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  • 10/12/16--14:32: OPERATION REINHARD

  • On this date, October 13, 1941, SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik headquartered in Lublin received an oral order from Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler to start immediate construction work on the first Aktion Reinhard camp at Bełżec in the General Government territory of occupied Poland. Please go to this previous blog post to learn more.


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    70 years ago on this date, 15 October 1946, Hermann Göring, one of Hitler’s Henchman committed suicide before his execution. I will post one of his anti-Semitic quote, I do it for educational purposes and not because I am an anti-Semite (I am Pro-Semite). I have Jewish friends and I like their company. 

    Hermann Göring’s Anti-Semitic Quote

    QUOTE:The Jew must clearly understand one thing at once, he must get out!”
    [Speech in Vienna after the Austrian Anschluss (1938); when asked at the Nuremberg trials whether he meant what he said in this speech he replied "Yes, approximately." As reported from testimony in the Imperial War Museum, Folio 645, Box 156, , (20 October 1945), pp. 5-6]

    AUTHOR: Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946), was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP). A veteran of World War I as an ace fighter pilot, he was a recipient of the coveted Pour le Mérite, also known as the "Blue Max". He was the last commander of Jagdgeschwader 1, the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen, the "Red Baron".

    A member of the NSDAP from its early days, Göring was wounded in 1923 during the failed coup known as the Beer Hall Putsch. He became permanently addicted to morphine after being treated with the drug for his injuries. After helping Adolf Hitler take power in 1933, he became the second-most powerful man in Germany. He founded the Gestapo in 1933. Göring was appointed commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe (air force) in 1935, a position he held until the final days of World War II. By 1940 he was at the peak of his power and influence; as minister in charge of the Four Year Plan, he was responsible for much of the functioning of the German economy in the build-up to World War II. Adolf Hitler promoted him to the rank of Reichsmarschall, a rank senior to all other Wehrmacht commanders, and in 1941 Hitler designated him as his successor and deputy in all his offices.

    Göring's standing with Hitler was greatly reduced by 1942, with the Luftwaffe unable to fulfill its commitments and the German war effort stumbling on both fronts. Göring largely withdrew from the military and political scene and focused on the acquisition of property and artwork, much of which was confiscated from Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Informed on 22 April 1945 that Hitler intended to commit suicide, Göring sent a telegram to Hitler asking to assume control of the Reich. Considering it an act of treason, Hitler removed Göring from all his positions, expelled him from the party, and ordered his arrest. After World War II, Göring was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials; he was the highest-ranking Nazi to be tried there. He was sentenced to death by hanging, but committed suicide by ingesting cyanide the night before the sentence was to be carried out.

    Hermann Göring’s corpse after he committed suicide

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                40 years ago On this date, October 15, 1976, SS Corporal Erwin Lambert passed away. 

    Erwin Lambert
    Erwin Hermann Lambert (7 December 1909 – 15 October 1976) was a perpetrator of the Holocaust. In profession, he was a master mason, building trades foreman, Nazi Party member and member of the Schutzstaffel with the rank of SS-Unterscharführer(corporal). He supervised construction of the gas chambers for the Action T4 euthanasia program at Hartheim, Sonnenstein, Bernburg and Hadamar, and then at Sobibor and Treblinka extermination camps during Operation Reinhard. He specialized in building larger gas chambers that killed more people than previous efforts in the extermination program.

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                On this date, October 15, 1999, The Rainbow Warrior A.K.A Joseph Mitchell Parsons was executed by lethal injection in Utah. He was convicted of murdering Richard Lynn Ernest on August 31, 1987. I will post information about him from Wikipedia before giving my thoughts. Please go to Unit 1012 Blog to hear from the victim's family members. 

    Mug shot of Joseph Mitchell Parsons (Utah State Prison mug shot)
    Joseph Mitchell "Yogi" Parsons (July 22, 1964 – October 15, 1999) was an American who was executed for the August 1987 murder of Richard Lynn Ernest. Parsons hitched a ride with Ernest in California and stabbed him to death at a remote rest area in Utah. After assuming Ernest's identity, Parsons continued to insist that he was Ernest when he was later arrested.

