them that night. The next day, Jones was initiated when he and Barrow killed Doyle Johnson, a young family man, while stealing his car in Temple, Texas. Less than two weeks later, on January 6, 1933, Barrow killed Tarrant County Deputy Sheriff Malcolm Davis when he, Parker and Jones wandered into a police trap set for another criminal. The total murdered by the gang since April was five.

    1933: Buck joins the gang

    On March 22, 1933, Buck Barrow was granted a full pardon and released from prison. Within days, he and his wife Blanchehad set up housekeeping with Clyde, Bonnie and Jones in a temporary hideout at 3347 1/2 Oakridge Drivein Joplin, Missouri. According to family sources, Buck and Blanche were there to visit; they attempted to persuade Clyde to surrender to law enforcement.

    Bonnie and Clyde's next brush with the law arose from their generally suspicious—and conspicuous—behavior, not because they had been identified. The group ran loud, alcohol-fueled card games late into the night in the quiet neighborhood. "We bought a case of beer a day", Blanche would later recall. The men came and went noisily at all hours, and Clyde discharged a BAR (Browning Automatic Rifle) in the apartment while cleaning it. No neighbors went to the house, but one reported suspicions to the Joplin Police Department.

    The lawmen assembled a five-man force in two cars on April 13 to confront what they suspected were bootleggers living in the garage apartment. Though taken by surprise, Clyde was noted for remaining cool under fire. He, Jones, and Buck quickly killed Detective McGinnis and fatally wounded Constable Harryman. During the escape from the apartment, Parker laid down covering fire with her BAR, forcing Highway Patrol Sergeant G. B. Kahler to duck behind a large oak tree while .30 caliber bullets struck the other side, forcing wood splinters into the sergeant's face. Parker got into the car with the others. They slowed enough to pull in Blanche Barrow from the street, where she was pursuing her dog Snow Ball. The surviving officers later testified that their side had fired only fourteen rounds in the conflict, but one hit Jones on the side, one struck Clyde and was deflected by his suitcoat button, and one grazed Buck after ricocheting off a wall.

    The group escaped the police at Joplin, but left behind most of their possessions at the apartment: items included Buck and Blanche's marriage license, Buck's parole papers (three weeks old), a large arsenal of weapons, a handwritten poem by Bonnie, and a camera with several rolls of undeveloped film. The film was developed at The Joplin Globe and yielded many now-famous photos of Barrow, Parker and Jones clowning and pointing weapons at one another. When the poem and the photos, including one of Parker clenching a cigar in her teeth and a pistol in her hand, went out on the newly installed newswire, the obscure five criminals from Dallas became front-page news across America as the Barrow Gang. The poem "Story of 'Suicide Sal'" was an apparent backstory.

    For the next three months, the group ranged from Texas as far north as Minnesota. In May, they tried to rob the bank in Lucerne, Indiana and robbed the bank in Okabena, Minnesota. Previously they had kidnapped Dillard Darby and Sophia Stone at Ruston, Louisiana, in the course of stealing Darby's car; this was one of several incidents between 1932 and 1934 in which they kidnapped lawmen or robbery victims. They usually released their hostages far from home, sometimes with money to help them return home.

    Stories of such encounters made headlines, as did the more violent episodes. The Barrow Gang did not hesitate to shoot anyone, lawman or civilian, who got in their way. Other members of the Barrow Gang known or thought to have committed murders included Raymond Hamilton, W.D. Jones, Buck Barrow and Henry Methvin. Eventually, the cold-bloodedness of their killings soured the public perception of the outlaws, and led to their ends.

    The photos entertained the public, but the gang was desperate and discontented, as described by Blanche Barrow in her account written while imprisoned in the late 1930s. With their new notoriety, their daily lives became more difficult, as they tried to evade discovery. Restaurants and motels became less secure; they resorted to campfire cooking and bathing in cold streams. The unrelieved, round-the-clock proximity among two couples, plus a fifth-wheel, in one car gave rise to vicious bickering. So unpleasant did it become that W.D. Jones, who was the driver when he and Barrow stole Dillard Darby's car in late April, used that car to leave the others. He stayed away throughout May and up until June 8. 

