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  • 09/15/15--14:43: “SPARTA” BATTALION
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                On this date, September 16, 2014, the militias of the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic, merged into one group on 16 September 2014, forming the "United Armed Forces of Novorossiya". I will post information about this Military Unit from Wikipedia.

    United Armed Forces of Novorossiya
    Объединённые Вооруженные Силы Новороссии

    Founded
    3 March 2014
    (as Donbass People's Militia)
    Current form
    16 September 2014
    Headquarters
    Leadership
    Minister of Defence
    Vladimir Kononov
    (Donetsk People's Republic)
    Oleg Bugrov
    (Luhansk People's Republic)
    Manpower
    Active personnel
    10,000 – 20,000 (July 2014)
    30,000 – 35,000 (March 2015)
    40,000 (June 2015)

    The United Armed Forces of Novorossiya (Russian: Объединённые Вооруженные Силы Новороссии; acronym NAF) is the umbrella name for the militias and armed volunteer groups affiliated with the defunct political union called Novorossiya (New Russia). It consists of the Donbass People's Militia, the Luhansk People's Militia and autonomous armed groups. It is regarded as a terrorist group by the Ukrainian government.

    The Donbass People's Militia was formed by Pavel Gubarev, who was elected "People's Governor" of Donetsk Oblast by pro-Russian protesters. It was originally involved in taking control of Ukrainian government buildings in the Donetsk oblast. Tensions increased to the point of the militia being actively involved in fighting a war against the Ukrainian government in the Donbass region of Ukraine. The militia was accused by the Ukrainian government of culpability in the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 on 17 July 2014. The militias of the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic, merged into one group on 16 September 2014, forming the "United Armed Forces of Novorossiya".

    It is widely believed that the separatists are supported by Russian armed forces. Although the Russian government often denies direct involvement stating that their soldiers were there voluntarily and not under orders, some of them were detained riding their combat vehicles with documents proving their origin in Russian armed forces. Moreover, separatists admitted receiving supplies from Russia and being trained there. BBC reported that separatist ranks are composed of thousands of Russian citizens, and NATO accused Russia of deploying their regular troops into Ukraine. Registered Cossacks of the Russian Federation have been reported to be supporting separatists in the conflict as well. Head of the DPR, Alexander Zakharchenko, claimed in August 2014 that there are around 3,000 to 4,000 Russian volunteers fighting for the militia, which includes current and many retired Russian Army servicemen.


    Pro-Russian rebels stand guard at a polling station during supreme council and presidential elections in the city of Donetsk, eastern Ukraine Sunday, Nov. 2, 2014. The pro-Russian rebels are holding the elections that were dismissed by Ukraine and the West as illegitimate. (AP Photo/Dmitry Lovetsky)

    Sloviansk city council under control of armed forces. The masked men are holding Kalashnikov assault rifles (AK-74) and having rocket launchers on their backs (very similar to Soviet/Russian RPG-26).
    1History

    On April 6, 2014, 2,000 pro-Russian protesters rallied outside the regional administration building in Donetsk. On the same day, groups of protesters in Eastern Ukraine stormed the regional administration buildings in Donetsk, Kharkiv, and the SBU headquarters in Luhansk. The groups created a people's council and demanded a referendum like in Crimea. Within a few days, several government buildings in cities such as Kramatorskand Slovianskwere also stormed. On April 12, the supporters of the Donetsk People's Republic and members of Donbass People's Militia set up checkpoints and barricades in Sloviansk. The same day, former members of the Donetsk "Berkut" unit joined the ranks of the Donbass People's Militia. On April 13, the newly established Ukrainian government gave the separatists a deadline to disarm or face a "full-scale anti-terrorist campaign" in the region. Later that day, the first reports of fighting was reported between the people's militia and Ukrainian troops near Sloviansk, with casualties on both sides. On April 14, members of the Donbass People's Militia blocked Ukrainian military KrAZ truck's armed with Gradmissiles from entering the city.

    On April 15, a full scale "counter-terrorism" operation was launched by the Ukrainian government with aim of restoring their authority over the area's seized by the militia.

    On April 16, the militia entered Sloviansk with six BMD airborne amphibious tracked infantry fighting vehicles they obtained from parts of the 25th Airborne Brigade who had switched allegiance. The "occupants" were disarmed after the vehicles were blockaded by locals. The militia also received one self-propelled 120 mm mortar 2S9 "Nona-S" On April 20, an unidentified armed group in civilian clothes attacked a Militia checkpoint at the entrance to the city of Sloviansk. Three attackers and three members of Militia were killed. On May 14, eight members of Militia seized an IMR armored vehicle from Novokramatorsky Mashinostroitelny Zavod.

