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                On this date, November 1, 1948, Einsatzgruppe C Commander, Otto Rasch, died of illness. I will post information about this Nazi War Criminal from Wikipedia.


    Otto Rasch at the Nuremberg Trials

    7 December 1891
    Friedrichsruh, German Empire
    November 1, 1948 (aged 56)
    Wehrstedt, Allied-occupied Germany
    Nazi Germany
    Other work
    Lawyer, Mayor

    SS-Brigadeführer Emil Otto Rasch (7 December 1891 — 1 November 1948) was a high-ranking Nazi official in the occupied Eastern territories, commanding Einsatzgruppe C (northern and central Ukraine) until October 1941. As a commanding officer, he was a Holocaust perpetrator and mass murderer.


    Rasch was born in Friedrichsruh, northern Germany. He fought in the First World War as a naval lieutenant. He studied philosophy, law, political science, and received doctorates in law and political economy. With two university doctorates, Rasch was known as “Dr. Dr. Rasch”, in accordance with German academic tradition. He became a lawyer in 1931 in Dresden and practiced law in the private sector. In 1933 he became mayor of Radeberg and in 1935 lord mayor of Wittenberg.

    Rasch joined the NSDAP on 1 October 1931 with membership number 620,976. He joined the SA in 1933 and the SS on 10 March 1933; with membership number 107,100. Beginning in 1936 he was employed fulltime by the Sicherheitsdienst (SD). On 1 October 1937, as commissioner, Rasch assumed leadership of the State Police (Stapo) in Frankfurt am Main. In March 1938, again as commissioner, Rasch became director of security (based in Linz) for Upper Austria. In June 1938, Rasch was assigned various responsibilities within the RSHA and was appointed chief of the Security Police (SiPo) and SD in Prague. Rasch joined the NSDAP on 1 October 1931 with membership number 620,976. He joined the SA in 1933 and the SS on 10 March 1933; with membership number 107,100. Beginning in 1936 he was employed fulltime by the Sicherheitsdienst (SD). On 1 October 1937, as commissioner, Rasch assumed leadership of the State Police (Stapo) in Frankfurt am Main. In March 1938, again as commissioner, Rasch became director of security (based in Linz) for Upper Austria. In June 1938, Rasch was assigned various responsibilities within the RSHA and was appointed chief of the Security Police (SiPo) and SD in Prague.

    In November 1939, as inspector of the SiPo and SD, Rasch was transferred to Königsberg. Rasch suggested and oversaw the liquidation of Polish political prisoners (intelligentsia) who had been arrested by the Einsatzgruppen. Rasch himself checked which prisoners were to be killed; the killings took place in forests.However, the executions were not inconspicuous. So, with the approval of Reinhard Heydrich, Rasch organized and founded the Soldau concentration camp in the winter of 1939/40 as a Durchgangslager (Dulag), or transit camp, for deportations to the General Government, and where Polish intelligentsia could be secretly executed.

    In June 1941, shortly before the invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa), Rasch took command of Einsatzgruppe C. In this capacity, he perpetrated extermination actions against Jews. Rasch, along with General Kurt Eberhard and Paul Blobel, organized the Babi Yar massacre, which saw the murder of over 33,000 Jews.

    According to the post-war affidavit of Erwin Schulz, commander of Einsatzkommando 5 (part of Einsatzgruppe C):

    SS Brigadeführer Dr. Rasch distinguished himself by particular ruthlessness. He ordered the leaders also to participate personally in the shootings.

    Rasch made sure that all Einsatzgruppen personnel, including the commanding officers, personally shot Jews, so that all members were culpable. Around 10–12 August 1941, Hitler gave the Fundamental Order (Führerbefehl) for the extermination of entire populations in the Eastern territories. The commando leaders subordinate to Rasch met with him to discuss this order. Paul Blobel later testified that Rasch basically quoted what had been stated by Friedrich Jeckeln, that “the measures against the Jewish population had to be sharper and that he disapproved of the manner in which they had been carried out until now because it was too mild”. In other words, the order was to shoot more Jews. Erwin Schulz confirmed this:

    After about two weeks’ stay in Berdichev the commando leaders were ordered to report to Zhitomir, where the staff of Dr. Rasch was quartered. Here Dr. Rasch informed us that Obergruppenführer Jeckeln had been there, and had reported that the Reichsführer-SS had ordered us to take strict measures against the Jews. It had been determined without doubt that the Russian side had ordered to have the SS members and Party members shot. As such measures were being taken on the Russian side, they would also have to be taken on our side. All suspected Jews were, therefore, to be shot. Consideration was to be given only when they were indispensable as workers. Women and children were to be shot also in order not to have any avengers remain. We were horrified, and raised objections, but they were met with a remark that an order which was given had to be obeyed.