    Parsons, who called himself the "Rainbow Warrior", pleaded guilty to the murder. During his sentencing hearing, Parsons said that he killed Ernest to fend off a homosexual advance, but was unable to present any evidence to support this claim in his defense. The jury sentenced him to death. In 1999, Parsons stated that "it's time to move on" and dropped his appeals, allowing his execution to proceed. Discussion was later raised whether "Rainbow Warrior" was a reference to homosexuality or Parsons' favorite auto racing team.

    Parsons chose to die by lethal injection, avoiding the publicity that John Albert Taylor, the previous prisoner to be executed in Utah, sought by selecting the firing squad. Parsons shunned attention and described himself as "Utah's forgotten inmate". His 1999 execution at Utah State Prison was the first to be carried out in a new chamber designed for both lethal injections and firing squads.

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                On this date, October 15, 2012, a Prison Killer and Escapee by the name of Eric Donald Robert, was executed by lethal injection in South Dakota. He was convicted of murdering Prison guard, Ron Johnson on April 12, 2011 in an escaped attempt. He was put to death only after a year and a half of committing the homicide as he requested a suicide assist. Please go to this Unit 1012 Blog Post to hear from the victim’s families. 

    Eric Donald Robert

    Ronald Johnson

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                On this date, 15 October 1917, At Vincennes outside Paris, Dutch dancer Mata Hariis executed byfiring squadfor spyingfor the German Empire.

    Actress Jeanne Moreau during the shooting of the scene of the execution of the spy in the film 'Mata Hari' in Romainville, France, in October 1964.

    Death Comes to Mata Hari

    Death Comes to Mata Hari (1917)

    by Henry G. Wales

    International News Service, October 19 1917: concerning the death of the spy Mata Hari

    Mata Hari, which is Javanesefor Eye-of-the-Morning, is dead.

    She was shot as a spy by a firing squad of Zouaves at the Vincennes Barracks. She died facing death literally, for she refused to be blindfolded.

    Gertrud Margarete Zelle, for that was the real name of the beautiful Dutch-Javanese dancer, did appeal to President Poincaré for a reprieve, but he refused to intervene.

    The first intimation she received that her plea had been denied was when she was led at daybreak from her cell in the Saint-Lazare prison to a waiting automobile and then rushed to the barracks where the firing squad awaited her.

    Never once had the iron will of the the beautiful woman failed her. Father Arbaux, accomapanied by two sisters of charity, Captain Bouchardon, and Maître Clunet, her lawyer, entered her cell, where she was still sleeping — a calm, untroubled sleep, it was remarked by the turnkeys and trusties.

    The sisters gently shook her. She arose and was told that her hour had come.

    "May I write two letters?" was all she asked.

    Consent was given immediately by Captain Bouchardon, and pen, ink, paper and envelopes were given to her.

    She seated herself at the edge of the bed and wrote the letters with feverish haste. She handed them over to the custody of her lawyer.

    Then she drew on her stockings, black, silken, filmy things, grotesque in the circumstances. She placed her high-heeled slippers on her feet and tied the silken ribbons over her insteps.

    She arose and took the long black velvet cloak, edged around the bottom with fur and with a huge square fur collar hanging down the back, from a hook over the head of her bed. she placed this cloak over the heavy silk kimono which she had been wearing over her nightdress.

    Her wealth of black hair was still coiled about her head in braids. She put on a large, flapping black felt hat with a black silk ribbon and bow. Slowly and indifferently, it seemed, she pulled on a pair of black kid gloves. Then she said calmly:

    "I am ready."

    The party slowly filed out of her cell to the waiting automobile.

    The car sped through the heart of the sleeping city. It was scarcely half past five in the morning and the sun was not yet fully up.

    Clear across Paris the car whirled the Caserne de Vincennes, the barracks of the old fort which the Germans stormed in 1870.

    The troops were already drawn up for the execution. The twelve Zouaves, forming the firing squad, stood in line, their rifles at ease. A subofficer stood behind them, sword drawn.

    The automobile stopped, and the party descended, Mata Hari last. The party walked straight to the spot, where a little hummock of earth reared itself seven or eight feet high and afforded a background for such bullets as might miss the human target.

    As Father Arbaux spoke with the condemned woman, a French officer approached, carrying a white cloth.

    "The blindfold," he whispered to the nuns who stood there and handed it to them.

    "Must I wear that?" asked Mata hari, turning to her lawyer, as her eyes glimpsed the blindfold.

    Maître Cluent turned interrogatively to the French officer.