    On May 15, the Donbass People's Militia sent an ultimatum to Kiev. They ordered the withdraw all Ukrainian troops from Donetsk oblast. On May 17, several members of the militia seized two BRDM unarmed armored vehicles from Severodonetsk and Lysychansk(Luhansk Oblast) On May 22, the Federal State of Novorossiya was declared. On May 23, several members of people's militia seized another BRDM-RKh unarmed armored vehicle from Loskutovka (Luhansk Oblast)

    The militia were widely suspected to be involved in the downing of a civilian airliner, Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, on 17 July 2014.

    On August 8, the militia claimed that after battles near border with Russia, they captured 67 pieces of equipment with varying status (serviceable equipment without ammunition and fuel, with faults, damaged in battle and completely unusable), including 18 multiple rocket launching systems "Grad", 15 tanks and armored personnel carriers, howitzers, MANPADS, etc. As of August 12, the militia has at least 200 armored vehicles.

    The months of July and early August were disastrous for the militias with many analysts saying they were on the verge of defeat before a sudden counteroffensive, which the Ukrainian Government claims was supported by Russian troops, encircled thousands of Ukrainian troops and forced them into a retreat. The militias soon re-captured several strategic positions such as Savur-Mohyla and Luhansk International Airport. The armies of both the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic merged on 16 September 2014 to form the "United Armed Forces of Novorossiya".

    On 2 February 2015, Head of the DPR, Alexander Zakharchenko, announced that there would be a general mobilization in the DPR of 10,000 volunteers, and he aimed to eventually expand the NAF to 100,000 soldiers.

    On 20 May 2015 the leadership of the Federal State of Novorossiya announced the termination of the confederation 'project' but the United Armed Forces will be retained as the joint armed service of the two constituent states.


    DPR troops in Donetsk during a rehearsal for the 2015 Victory Day Parade

    2Structure

    The militias consist of different armed groups, which took the oath for Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic. Militant groups which refused to do it were disarmed as gangs in the DPR. Other groups are autonomous forces.

    2.1Combat forces

    2.1.1Donetsk People's Republic

    Donbass People's Militia (Russian: Народное ополчение Донбасса)

    ·         North Battalion (Russian: Батальон «Север») (unofficial)



    • Russian Orthodox Army (Russian: Русская православная армия) - One of the armed groups, which control Donetsk, formed mostly by locals from coal mine towns. It reportedly had 100 members at the time of its founding. According to Ukrainian sources, in June 2014 has at least 350 fighters. According to independent sources as fighting between separatists and the Ukrainian government worsened in Donbass, membership rose to 4,000.

    • Miner's Division (Russian: Шахтёрская дивизия) - Founded shortly after the rebel withdrawal from Sloviansk and Kramatorsk. It is commanded by Konstantin Kuzmin. Fighters typically range from ages 22–60. Composed of former coal miners.



    • Consolidated Orthodox Battalion "Voshod" or Voshod Battalion (Russian: Батальон «Восход»), meaning "Sunrise Battalion") - Formed in June 2014, it had 300 fighters.

    • Steppe Battalion (Russian: Батальон «Степь»)


    • Battalion of DPR Security Service (Russian: Батальон службы безопасности Донецкой народной республики)

    • Sparta Battalion (Russian: Батальон «Спарта») - Special forces battalion led by Arsey Pavlov, better known as Motorola. Includes Russians, fighters typically have helmets and modern personal equipment.

    • 1st Independent Battalion-Tactical Group "Somalia" or Somalia Battalion (Russian: Батальон «Сомали») - Tactical group led by Mikhail Tolstykh, better known as Givi.
    2.1.2Independent DPR forces
    • International Battalions - Includes Russian, Chechen, Greek, Ossetian, Polish, Hungarian, Serbian, Latvian, Belarusian, Uzbek, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Armenian and other volunteers.

      • Orthodox Dawn (Bulgarian: Православна Зора) - Bulgarian volunteer group.

      • Legion of Saint Stephen (Russian: Легион Святого Иштвана) - Hungarian subgroup of international battalions. The group espouses a Hungarian nationalist platform, demanding self-determination for the Hungarian minority in Zakarpattia Oblast, and has been accused of being close to the far-right Jobbik party in Hungary.