    Rasch was discharged from his position in October 1941, and at the beginning of 1942, he became the director of Continental Oil, Inc. in Berlin.

    Rasch was indicted at the Einsatzgruppen Trial at the end of September 1947 but the case against Rasch was discontinued on 5 February 1948 because he had Parkinson’s Disease and associated dementia. Otto Rasch died later that year on November 1 in Nürnberg.

    Rasch was indicted at the Einsatzgruppen Trial at the end of September 1947 but the case against Rasch was discontinued on 5 February 1948 because he had Parkinson’s disease and associated dementia.Otto Rasch died later that year on November 1 in Nürnberg.

    In fiction

    Dr. Rasch appears in Jonathan Littell's novel Les Bienveillantes. He files a record that the military should concentrate on fighting bolshevism which should not be identified with Jews.


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                On this date, November 8, 1923, the Beer Hall Pustch, In Munich, Adolf Hitler leads the Nazis in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the German government. I will post information about this event from Wikipediaand other links.

    The Marienplatzin Munich during the Beer Hall Putsch.

    8–9 November 1923
    Nazi Party
    • Sturmabteilung
     Weimar Republic
    • Bavaria
    • Reichswehr
    Commanders and leaders
    • Adolf Hitler
    • Erich Ludendorff
    • Ernst Röhm
    • Rudolf Hess
    • Scheubner-Richter 
    • Hermann Göring
    • Gustav von Kahr
    • Eugen von Knilling
    • Hans von Seisser
    • Otto von Lossow
    Casualties and losses

    The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich Putsch, Bierkeller Putsch and, in German, as the Hitlerputsch or Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch, was a failed attempt by the Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler with GeneralquartiermeisterErich Ludendorff and other Kampfbund leaders to seize power in Munich, Bavaria, during 8–9 November 1923. Around two-thousand men marched to the centre of Munich, and, in the ensuing confrontation with police forces, sixteen Nazis and four policemen were killed.

    Hitler was arrested two days later and was charged with treason. The failure of the putsch brought Hitler his first national publicity. He was arrested and, after a 24-day trial, sentenced to five years in Landsberg fortress. On 20 December 1924, having served only nine months, Hitler was released.

    The lasting outcome of the putsch was a decision by Hitler to change NSDAP tactics, and the development and furthering of Nazi propaganda.


    The Putsch


    Trial and prison


    Bavarian police who died in the Putsch

    Nazis who died in the Putsch


    Supporters of the Putsch

    Key supporters

    Other notable supporters

    At the front of the march

    Chief defendants in the 'Ludendorff-Hitler' trial


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    Adolf Hitler – speech in the Löwenbräukeller ( more Churchill) 

    Munich, November 8, 1940

    Party Comrades!

    We now celebrate once more the 9th of November, and as back then a rally unites us on the eve of this day. For us the year 1923 was a high-point in the struggle for power in Germany. This struggle, and hence the significance of the day which we are celebrating, can be comprehended only by those who reflect on the age in which we found ourselves then and who, above all, bring back before their eyes the historic events leading up to this gigantic struggle.

    As a former soldier of the World War and present Supreme Commander of the German Wehrmacht, I can say: they [the Allies] would never have carried the victory over Germany back then, had not their allies broken us internally! Four years they labored. It was even necessary to summon an American sorcerer-priest(Zauberpriester) who found the formula which made it possible for the German Volk to fall for the word of honor of a foreign president.

    I took the same stand in our struggle abroad. Any such new intrigue, any new attempt to mobilize states against us through treaties and agreements, only led to my accelerating armament. I was firmly determined to risk it all. Without interruption the struggle went on with the objective of eliminating the Versailles Treaty. For, my Party Comrades, this I had to do if I were not to be a liar. After all, what did we fight for? When we made our first appearances in the years 1920–21 and 1922, our program was the elimination of Versailles. I could not all of a sudden say: forget about it.

    I was determined to make Germany free once again. I led this struggle step by step. And, honestly, I had the ambition of maintaining the peace. From a multitude of rallies and publications, you know of the foreign policy conception I embraced at the time: I wished to establish close bonds of friendship with England. I thought the Germanic races had to come together. I wanted the same relationship to Italy. And further I thought of Japan as a power with interests parallel to our own.As far as Italy was concerned, this attempt succeeded thanks to the ingenious actions of the man who founded Fascism and who was victorious in the same struggle in his country which we National Socialists were confronted with in Germany. And, in the last instance, we succeeded with Japan also.