     
    Bonnie and Clyde fooling around.
    Bonnie with a shotgun reaches for officer Persell's pistol in Clyde's waistband.
    On June 10, while driving with Jones and Parker near Wellington, Texas, Barrow missed warning signs at a bridge under construction and flipped their car into a ravine. Sources disagree on whether there was a gasoline fire or if Parker was doused with acid from the car's battery under the floorboards. Parker sustained third-degree burns to her right leg so severe the muscles contracted and caused the leg to "draw up".

    Near the end of her life, Parker could hardly walk; she either hopped on her good leg or was carried by Clyde. After getting help from a nearby farm family and kidnapping two local lawmen, the three outlaws rendezvoused with Blanche and Buck Barrow. They hid in a tourist court near Fort Smith, Arkansas, nursing Parker's burns. Buck and Jones bungled a local robbery and killed Town Marshal Henry D. Humphrey in Alma, Arkansas. With the renewed pursuit by the law, they had to flee despite Parker's grave condition.

    July 1933: Platte City and Dexfield Park

    In July 1933, the gang checked into the Red Crown Tourist Court south of Platte City, Missouri (now within the city limits of Kansas City, Missouri). It consisted of two brick cabins joined by garages, and the gang rented both. To the south stood the Red Crown Tavern, a popular restaurant among Missouri Highway Patrolmen. The gang seemed to go out of their way to draw attention: Blanche Barrow registered the party as three guests, but owner Neal Houser could see five people getting out of the car. He noted the driver backed into the garage "gangster style," for a quick getaway. Blanche paid for their cabins with coins rather than bills, and repeated that later when buying five dinners and five beers. The next day, Houser noticed that his guests had taped newspapers over the windows of their cabin; Blanche again paid for five meals with coins. Blanche's outfit— jodhpur riding breeches—attracted attention; they were not typical attire for women in the area, and eyewitnesses reminiscing 40 years later mentioned them first. Houser told Captain William Baxter of the Highway Patrol, a patron of his restaurant, about the group.

    Clyde and Jones went into town to purchase bandages, crackers, cheese, and atropinesulfate to treat Bonnie's leg. The druggist contacted Sheriff Holt Coffey, who put the cabins under surveillance. Coffey had been alerted by Oklahoma, Texas, and Arkansas law enforcement to watch for strangers seeking such supplies. The sheriff contacted Captain Baxter, who called for reinforcements from Kansas City, including an armored car. At 11 p.m. that night, Sheriff Coffey led a group of officers armed with Thompson submachine guns toward the cabins.

    But in the pitched gunfight at considerable distances, the submachine guns proved no match for Clyde Barrow's preferred Browning Automatic Rifles (BAR), stolen July 7 from the National Guard armory at Enid, Oklahoma.[78]The Barrows laid down withering fire and escaped when a bullet short-circuited the horn on the armored car and the lawmen mistook it for a cease-fire signal. They did not pursue the retreating Barrow vehicle.

    Although the gang had evaded the law again, Buck Barrow had sustained a gruesome and ultimately mortal bullet wound to his head that blasted a large hole in his forehead skull bone and exposed his injured brain, and Blanche was nearly blinded by glass fragments in both her eyes. Their prospects for evading a manhunt dwindled.

    Five days later, on July 24, the Barrow Gang was camped at Dexfield Park, an abandoned amusement park near Dexter, Iowa. Although he was sometimes semiconscious, and even talked and ate, Buck's massive head wound and loss of blood was so severe that Clyde and Jones dug a grave for him. After their bloody bandages were noticed by local residents, officers determined the campers were the Barrow gang. Local lawmen and approximately one hundred spectators surrounded the group, and the Barrows soon came under fire. Clyde Barrow, Parker, and W.D. Jones escaped on foot. Buck was shot in the back, and he and his wife were captured by the officers. Buck died five days later at Kings Daughters Hospital in Perry, Iowa, of his head wound and pneumoniaafter surgery.