    • Varyag Battalion (Russian: Батальон «Варяг»), meaning "Varangian Battalion") - Volunteer battalion commanded by Alexander Matyushin.



    2.1.3Luhansk People's Republic
    Luhansk People's Militia(Russian: Народная милиция ЛНР). Formerly known as Army of the South-East (Russian: Армия Юго-Востока) until late 2014.

    2.1.4Independent LPR forces
    • Great Host of Don Cossacks (Russian: Всевеликое войско Донское) - An international organisation that recruits volunteers from Ukraine and Russia.

      • Cossack National Guard (Russian: Казачья Национальная гвардия) - Don Cossack volunteer group commanded by Rashid Shakirzanov. The group has over 4,000 fighters and have access to armor and artillery. From May to November 2014, the group was commanded by Ataman Nikolai Kozitsyn. Kozitsyn was forcibly removed from power in November 2014 and replaced by Shakirzanov. The group's headquarters is in Antratsyt, and their rule expands to Krasnyi Luch. Initially, this group was identified as Russian Special Forces by the U.S. State Department following the takeover of the Sloviansk city council. In November 2014, the group instated capital punishment in Perevalsk to deter crime. Kozitsyn stated that there is no more marauding, burglaries or car-jacking in the city. They refused to join the LPR's military command but insist on cooperating with them, remaining autonomous and controlling territory.

    • First Cossack Regiment (Russian: Первый казачий полк) - Don Cossack volunteer group commanded by Ataman Pavel Dryomov. The group has around 1,300 fighters, and the headquarters is in Stakhanov. Originally part of Kozitsyn's Cossack National Guard until it split in September 2014. Dryomov denounced the LPR's leadership as being corrupt and "pro-oligarchic".

    • Mechanized Brigade "Prizrak" or Prizrak Brigade (Russian: Бригада «Призрак», meaning "Ghost Brigade") - Mechanized infantry brigade that was commanded by Aleksey Mozgovoy. The group keeps its distance from the LPR authorities and is based in Alchevsk and the surrounding district.


      • Continental Unit (French: Unité Continentale) - French, Serbian and Brazilian volunteer group.

      • Unit #404 - International communist volunteer group commanded by Piotr Biriukov.


    2.1.5Disbanded
    • Sloviansk Brigade (Russian: Славянская бригада) - Brigade that was commanded by Igor Strelkov.

    • United Battalions of the DPR and LPR.
      • North Battalion
      • Prizrak Battalion

    • Rapid Response Group "Batman" or Batman Battalion (Russian: Группа быстрого реагирования «Бэтмен») - Commanded by Alexander Bednov until he was killed in an attack on his convoy on 1 January 2015. Members of the group said that the attack was ordered by head of the Luhansk People's Republic Igor Plotnitsky. Following this attack, the LPR arrested some of Bednov's men, and dissolved the battalion. Some of its personnel were dispersed into other LPR units, while DPR field commanders Givi and Motorola invited former members to join their battalions.

      • Rusich Company (Russian: ДШРГ «Русич») - Special forces-type company commanded by Aleksey Milchakov. Made up of far-right Russian volunteers. On July 10, 2015, Milchakov announced that the Rusich Company would be withdrawing from Donbass for retraining and refitting.


    2.2Non-combat units
    • Novorossiya Humanitarian Battalion (Russian: Гуманитарный батальон «Новороссия») - non-combat unit involved in protecting the delivery of humanitarian aid
    3Commanders

    Donetsk People's Republic
    Luhansk People's Republic
    4Flags and symbols

    4.1Historical flags

    4.2Others Flags

    4.3Flags of new States, including nongovernment (public) organizations

    4.4Flags of military units and troops

    5Equipment


    According to independent sources, rebels mostly used equipment that was available domestically before the Ukrainian crisis. However, the rebels were also seen using weapons that were not known to be exported to or otherwise available in Ukraine. Appearance of some of the latest models of Russian military equipment, which was never exported outside of Russia, is particularly noteworthy.

    According to the Donetsk People's Republic all its military equipment is "hardware that we took from the Ukrainian military". However, according to the Ukrainian government and the United States Department of Statethis is a false statement and claim the separatists have received military equipment from Russia, including multiple rocket launch systems and tanks. Despite the fact that Russian officials deny supplying arms to the militia, numerous evidence proves that it is true. In August 2014 Ukrainian Defense MinisterValeriy Heletey claimed the proof for the weapons supply from Russia was that the fighters of the Donbass People's Militia were using Russian-made weapons that were never used (or bought) by the Ukrainian army.