    "If Madame prefers not, it makes no difference," replied the officer, hurriedly turning away.

    Mata Hari was not bound and she was not blindfolded. She stood gazing steadfastly at her executioners, when the priest, the nuns, and her lawyer stepped away from her.

    The officer in command of the firing squad, who had been watching his men like a hawk that none might examine his rifle and try to find out whether he was destined to fire the blank cartridge which was in the breech of one rifle, seemed relieved that the business would soon be over.

    A sharp, crackling command, and the file of twelve men assumed rigid positions at attention. Another command, and their rifles were at their shoulders; each man gazed down his barrel at the breast of the woman which was the target.

    She did not move a muscle.

    The underofficer in charge had moved to a position where from the corners of their eyes they could see him. His sword was etended in the air.

    It dropped. The sun — by this time up — flashed on the burnished blade as it described an arc in falling. Simultaneously the sound of the volley rang out. Flame and a tiny puff of greyish smoke issued from the muzzle of each rifle. Automatically the men dropped their arms.

    At the report Mata Hari fell. She did not die as actors and moving-picture stars would have us believe that people die when they are shot. She did not throw up her hands nor did she plunge straight forward or straight back.

    Instead she seemed to collapse. Slowly, inertly, she settled to her knees, her head up always, and without the slightest change of expression on her face. For the fraction of a second it seemed she tottered there, on her knees, gazing directly at those who had taken her life. Then she fell backward, bending at the waist, with her legs doubled up beneath her. She lay prone, motionless, with her face turned towards the sky.

    A non-commissioned officer, who accompanied a lieutenant, drew his revolver from the big, black holster strapped about his waist. Bending over, he placed the muzzle of the revolver almost - but not quite - against the left temple of the spy. He pulled the trigger, and the bullet tore into the brain of the woman.

    Mata Hari was surely dead.


    mata hari firing squad execution scene
    Published on Feb 17, 2015


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    Wilhelm Keitel

    Was He Perhaps The Fuhrer's Father Figure?