    However, we met with failure regarding England, in striking contrast to our own desires. It was not our fault. To the contrary, I attempted, up to the last minute, until a few days prior to the outbreak of war, to realize my original foreign policy objective. At the time, I made the British Ambassador the greatest offers. I was willing to cooperate with England. But it was in vain. I had already realized at the time that certain war profiteers had been agitating for years without anyone putting an end to this business. There could be no doubt that one day they would bring the British people to hate and to be furious with Germany. And meanwhile, the German Volk would harbor no hatred for England. And thus, one fine day, Germany would have stumbled into a war without any psychological preparation. I already warned of this in the years 1938 and 1939, and most notably, in my speech at Saarbrucken,I emphasized that things could not go on in this manner. If England persisted in this campaign of hatred, then I would be forced to put German propaganda to use.

    And thus came the day when it was no longer a question whether war could be avoided, but rather whether it could be postponed for one, two, or three years. This would have been possible only through the most severe humiliation of Germany. And one thing you must understand here, my Party Comrades: on the day I realized that England was only stalling for time, that they were determined to wage war under any circumstance, which was openly revealed in the statements of British statesmen, on that day, I had but one desire: if they were determined to declare war on us, then at least, so I hoped, they should do this during my lifetime. For I knew this would be the toughest of all struggles ever forced on the German Volk. Now not only do I imagine myself to be the toughest man the German Volk has possessed for decades, perhaps even centuries, but I also possess the greatest authority. Above all, I believe in my success, and I believe in it without reserve! I am firmly convinced that this battle will end not a whit differently from the battle I once waged internally.

    I am convinced that Providence has led me up to this point and has held all trials at a distance, so that I could wage this battle for the German Volk. And finally, I did go through the Great War myself, and I belong to those who were cheated of the victory back then. And therefore it is my unshakeable resolve that this battle shall end differently from the battle back then.

    When I spoke to you in the past year, the first phase of this battle lay behind us. In eighteen days,our Wehrmacht crushed Poland. Others had imagined things would develop quite differently. They had been convinced that the battle would last six, eight, or ten months. They said to themselves: “Wars with decisive results are no longer possible. Under the best of circumstances, trench warfare will ensue. A front will be erected in the East, and this will slowly bleed Germany to death. Meanwhile, the West will arm. Then the summer of 1940 will come, and then one will move up through Belgium and the Netherlands to the Ruhr territory frontier. And, then slowly one will master Germany.” That is how they imagined things. And besides this, they believed that only a few weeks later-we have heard as much from all sides-a revolution would break out in Germany. This, moreover, would lead to destitution. They had not an inkling of the extent of our armament and believed that I was bluffing just as they have been trying to bluff us for years. They did not think anyone would really do what he said he would. Therefore they were convinced that this war would be a relatively easy one for them.

    A year ago, as I mentioned earlier, Poland was eliminated. And thus we thwarted their plans a first time. I was able to refer to this great success on November 8, 1939. Today, one year later, I have further successes to report! This, first and foremost, only he who himself served as a soldier in the Great War, can appreciate fully as he knows what it means not only to crush the entire West within a few weeks, but also to take possession of Norway up to the North Cape, from where a front is drawn today from Kirkenes down to the Spanish border.

    All the hopes of the British warmongers were then torn asunder. For they had intended to wage war on the periphery, to cut off the German vital lines, and slowly strangle us. The reverse has come true! This continent is slowly mobilizing, in reflecting upon itself, against the enemy of the continent. Within a few months, Germany has given actual freedom to this continent. The British attempt to “Balkanize” Europe-and of this the British statesmen should take note-has been thwarted and has ended! England wanted to disorganize Europe. Germany and Italy will organize Europe.

     Now in England they may declare that the war is going on, but I am completely indifferent to this. It will go on until we end it! And we will end it, of this they can be sure! And it will end in our victory! That you can believe!I realize one thing. If I had stepped up as a prophet on January 1 of this year to explain to the English: by the spring of this year, we will have ruined your plan in Norway, and it will not be you in Norway, but Germany; in the summer of this same year you will no longer be in the Netherlands or come to the Netherlands, but we will have occupied it; in the same summer you will not have advanced through Belgium to the German borders, but we will be at yours; and if I had said: by this summer, there will be no more France; then, all would have said: “The man is insane.” And so I shall cease from making any further prophecies today.I would merely like to give a few explanations to the German Volk. The struggle up to now has led to results of an unequaled nature:

    1. In terms of personnel. As bitter as it was for the individual family which had to make the sacrifice, it has cost the German Volk practically no sacrifices.In sum, the sacrifices we made in this war are not as big as those which the War of 1870–71 cost us. Indeed, they are barely half of this number.