    Among such exclusively Russian equipment seen with pro-Russian separatists are Russian modifications of tank T-72 (particularly T-72B3 and T-72BA seen destroyed in Ukraine), infantry fighting vehicle BTR-82AM (adopted in Russia in 2013), armored personnel carriers BPM-97, sophisticated anti-aircraft system Pantsir-S1, multipurpose vehicle GAZ Vodnik (adopted in Russia in 2005), Russian modifications of MT-LB, rocket-propelled flamethrower MRO-A, anti-tank missile Kornet, anti-materiel rifle ASVK, suppressed sniper rifle VSS Vintorez and others.

    6Relationship with Russia

    As the conflict intensified, the Donbass People's Militia was bolstered with many volunteers from the former Soviet Union, mainly Russia; including fighters from Chechnya and North Ossetia.

    According to the Ukrainian government and the United States Department of State the Donbass People's Militia have received military equipment from Russia, including Russian tanks and multiple rocket launchers. Russia denied doing this and has described the Russian citizens fighting with the Donbass People's Militia as volunteers. The Donetsk People's Republic claimed on 16 August 2014 it had received (together with 30 tanks and 120 other armoured vehicles of undisclosed origin) 1,200 "individuals who have gone through training over a four-month period on the territory of the Russian Federation". The Donetsk People's Republic claims it has not received military equipment from Russia; but that all its military equipment is "hardware that we took from the Ukrainian military". In August 2014 Ukrainian Defense MinisterValeriy Heletey disputed this claim because (according to him) the fighters of the Donbass People's Militia were using Russian-made weapons that were never used (or bought) by the Ukrainian army, and which therefore had to have been supplied to them by Russia.

    The injured of the Donbass People's Militia were exclusively treated in Russia. During mid-August 2014, hospitals such as the Donetsk Central Hospital in Donetsk, Russia attended to between 10 and 20 injured fighters daily. The Russian Emergency Ministry assisted with treatment logistics. Those questioned and registered by the (Russian) Federal Security Service and treated in Russia during this period stated that they would not return to Ukraine if the Ukrainian army won the War in Donbass, but would, instead, engage in a partisan warfare campaign in Eastern Ukraine.


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  • 09/17/15--06:41: NKVD PRISONER MASSACRES


  •             On this date, September 17, 1939, the Soviet Union joins Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland during the Polish Defensive Warof 1939. I will post information about the NKVD Prisoner Massacres from Wikipedia.


    NKVD prisoner massacres

    The corpses of victims of Soviet NKVD murdered in last days of June 1941, just after outbreak of German-Soviet War (NKVD prisoner massacres) and escape of Red Army and NKVD troops from the cities. Here: Lwów, citizens of Lwów are looking for their friends and relatives, previously arrested by NKVD and kept in prison.

    Date
    June 1941 - November 1941
    Location
    Type
    Participants
    NKVD and NKGB (united 20 July 1941)
    Deaths
    In excess of 100,000

    The NKVD prisoner massacres were a series of mass executions carried out by the SovietNKVD secret police during World War II against political prisoners across Eastern Europe, primarily Poland, Ukraine, the Baltic states, Bessarabia and other parts of the Soviet Union from which the Red Army was retreating following the Nazi Germanattack on the Soviet positions in occupied Poland, known as Operation Barbarossa.

    Estimates of the death toll vary between locations; nearly 9,000 in the Ukrainian SSR, 20,000–30,000 in eastern Poland (now part of Western Ukraine), with the total number reaching approximately 100,000 victims of extrajudicial executions in the span of a few short weeks.

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                70 years ago on this date, September 21, 1945, the commander of transportation at the Sobibor Extermination Camp, Karl Steubl, committed suicide in prison before sentencing. I will post information about this Nazi War Criminal from Wikipediaand other links.


    Karl Steubl
     

    Sturmbannführer Karl Steubl (Steubel) 
    before his 1945 suicide
    Born
    October 25, 1910
    Died
    September 21, 1945 (aged 34)
    Linz, Austria
    Allegiance
    Service/branch
    Years of service
    until 1945
    Rank
    Unit

    SS-SturmbannführerKarl Steubl, Steubel, or Steibel (October 25, 1910 – September 21, 1945) was an Austrian Nazi, perpetrator of euthanasia programme dubbed Action T4, and commander of transportation at the Sobibor extermination camp during Operation Reinhard, the most deadly phase of the Holocaust. Arrested after the war, Steubl committed suicide in Linz, Austria.