    Descended from a wealthy landowning family, soon the army eagerly beckoned him. Not for him the plough but instead the sword. During the Great War he served on the Western Front with honour but was wounded in his right forearm and would later serve in the German General Staff Office for the remainder of the War.
    But like so many disillusioned returning soldiers in 1918 and others returning to a new republican Germany, Keitelit seems was disgusted by this and instead was attracted to the Freikorps, then with its fierce emphasis towards the values of the Monarchy and loyalty to Germany. Any Soviet styled ideas exported to Germany would have been anathema to him and many others.
    The Freikorps then was under the strict and brutal command of the enigmatic homosexual and an early supporter of the young Cpl. Adolph Hitler, this was Captain Ernst Rohm. Incidentally he would later claim that Hitler, the new up and coming political oratator, was his protege.
    As Keitelhad been severely wounded in the War this may have put the brakes on his service as an active soldier. But he still remained a professional and would see service in various staff training academies.
    However during this turbulent period of post-War German politics, I suspect that Keitelwould have become acquainted with the young Hitler himself, also a disillusioned soldier and artist. Remember both were then in the closed world of the Freikorp. Strangely Keitel later claimed that he didn't make the acquaintance of Hitler until 1933, but I find it difficult to accept this premise.
    Berlin and Munich then were small provincial towns. Both men would have trodden the same streets in those turbulent times.
    In 1937 he would become Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces (this was due to a scandal which had erupted against General Bloomberg, the then head of the armed forces. Interestingly his son would later marry the disgraced general's daughter. After serving on the Russian front it remains unclear if the young Keitel was killed in action in 1942.)
    By then Keitel's personal star was ascending and one can only guess what Hitler, once a lowly corporal, recognized in this landowning officer-but something did indeed attract him. Remember generals of his privileged background were the men Hitler so openly despised and wasn't Wilhelm Keitel certainly one of this smug breed of men he had known in the trenches and loathed.
    Also during the War new generals arrived and were disposed, some were fired on a Monday only to be re-instated on a Tuesday. Crazy times no less. Yet through it all Keitel survives and from 1939 onwards he is always filmed in the Fuhrer's company, either in Rome meeting Mussolini or at Munich meeting Chamberlain. Keitel is even sitting next to Hitler on his private plane, visiting naval destroyers, and is seen in the War Room as Hitler pours over large battle maps. Keitel always seems to be looking over his leaders shoulder. Always it seems nodding to the Hitler's escalating demands.
    During the "good years" he witnessed the fall of France (going with Hitler to the forest to sign the surrender document), of which he carefully and militarily oversaw, as well as the fall of the Netherlands, Poland and other conquered Nazi territories. Keitel was there in 1942 when the Wehrmacht went on the defensive instead of the offensive in Russia. The Third Reich was now in ruins and the future fate of both men was now sealed forever. It was the beginning of the end for both men.
    But what did the Fuhrer see in him or in his grandiose personality (in one wartime film clip taken on a moving train, Hitler leans over and affectingly touches Keitels arm.) Privately other officers called him a lackey and always behind his back. He was Hitler's poodle, they openly joked. Maybe he was just Hitler's mascot.
    Wilhelm Keitelhad never it seems requested membership to join the Nazi party in the 1930s. I wonder why? But later during the War he was awarded the golden party badge and accepted it. (He can be seen wearing this in a wartime newsreel.)
    But it all ended in tears when in 1945 he grudgingly ratified the German forces surrender terms in Berlin, and from there his destination under armed guard was to Nuremberg prison, where of course Hitler's race policies had been formulated into the Nazi constitution some years ago. But for Keitel it would be at the Allied war trials that he would have to give an account of his actions against the Reich's enemies. (Both James and myself visited this historical building some years ago and not much had changed either since 1945. Unfortunately we were not allowed the opportunity to inspect the cells where the main captives had been contained (they are still in use to this day!)
    At his trial he was naturally found guilty of war crimes. Then after the verdict he was hanged on 16th October 1946. End of story.
    But at this point in our brief biography I now turn to The infamous at Nuremberg, a memoir by Col. Burton C. Androus.  I was very pleased when this book came into my possession
    Because some years ago an American Bible teacher had mentioned that he suspected several top Nazis had truly repented at Nuremberg and were saved. We are always pleased when this sincerely happens to anyone because: "Joy shall be in heaven over one sinner that repenteth" (Luke 15:7.) 
    And he was quite categoric that one of the repenting men was in fact Wilhelm Keitel no less. I then felt some further research was needed to confirm this bizarre claim.
    And just looking at the book now with its 1969 cover, there is the man himself seated next to Ribbentrop (who also may have repented.)
    The book most certainly presents Keitel at peace with himself as he prepares to meet God's Judgment. ("It is appointed unto men once to die and after this the judgement.") And much of the book's evidence comes from an Army Lutheran Chaplin, who was sent to somehow try and minister to those who requested his services in the prison before their appointment with the hangman's noose. (Lutheran's in those days it should be stated were not part of the wicked ecumenical movement that openly flourishes today.) He writes of Keitel's Bible that he found him reading in his cell: "I have carried it through two world wars I know from this book that God can love a sinner like me."
    How true of a wretched man who seeks a Saviour. Was the Field Marshall searching?
    Again he concluded his devotions by saying, "God be merciful to me a sinner. Keitel confessed his faith in the all redeeming love of God in Jesus Christ as his personal Saviour," finally the Chaplin could write: "I never heard a man pray the way he did."
    This must have made a deep lasting impression on this army Chaplin for him to commit it to paper, but I'm glad he made the effort to recount his experience to the author of the book.
    And so much for the Field Marshall's belief that it is never too late for a man to cry out and repent. Again how true we would confirm.
    And did he call on the name of the Lord before his appointment with the hangman? (Incredibly just looking at the picture of his corpse it is quite clear that the American hangman botched the job, something Piermont would have called amateurish.) But I rather like to think that Keitel was saved. I certainly hope so. Maybe one day I will get to find out. 

    But of one thing I am sure, Wilhelm Keitel is certainly not looking over Adolph Hitler's shoulder anymore!
    November 2010
    (All Rights Reserved)

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                70 years ago on this date, 16 October 1946, the Nuremberg executions took place, shortly after the conclusion of the Nuremberg Trials. Ten prominent members of the political and military leadership of Nazi Germany were executed by hanging:

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    Adolf Hitler on wanting war.