    For the next six weeks, the remaining trio ranged far afield from their usual area of operations—west to Colorado, north to Minnesota, southeast to Mississippi—keeping a low profile and pulling only small robberies for subsistence. They restocked their arsenal when Barrow and Jones burgled an armory at Plattville, Illinois on August 20, acquiring three BARs, handguns, and a large quantity of ammunition.

    By early September, they risked a run to Dallas to see their families for the first time in four months. Jones parted company with them, continuing to Houston, where his mother had moved. He was arrested there without incident on November 16 and returned to Dallas. Through the autumn, Clyde Barrow executed a series of small-time robberies with a series of small-time local accomplices while his family and Parker's attended to her considerable medical needs.

     
    On November 22, 1933, they narrowly evaded arrest while trying to hook up with family members near Sowers, Texas. Their hometown sheriff, Dallas' Smoot Schmid, and his squad, Deputies Bob Alcorn and Ted Hinton, lay in wait nearby. As Barrow drove up, he sensed a trap and drove past his family's car, at which point Schmid and his deputies stood up and opened fire with machine guns and a BAR. The family members in the crossfire were not hit, but a BAR bullet passed through the car, striking the legs of both Barrow and Parker. They escaped that night.

    The following week on November 28, a Dallas grand jurydelivered a murder indictment against Parker and Barrow for the January 1933 killing of Tarrant County Deputy Malcolm Davis; it was Parker's first warrant for murder.

    1934: Final run

    On January 16, 1934, Barrow orchestrated the escape of Raymond Hamilton, Henry Methvin and several others in the infamous "EasthamBreakout" of 1934. The brazen raid generated negative publicity for Texas, and Barrow seemed to have achieved what historian Phillips described as his overriding goal: revenge on the Texas Department of Corrections.

    During the jailbreak, escapee Joe Palmer shot prison officer Major Joe Crowson. This attack attracted the full power of the Texas and federal government to the manhunt for Barrow and Parker. As Crowson struggled for life, prison chief Lee Simmons reportedly promised him that all persons involved in the breakout would be hunted down and killed. All were, except for Henry Methvin, whose life was traded for turning Barrow and Parker over to authorities.

    The Texas Department of Corrections contacted former Texas Ranger Captain Frank A. Hamer, and persuaded him to hunt down the Barrow Gang. Though retired, Hamer had retained his commission, which had not yet expired. He accepted the assignment as a Texas Highway Patrol officer, secondarily assigned to the prison system as a special investigator, and given the specific task of taking Bonnie, Clyde and the Barrow Gang.

    Tall, burly and taciturn, Hamer was described as unimpressed by authority and driven by an "inflexible adherence to right, or what he thinks is right." For 20 years he had been feared and admired throughout Texas as "the walking embodiment of the 'One Riot, One Ranger' ethos." He "had acquired a formidable reputation as a result of several spectacular captures and the shooting of a number of Texas criminals." He was officially credited with 53 kills (and suffered 17 wounds). Although prison boss Simmons always said publicly that Hamer had been his first choice, there is evidence he approached two other Rangers first, both of whom were reluctant to shoot a woman and declined. Starting February 10, Hamer became the constant shadow of Barrow and Parker, living out of his car, just a town or two behind the bandits. Three of Hamer's brothers were also Texas Rangers, and while brother Harrison was the best shot of the four, Frank was considered the most tenacious.

    On April 1, 1934, Easter Sunday, Barrow and Henry Methvin killed two young highway patrolmen, H. D. Murphy and Edward Bryant Wheeler, at the intersection of Route 114 and Dove Road near Grapevine, Texas (now Southlake). An eyewitness account stated that Barrow and Parker fired the fatal shots, and this story got widespread coverage before it was discredited. Methvin later admitted he fired the first shot, after assuming Barrow wanted the officers killed; he also said that Parker approached the dying officers intending to help them, not to administer the coup de grâce described by the discredited eyewitness. Barrow joined in, firing at Patrolman Murphy. Most likely, Parker was asleep in the back seat when Methvin started shooting and took no part in the assault.