    Career highlights

    Before his last assignment at Sobibor in occupied Poland, Steubl was a senior male nurse at Schloss Hartheim, the biggest mass extermination centre outside Eastern Europe set up at Alkovenin Upper Austria. The killing program Action T4 was performed there between 1939 and 1945. Already by August 1941, long before the war's end, a grand total of 18,269 mentally and physically handicapped patients including many others, were murdered at gas chambers of Hartheim Euthanasia Centre and cremated on site in the course of his service there.

    From August 1942, Steubl was one of the Austrian commanders of Sobibor extermination camp, which he also helped organize as an expert in gassing. He was present, and most likely took part in the execution of the last SonderkommandoJews who were sent to Sobibor for clean-up after demolition of the Treblinka extermination camp nearby.

    Arrested by the Allies, Steubl was the first of three SS men from Sobibor who committed suicide after World War II. The second one was Kurt Bolender; recognized by a Holocaust survivor in Germany and arrested in 1961. Bolender committed suicide in prison before sentencing. He was accused of participating in the murder of approximately 86,000 Jews. The third one was SS-OberscharführerGustav Wagner ("the Beast of Sobibor") also from Austria originally. He killed himself in 1980 exposed by Simon Wiesenthal in Brazil. By the same token, half of the 13 Sobibor mass murderers tried in 1965–66 at the Sobibor Trial in Hagen, West Germany were cleared of all charges and set free.

    OTHER LINKS:




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  • 09/20/15--14:45: GLOCK 22 PISTOL


  •             I will post information about the Glock 22 Pistol from Wikipedia.



    Glock 22

    G22 with olive drabtan frame.

    Type
    Place of origin
    Production history
    Designer
    Designed
    Late 1980s
    Manufacturer
    Glock
    Produced
    1990-present
    Variants
    22C
    Specifications
    Weight
    650 g / 22.92 oz (unloaded)
    Length
    186 mm / 7.32 in
     length
    114 mm / 4.49 in
    Width
    30.0 mm / 1.18 in
    Height
    138 mm / 5.43 in (with magazine)

    The Glock 22 is a pistol manufactured by Glock. It is essentially a Glock 17 modified to fire .40 S&Wammunition (instead of the 9×19mm Parabellumfired by the 17). It uses a modified slide, frame, .40 S&Wbarrel and magazinebut otherwise appears nearly identical to the Glock 17. The gun comes standard with 2 (3 if Gen 4) 15-round magazines; 22-round magazines (that will function in other .40-caliber Glock handguns) are also available. Also available for certain states and countries that ban magazines of over 10 rounds are 10-round magazines.

    The Glock 22 has undergone three major revisions since its introduction in 1990. Currently, the model produced is the Gen 4.

    The Glock 22C is a version of the Glock 22 that has a ported barrel and slide to reduce muzzle climb while shooting the pistol.

    Service usage

    The Glock 22 is used by a number of law enforcement agencies worldwide:
    Caliber modification

    One notable feature of the Glock 22, and indeed many modern .40 S&Wpistols, is the ability to change the caliber to .357 SIGwith a simple barrel swap. This is possible due to the similar operating pressures of both rounds, and the fact that the .357 SIG is based on a .40 S&W case, necked down to accept .355 inch bullets. The Glock 22 can also be fitted with a converted .40 S&W - 9mm barrel and can operate as such using a Glock 9mm magazine. A .40 S&W - .22 LR conversion kit is also available for the Glock 22.


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                On this date, September 24, 1946, an IJA General, Yoshio Tachibana was executed by hanging in Guam for war crimes, including cannibalism. 


    Yoshio Tachibana (立花芳夫Tachibana Yoshio)


    Bowl of sukiyaki


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                On this date, September 27, 2001, an angry, unstable gunman, Friedrich Leibacher, shot and killed 15 people including himself in the cantonal parliament of Zug. The event became known as the Zug Massacre. I will post information about this Swiss Mass Murderer from Wikipedia


    Friedrich Heinz Leibacher
    Friedrich Leibacher


    Born
    July 21, 1944
    Zug, Switzerland
    Died
    September 27, 2001 (age 57)
    Zug, Switzerland
    Cause of death
    Suicide

    Killings
    Date
    September 27, 2001
    Location(s)
    Zug, Switzerland
    Killed
    14
    Injured
    18
    Weapons

    Friedrich Heinz Leibacher (July 21, 1944 – September 27, 2001) was a Swiss mass murderer who killed 14 members of the Zugcanton Parliament, injuring 18 others, before committing suicide in the Zug massacre.