    The Commando Order, or Kommandobefehl, was issued by Adolf Hitler on 18 October 1942 stating that all Allied commandos encountered by German forces in Europe and Africa should be killed immediately without trial, even in proper uniforms or if they attempted to surrender. Any commando or small group of commandos or a similar unit, agents, and saboteurs not in proper uniforms, who fell into the hands of the German military forces by some means other than direct combat (through the police in occupied territories, for instance) were to be handed over immediately to the Sicherheitsdienst(SD, Security Service). The order, which was issued in secret, made it clear that failure to carry out these orders by any commander or officer would be considered to be an act of negligence punishable under German military law. This was in fact the second "Commando Order", the first being issued by Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt on 21 July 1942, stipulating that parachutists should be handed over to the Gestapo. Shortly after World War II, at the Nuremberg Trials, the Commando Order was found to be a direct breach of the laws of war, and German officers who carried out illegal executions under the Commando Order were found guilty of war crimes.

    Please go to this previous blog post to learn more.

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                On this date, October 20, 2011, a Baby Killing Pedophile, Christopher Thomas Johnson was executed by lethal injection in Alabama. He was convicted of murdering his 6-month-old son, Elias Ocean Johnson on February 18, 2005. He could not live with his guilt anymore that was why he waived all his appeals and wanted to be put to death. I surprisingly did not see any abolitionist protesting his execution, most probably, is because nobody pities cowards who kill babies.

    Christopher Thomas Johnson
                Please go to this previous blog post to learn more about this pedophile.

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    The City Harvest Church Corruption Case is the biggest corruption case in Singaporesince the beginning of the 21st century, revolving around City Harvest Church and several founders especially Kong Hee. The total amount of funds mis-use is around S$50 million.

    Misuse of City Harvest Church funds

    On 31 May 2010, the Office of the Commissioner of Charities (COC) and the Commercial Affairs Department (CAD) of the Singapore Police announced that 17 individuals linked to the City Harvest Church, including church founder Pastor Kong Hee and his deputy, Pastor Tan Ye Peng, were under investigation after complaints alleging the misuse of church funds. The joint press statement stressed that the investigations are neither linked nor initiated from its acquisition of a stake in the Suntec Convention Centre The police also visited the offices and homes of these individuals and brought back computers and financial records for investigations. The police were looking into some financial transactions among these individuals and related companies, involving the possible falsification of accounts and criminal breach of trust amounting to millions of dollars which dated back a number of years. The authorities said that regular church activities and services for the congregation need not be disrupted during ongoing investigations, which was expected then to take several months.

    The investigation followed requests by church members for the COC to review the church's constitution, which denied ordinary members the chance to attend general meetings, or be privy to its annual reports and financial statements. Some members felt that the church board had utilised the church's building fund and committed it to "future liabilities" without consulting members at its latest AGM.

    S$50 million, 6 arrests

    In June 2012, Kong Hee and four other members of the church were arrested by the Commercial Affairs Department of the Singapore Police Force. Charges were filed against the five individuals and not the church itself, which would be allowed to continue its services and activities. They were released on $500,000 bail each. In July, charges were brought on one additional former finance director with the last of the pre-trial conferences is set for 22 November. When the trial started on 15 May 2012, some Christians expressed concern that the slow pace of the trial may have a negative impact on public opinion.

    On the same day as the initial arrests, the COC released a press statement detailing the results of its inquiry stating there were misconduct and mismanagement in the administration of the charity. There were irregularities of at least $23 million in the charity's funds, which were used to finance Sun Ho's secular music career. There was also a concerted effort to conceal this movement of funds from stakeholders. Eight members including the five arrested such as Chew Eng Han and Sharon Tan, Sun Ho and two others were suspended from their duties with the charity while the COC considered further course of action under the Charities Act. $24 million was taken from church building funds and put into sham investment bonds in Ho's artist management firm Xtron Productions and glass maker Firna. After church auditors raised questions about the bond investments, an additional $26.6 million was moved around to "create the false appearance that the purported sham bond investments had been redeemed" in what the accounting industry calls "round-tripping". The church stood by the five accused, stated that money for the investment bonds were returned to the church in full, with interest, and it did not lose any funds in the transactions, indicating that the accused "always put God and CHC first. "

    Relevations were made about a multi-purpose account (MPA) involving Kong Hee and his wife Sun Ho set up in 2006 and closed in 2010, made up of "love gifts" worth $2,888,334 from church members as well as $359,530 from an Indonesian businessman Wahju Hanafi. The Commissioner of Charities warned the church and its employees against raising funds for legal expenses, the church was also restricted from paying the legal fees of the 6 accused. The chief prosecution led by Mavis Chionh noted the absence of a crucial board meeting between August and September 2008 as being without any meeting minutes, and also charged that Wahju Hanafi was the other beneficiary of funds allegedly diverted from City Harvest Church to further Sun Ho's music career.