    In the spring of 1934, the Grapevine killings were recounted in exaggerated detail, affecting public perception: all four Dallas daily papers seized on the story told by the eyewitness, a farmer, who claimed to have seen Parker laugh at the way Patrolman Murphy's head "bounced like a rubber ball" on the ground as she shot him. The stories claimed that police found a cigar butt "with tiny teeth marks" supposedly Parker's. Several days later Murphy's fiancee wore her intended wedding dress to his funeral, sparking photos and newspaper coverage. The eyewitness's ever-changing story was soon discredited, but the massive negative publicity, against Parker in particular, increased the public clamor for extermination of the survivors of the Barrow Gang.

    The outcry also galvanized the authorities into action: Highway Patrol boss L.G. Phares immediately offered a $1,000 reward for "the dead bodies of the Grapevine slayers"—not their capture, just the bodies. Texas governor Ma Ferguson added another $500 reward for each of the two alleged killers, which "meant for the first time there was a specific price on Bonnie's head, since she was so widely believed to have shot H.D. Murphy." 

     
    Public tide turned against the couple after the Grapevine murders and resultant publicity

    PHOTO DESCRIPTION: Editorial cartoon from defunct Dallas Journal showing electric chair "reserved for Clyde and Bonnie" (May 16, 1934)
    Public hostility increased five days later, when Barrow and Methvin killed 60-year-old Constable William "Cal" Campbell, a widower single father, near Commerce, Oklahoma. They kidnapped Commerce police chief Percy Boyd, drove around with him, crossing the state line into Kansas, and let him go, giving him a clean shirt, a few dollars, and a request from Parker to tell the world she did not smoke cigars. Boyd identified both Barrow and Parker to authorities but he never learned Methvin's name. The resultant arrest warrant for the Campbell murder specified "Clyde Barrow, Bonnie Parker and John Doe." Historian Knight writes: "For the first time, Bonnie was seen as a killer, actually pulling the trigger—just like Clyde. Whatever chance she had for clemency had just been reduced."

    The Dallas Journalran a cartoon on its editorial page showing the Texas electric chair, empty, but with a sign on it saying '"Reserved" and "Clyde and Bonnie".

      
    Gibsland posse. Front: Alcorn, Jordan and Hamer; back, Hinton, Oakley, Gault

    PHOTO DESCRIPTION: Photo of six-man posse who killed Bonnie & Clyde May 23, 1934
    Deaths

    Barrow and Parker were ambushed and killed on May 23, 1934, on a rural road in Bienville Parish, Louisiana. The couple appeared in daylight in an automobile and were shot by a posseof four Texas officers (Frank Hamer, B.M. "Manny" Gault, Bob Alcorn, and Ted Hinton) and two Louisiana officers (Henderson Jordan and Prentiss Morel Oakley).

    The posse was led by Hamer, who had begun tracking the pair on February 12, 1934. He studied the gang's movements and found they swung in a circle skirting the edges of five midwestern states, exploiting the "state line" rule that prevented officers from one jurisdiction from pursuing a fugitive into another. Barrow was a master of that pre-FBI rule but consistent in his movements, so the experienced Hamer charted his path and predicted where he would go. The gang's itinerary centered on family visits, and they were due to see Methvin's family in Louisiana.

    On May 21, 1934, the four posse members from Texas were in Shreveport when they learned that Barrow and Parker were to go to Bienville Parish that evening with Methvin. Barrow had designated the residence of Methvin's parents as a rendezvous in case they were separated, and Methvin did get separated from the pair in Shreveport. The full posse, consisting of Captain Hamer, Dallas County Sheriff's Deputies Alcorn and Ted Hinton (both of whom knew Barrow and Parker by sight), former Texas Ranger B.M. "Manny" Gault, Bienville Parish Sheriff Henderson Jordan and his deputy Prentiss Oakley, set up an ambush at the rendezvous point along