    Personal background

    Leibacher had been employed in business, and had several failed marriages to women from the Dominican Republic, of whom one produced a daughter. In 1970 he was convicted of incest, theft, forgery and traffic offences, and sentenced to 18 months detention. He served his sentence in a work-training institution.

    After leaving detention, Leibacher became unemployed. Doctors diagnosed a personality disorder and alcoholism and he received an invalidity pension. In 1998 he was convicted of threatening a bus driver employed by the Zug transport company. Leibacher was upset by his treatment, and wrote frequently to the authorities with letters of complaint. The passage of time did not diminish his grievance as Leibacher began to believe he was the target of a government conspiracy led by Robert Bisig, a Cantonal Minister. He sued Bisig but in September 2001 his actions were dismissed by the court.

    Zug massacre

    At 10:30 am on September 27, 2001, Leibacher entered the Zug Parliament disguised as a police officer and armed with a pistol, a revolver, a pump-action shotgun, and a rifle. He made his way to the Parliament chamber where he fired more than 90 shots randomly. Politicians and journalists alike were hit, although Robert Bisig escaped unscathed. Finally, Leibacher detonated a small home-made bomb, then shot himself. He left behind a suicide note describing his action as a "Day of rage for the Zug mafia".

    Victims

    • Herbert Arnet, 50
    • Peter Bossard, 63
    • Martin Döbeli, 57
    • Jean Paul Flachsmann, 65
    • Karl Gretener, 40
    • Heinz Grüter, 53
    • Konrad Häusler, 45
    • Dorothea Heimgartner-Häller, 53
    • Monika Hutter-Häfliger, 52
    • Erich Iten, 44
    • Katharina Langenegger-Lipp, 59
    • Kurt Nussbaumer, 49
    • Rolf Nussbaumer, 36
    • Wilhelm Wismer, 44
    Smith & Wesson Model 19

    SIG Sauer P230

    Remington Model 870


    SIG SG 550 Assault Rifle



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                On this date, September 27, 2001, an angry, unstable gunman, Friedrich Leibacher, shot and killed 15 people including himself in the cantonal parliament of Zug. The event became known as the Zug Massacre. I will post information about this gun violence crime from Wikipedia.


    Zug massacre

    Mourners place candles and flowers on the steps to Zug's Parliament building


    Location
    Zug, Switzerland
    Date
    September 27, 2001
    10:32 a.m. – 10:35 a.m.
    Attack type
    Mass murder, murder-suicide
    Weapons
    Deaths
    15 (including the pepertrator)
    Non-fatal injuries
    18
    Perpetrator
    Friedrich Leibacher


    The Zug massacre took place on September 27, 2001 in the city of Zug (Canton of Zug, Switzerland) in the canton's parliament. Fourteen people were shot dead by Friedrich Leibacher, who killed himself shortly after the crime.

    In the years before the massacre, Leibacher drew attention to himself by an intense use of lawsuits. These were dismissed, so he assumed he was being persecuted by the state, thus he felt he had to resort to the crime.

    He was armed with a civilian version of a Stgw 90 (Swiss Armyassault rifle), a SIG Sauerpistol, a pump-action shotgun, and a revolver, and he wore a home-made police vest. Leibacher was able to enter the parliament building without problem.

    Friedrich Leibacher
     
    Smith & Wesson Model 19
     
    SIG Sauer P230
    Attack

    He started shooting in the hall where the members of parliament were meeting. He killed three members of the Executive Council ("Regierungsräte") and eleven members of the legislature ("Kantonsräte"), and wounded 18 politicians and journalists, some heavily. He fired 91 rounds. Then, he ignited a homemade bomb, and then took his own life. His main intended target was the Cantonal Minister Robert Bisig, who was unharmed. Leibacher left a suicide note titled "Tag des Zornes für die Zuger Mafia" ("Day of wrath for the Zug mafia"), which referenced his belief there was a plot against him.

    This assault was the first of its type in Switzerland and one of the Canton of Zug's darkest days. Worldwide, especially in the European Union and in the German Bundestag, there was shock at the attack.

    Remington Model 870
    After effects

    Afterwards, many local parliamentsincreased their security or installed security measures. Some established a strict access control for visitors and security passes for the politicians and staff.