    In October 2015, all six accused were found guilty of all criminal breach of trust charges pertaining to 409 read with section 109 of the Penal Code, Chapter 224. Falsification of Accounts under section 477A of the Penal Code, Chapter 224. Alongside the conviction, other pastors and christians began speaking out regarding the trial which was the second longest in Singapore history.

    Serina Wee, former finance manager of CHC, was found guilty of 6 counts of criminal breach of trust and 4 counts of falsifying the church's accounts. The prosecutor labelled her as the most inextricably involved in the conspiracy due to her role as administrator of the Crossover project.

    Sharon Tan, former finance manager of CHC, was found guilty of 3 counts of criminal breach of trust and 4 counts of falsifying the church's accounts. The prosecutor noted her defense was deeply cynical and self-seriving, attempting to minimise her involvement in the offences.

    Chew Eng Han, CHC board member, was found guilty of 6 counts of criminal breach of trust and 4 counts of falsifying church accounts. The prosecutor noted that his defense was incoherent while lacking credibility.

    Tan Ye Peng, founding member and senior pastor of CHC, was found guilty of 6 counts of criminal breach of trust and 4 counts of falsifying the church's accounts.

    John Lam, former secretary of the church's management board, was found guilty of 3 counts of criminal breach of trust. The prosecutor noted that he was the inside man in church governance and oversaw bodies that prevented the sham investment bonds from being discovered.

    Kong Hee, senior pastor and founder of the church, was found guilty of 3 counts of criminal breach of trust. The prosecutor noted that he was had not maintained a consistent position on critical factual issues.

    The 6 accused, and even the Prosecution, have all filed appeals on their conviction, with the prosecution calling the current sentences "manifestly inadequate". The appeals will be heard over 5 days,Sep 19 to Sep 23 of 2016.

    In July 2016, Chew filed a new police report against 8 members of the church (including Kong Hee and Sun Ho). Chew alleged that this was for "fraudulent misrepresentation of vital facts about the church which induced me and other members to give our donations", and also for use of funds for purposes other than what was represented to the members of the church.

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                Twenty years ago on this date, 24 October 1996, the last Reichsjugendführer by the name of Artur Axmann passed away. I will post information about him in Wikipedia.

    Artur Axmann
    In office
    8 August 1940 – May 1945
    Appointed by
    Preceded by
    Baldur von Schirach
    Succeeded by
    Office abolished
    Personal details
    18 February 1913
    Hagen, Westphalia,
    German Empire
    24 October 1996 (aged 83)
    Berlin, Germany

    Artur Axmann(18 February 1913 – 24 October 1996) was the German Nazi national leader (Reichsjugendführer) of the Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend) from 1940 to the war's end in 1945. He was the last living Nazi with a rank equivalent to Reichsführer.

    Early life

    Axmann was born in Hagen, Westphalia, the son of an insurance clerk. In 1916, his family moved to Berlin-Wedding, where his father died two years later. Young Axmann was a good student and received a scholarship to attend secondary school. He joined the Hitler Youth in November 1928, after he heard Nazi GauleiterJoseph Goebbels speaking, and became leader of the local cell in the Wedding district. He also joined the National Socialist Schoolchildren's League, where he distinguished himself as an orator.

    Having obtained his Abiturdegree (i.e., graduated from high school), Axmann began studying law and economics at the Frederick William University in Berlin. Soon thereafter, however, his mother fell seriously ill, and he had to abandon his studies to provide for the family.

    Nazi career

    In September 1931, Axmann joined the Nazi Partyand the next year he was called to the NSDAP Reichsjugendführung to carry out a reorganisation of Hitler Youth factory and vocational school cells. After the Nazi seizure of power in 1933, he rose to a regional leader and became Chief of the Social Office of the Reich Youth Leadership.

    Axmann directed the Hitler Youth in state vocational training and succeeded in raising the status of Hitler Youth agricultural work. In November 1934, he was appointed Hitler Youth leader of Berlin and from 1936 presided at the annual Reichsberufswettkampf competitions. On 30 January 1939 he was awarded the Golden Party Badge.