    On the national level, the Sektion Sicherheit Parlamentsgebäude (section for the security of parliament buildings) was established as part of the Bundessicherheitsdienst(Federal Security Service), a police unit of 35, which secures the Bundeshaus in Bern. As part of a general electronic access control for visitors, access controls with x-ray machines were installed. Further, separate wings of the Bundeshaus were secured with gates, which have to be opened with a badge.

    Many cantons and communities have compiled files of people who are considered Nörgler, Querulanten and Behördenhasser (nigglers, grumblers, haters of the administration), who have threatened people, filed lawsuits or bombard authorities with protest notes and who think they have been treated unfairly after the suits have been dismissed. Since the Zug massacre such people are watched closely. Mediation centres were founded in which the so-called Ombudsmännertry to mediate conflicts. Police stations became more sensitive to threats, with people making threats temporarily detained and their houses searched for weapons. When issuing weapon licenses, the application is closely examined, since Leibacher had been diagnosed with a paranoid personality disorder and "brain weakness" ("Gehirnschwäche"). He was legally able to buy the weapons although he had already threatened people, had been known as a grumbler and has had a report made against him.

    SIG SG 550 Assault Rifle
    Deaths
    • Peter Bossard (Regierungsrat/Statthalter, FDP, Zug)
    • Monika Hutter-Häfliger (Regierungsrätin, SP, Baar)
    • Jean-Paul Flachsmann (Regierungsrat, CVP, Zug)
    • Herbert Arnet (Kantonsratspräsident, CVP, Cham)
    • Martin Döbeli (Kantonsrat, FDP, Zug)
    • Dorly Heimgartner (Kantonsrätin, FDP, Zug)
    • Kurt Nussbaumer (Kantonsrat, CVP, Oberägeri)
    • Rolf Nussbaumer (Kantonsrat, CVP, Baar)
    • Konrad Häusler (Kantonsrat, CVP, Unterägeri)
    • Erich Iten (Kantonsrat, FDP, Unterägeri)
    • Karl Gretener (Kantonsrat, CVP, Cham)
    • Willi Wismer (Kantonsrat, CVP, Risch)
    • Heinz Grüter (Kantonsrat, FDP, Baar)
    • Käthi Langenegger (Kantonsrätin, CVP, Baar)
    • Friedrich Leibacher (Spree killer, Zug)



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  • 09/27/15--03:34: Gestapo-NKVD Conferences


  •             On this date, September 27, 1939, first Gestapo–NKVD meeting took place reportedly on 27 September 1939 in Brześć nad Bugiem. I will post information about the Gestapo-NKVD Conferences from Wikipedia.

    Performers wearing World War Two Nazi German and Soviet Red Army uniforms wait for the start of a re-enactment of the 1945 battle of Berlin as part of the 7. Biennale in Berlin, on April 29, 2012.
     
    Gestapo–NKVD Conferences

    Location of the 3rd Gestapo–NKVD conference inside the German torture house in the Polish mountains, the 'Palace' villa in Zakopane today
    Time
    Duration
    1939–1940
    Type
    Nazi-Soviet bilateral planing for the persecution of Polish nationals
    Theme
    Secret police talks
    Cause
    1939 Invasion of Poland

    Gestapo and NKVD personnel pose for a photo.
    The Gestapo–NKVD conferences were a series of secret police meetings organized in late 1939 and early 1940 by the German and Soviet officials following their joint invasion of Poland in accordance with the Nazi-Soviet alliance. The purpose of the meetings was to enable the German and Soviet security forces including Gestapo and NKVD respectively, to share information regarding their parallel terror operations in occupied Poland. In spite of their differences on other issues, both Heinrich Himmler and Lavrentiy Beria had common goals as far as the fate of Poland was concerned. The known conferences were devoted to coordinating plans for joint destruction of Polish nationhoodas well as discussing ways of dealing with the Polish resistance during World War II.

    Out of four conferences, the third took place in the famous spa of Zakopane in the Tatra Mountains of southern Poland; it is the most remembered, as the Zakopane Conference. From the Soviet side, several higher officers of the NKVD secret police participated in the meetings, while the German hosts provided a group of experts from the Gestapo.

    German and Soviet forces carved up Poland in 1939. The Nazis handed over thousands of POWs to Stalin’s NKVD for extermination the following year.
    Prelude

    After the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact on 23 August 1939, Germany invaded Poland on 1 September and the Soviet Union invaded Poland on 17 September resulting in the occupation of Poland by the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany.

    General Heinz Guderian with NKVD Colonel Semyon Moiseyevich Krivoshein (right), a responsible for the final solution against Poles in Poland occupied by the soviets.
    First Conference

    The first Gestapo–NKVD meeting took place reportedly on 27 September 1939 in Brześć nad Bugiem, while some units of the Polish Army were still fighting (see: Invasion of Poland) resulting in mass internment of soldiers and their extrajudicial shootings across the Curzon Line. Both Gestapo and NKVD expected the emergence of Polish resistance and discussed ways of dealing with the clandestine activities of the Poles. In the immediate aftermath of the meeting, the Soviet NKVD began the collection of data leading to the Katyn massacrecommitted in the spring of 1940.

    Col. Krivoshein salutes submissively his comrade at arms and war crimes - Nazi General Guderian - at the military parade crowning the Nazi-Soviet slaughter of Poland.
    Second Conference

    This meeting took place some time at the end of November 1939, probably in Przemyśl, divided into German and Soviet zones of occupation between September 1939 and June 1941. Apart from talks of fighting Polish resistance, the Soviets and the Germans discussed ways of exchanging Polish POWs. Also, first discussions about the occupation of Poland were started. Some historians claim this meeting took place in Lwów. It is also claimed a meeting was held in December.

    NKVD Officer (left) speaks to a SS Officer (right)
    Third Conference

    This one is the best known, and took place in Zakopane, starting on 20 February 1940 in the villa "Pan Tadeusz", located at the Droga do Białegostreet close to the Dolina Białego valley. The German side was represented by Adolf Eichmann and an official by the name of Zimmermann, who later became chief of the Radom District of the General Governmentterritory. The Soviet delegation was headed by Grigoriy Litvinov and — among others — Rita Zimmerman (director of a gold mine in Kolyma) and a man named Eichmans, creator of an efficient way of killing in the back of the head.

    According to several sources, one of the results of this conference was the German Ausserordentliche Befriedungsaktion (see: German AB Action operation in Poland), elimination of Krakow intelligentsia Sonderaktion Krakauand the Soviet Katyn massacre. In his 1991 book Stalin: Breaker of Nations, British historian Robert Conqueststated: "Terminal horror suffered by so many millions of innocent Jewish, Slavic, and other European peoples as a result of this meeting of evil minds is an indelible stain on the history and integrity of Western civilization, with all of its humanitarian pretensions". Also, Professor George Watson of Cambridge University concluded in his "Rehearsal for the Holocaust?" commentary (June 1981) that the fate of the interned Polish officers may have been decided at this conference. This is however disputed by other historians, who point out that there is no documentary evidence confirming any cooperation on that issue, that the existing Soviet documentation actually makes such a cooperation improbable and that it is reasonable to say that Germany did not know about the Katyn massacre until the corpses were found.


    Eastern Europe in 1939-1940.

    Secret protocol of German–Soviet Boundary and Friendship Treaty "Both parties will tolerate in their territories no Polish agitation which affects the territories of the other party. They will suppress in their territories all beginnings of such agitation and inform each other concerning suitable measures for this purpose."

    The secret protocol to second Pact Ribentropp-Molotov- 28.09.1939 - Nazi-Soviet Treaty on Borders and Friendship. Photo 1946 of German origin ( Documents of Nurnberg Trial, German defence of Ribentropp and Goring)

    Fourth Conference

    The fourth and last meeting took place in March 1940 in Krakow (according to some historians, it was part of the Zakopane Conference). This event was described by General Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, commander of Armia Krajowa in his book “Armia Podziemna” (“The Secret Army”). In it, he describes how a special delegation of NKVD came to Krakow, which was going to discuss with Gestapo how to act against the Polish resistance. The talks lasted for several weeks.

    Bor-Komorowski′s description is disputed by Russian historian Oleg Vishlyov, who claims, based on the original, highly suspect Soviet documents, that the conference was not between NKVD and Gestapo, but between Soviet and German commissions dealing with refugees in both occupied territories and that the topic of discussion was allegedly the 'refugee exchange'. According to that author the conference had nothing to do with repressions against Poles or with the Katyn massacre. Meanwhile, some historians (including Wojciech Materski) point out that there is clear evidence of clandestine murder operations conducted by both Soviet and German forces in 1939–40 across occupied Poland, however, there is no evidence of direct connection between the NKVD prisoner massacresand the German AB-Aktion in Poland leading to massacre of several thousand prominent Poles in the same time-frame.

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