    War service

    Axmann was on active service on the Western Front until May 1940. On 1 May 1940, he was appointed deputy to Nazi ReichsjugendführerBaldur von Schirach, whom he succeeded three months later on 8 August 1940. As a member of the Wehrmacht 23rd Infantry Division, he was severely wounded on the Eastern Front in 1941, losing his right arm.

    In 1943, Axmann promoted the formation of the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend with servicemen drawn from the Hitler Youth. In the last weeks of the war in Europe, Axmann commanded units of the Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend), which had been incorporated into the Home Guard (Volkssturm). His units consisted mostly of children and adolescents. They fought in the Battle of Seelow Heights (Seelower Höhen) and the Battle in Berlin.

    Berlin, 1945

    During Hitler's last days in Berlin, Axmann was among those present in the Führerbunker. During that time it was announced in the German Press that Axmann had been awarded the German Order, the highest decoration that the Nazi Party could bestow on an individual for his services to the Reich. He and one other recipient, Konstantin Hierl, were the only holders of the award to survive the war and its consequences. All other recipients were either awarded it posthumously, or were killed during the war or its aftermath.

    On 30 April 1945, just a few hours before committing suicide, Hitler signed the order to allow a breakout. According to a report made to his Soviet captors by ObergruppenfuehrerHans Rattenhuber, the head of Hitler's bodyguard, Axmann took the Walther PPpistol which had been removed from the room in the Fuehrerbunker by Heinz Linge, Hitler's valet, which Hitler had used to commit suicide, saying that he would "hide it for better times".

    On 1 May, Axmann left the Führerbunker as part of a breakout group that included Martin Bormann, Werner Naumann and SS doctor Ludwig Stumpfegger. Attempting to break out of the Sovietencirclement, their group managed to cross the River Spree at the Weidendammer Bridge.

    Leaving the rest of their group, Bormann, Stumpfegger, and Axmann walked along railway tracks to Lehrter railway station. Bormann and Stumpfegger followed the railway tracks towards Stettiner station. Axmann decided to go in the opposite direction of his two companions. When he encountered a Red Armypatrol, Axmann doubled back. He saw two bodies, which he later identified as Bormann and Stumpfegger, on the Invalidenstraße bridge near the railway switching yard (Lehrter Bahnhof); the moonlight clearly illuminating their faces. He did not have time to check the bodies thoroughly, so he did not know how they died. He avoided capture by Soviet troops and disappeared. His statements were confirmed by the discovery of Bormann's and Stumpfegger's mortal remains in 1972.


    Axmann lived under the alias of "Erich Siewert" for several months. In December 1945, Axmann was arrested in Lübeck when a Nazi underground movement which he had been organising was uncovered by a U.S. Armycounterintelligence operation.


    In May 1949, a Nurembergde-Nazificationcourt sentenced Axmann to a prison sentence of three years and three months as a 'major offender'. On 19 August 1958, a West Berlin court fined the former Hitler Youth leader 35,000 marks(approximately £3,000, or $8,300 USD), about half the value of his property in Berlin. The court found him guilty of indoctrinating German youth with National Socialism until the end of the Third Reich, but concluded he was not guilty of war crimes. During his trial, Axmann told the court he heard the shot by which Hitler committed suicide. He also stated he had attempted to escape from central Berlin along with Martin Bormann, who he said had died during the attempt.

    Later life

    After his release from custody, Axmann worked as a businessman with varying success. From 1971 he left Germany for a number of years, living on the island of Gran Canaria. Axmann returned to Berlin in 1976, where he died on 24 October 1996, aged 83. His cause of death and details of his surviving family members were not disclosed.

    Portrayal in the media

    Axmann was portrayed by Harry Brooks, Jr. in the 1973 Britishtelevision production The Death of Adolf Hitler.

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                70 years ago on this date, October 24, 1946, a Nazi SS General Kurt Daluege was executed by hanging in Prague. He and Karl Hermann Frank were the ones who ordered the Lidice Massacre.


    Czech state president of the Protectorate, dr. Emil Hácha (sitting), listening to a speech of Reichsprotektor Kurt Daluege next to SS and Police General Karl Hermann Frank in Prague, September 1942.