    In terms of personnel our calculations were upset insofar as we did not have to touch the earmarked, gigantic reserve armies, which we had counted on as replacements for losses. Many men with long service records could thus be dismissed. And still, mostly through the younger grades, we were in a position to strengthen the Wehrmacht at the same time. In terms of personnel the German Army looks completely different today from how it looked in the World War. Only a few days ago, I drove through Belgium and France, and as an old soldier of the World War, I must say our Wehrmacht looks magnificent today, irrespective of whether we are talking about the Army, Navy, Luftwaffe, or Waffen SS. All look equally handsome. They cannot be compared to those of the years 1914 or 1915.

    2. In material terms, I prepared for this war as no other war has been prepared for. It was well worth it. The material sacrifices of this war are of no consequence. The ammunition we have used up in battle up to now is the equivalent of barely a month’s production. The reserves are so enormous, that in many areas I had to halt production because there is no further storage room available. I have redirected production into other areas where I believe it to be important that we be especially strong. You have heard the others’ threats of what they all will produce: Australia has six or seven million inhabitants, including Bushmen. And in spite of this, they want to produce eight times as many airplanes as Germany. Canada has nine million inhabitants. Now they want to build twelve times as many airplanes as Germany. As far as American production is concerned, astronomical figures do not suffice to describe it. In this realm, I do not want to enter into the competition. But one thing I can assure you of: we can mobilize all of Europe’s forces.

    German productive capacities are the highest in the world. And we will not leave matters at that, since we are in a position today to mobilize the forces of nearly all of Europe-and that I am doing this in the industrial sphere you can take for granted! Our material armament therefore is enormous, and it is just beginning to grow. Even though we have prepared this industrial mobilization for years, as you know, the initial push-in terms of greater figures-will only come about in another one to one and a half years. And this is the case now.

    And, summing up, I may say one thing: we are better prepared for the future than ever before. We are prepared in terms of material, and we are prepared in terms of personnel. And that the Wehrmacht makes the most of every day, this anyone who himself served as a soldier knows well. Not a day is lost. This foremost military instrument of the world is being attended to and improved without a moment’s interruption. And when the hour of large-scale operations comes once again, then I hope we shall achieve exactly the same results we have in the past. We have prepared everything in the most thorough manner in order to act quickly and daringly! And the hour will come in which those gentlemen, whose mouths have already conquered the world once again, will have to take up arms. And then we will see who has put these months to better use: we or the others! Germany with its allies, at any rate, is strong enough to face off any combination in the world. There is no coalition of powers which is militarily equal to ours!Economically speaking, the long preparations of peacetime have proved well worth the effort: the Four-Year Plan, which we recently prolonged for another four years, has created large reserves for us. The Englishmen know this quite well; otherwise they would not have cursed us so vividly because of it. It was to render us invulnerable to attempts at isolation or blockade. Besides this, it remains to be seen who will be blockaded a few months hence: we or the others! I believe that in some spheres, the English have been dissuaded from lying.

    Mr. Churchill, who only eight and six months ago declared, “Within one month, we will have destroyed fifty percent of their U-boats,” was not able to say as much the next month, i.e. another fifty percent, because then none of them would have been left. So the next month, the hits accounted for only thirty percent. A month later he could not say twenty percent, but had to content himself with ten percent. And now this General Liar of World History (Generallugner der Weltgeschichte) is beginning to admit that there appear to be more of our U-boats than there were in the beginning.

    He can believe me: there are more now! He has no idea how many more there are! We will yet challenge them, these international, capitalist liars. And we will live to see it: one day there will be no more Churchill, but more and more German U-boats.

    And now that he could no longer disclaim the gist of this, this most ingenious strategist ever born has fastened on the war in the air. For this has been quite an ingenious idea of Mr. Churchill’s-of all places in a weapons category in which England is the weakest in comparison to us-to launch the war in the air. You know that for years I made proposals to the world to forsake bombing in warfare especially against civilian populations.

    England has declined this, perhaps in anticipation of the ensuing development. Be that as it may! In spite of this, I did not allow battles to be waged against civilian populations in this war. In the war with Poland, I did not order nightly raids on Polish cities, since at night you cannot really hit your target with much accuracy. I allowed attacks to be carried out mostly during the day and only against military targets. I did the same in Norway. I did the same in the Netherlands, in Belgium, and in France. And then Mr. Churchill suddenly had the idea, since the Royal Air Force could not penetrate German air space during the day, to terrorize the German civilian population with attacks by night.

    You know that I am a patient man, my Party Comrades! I stood by for eight days. They dropped bombs on the civilian population along the Rhine. They dropped bombs on the civilian population in Westphalia. And I stood by for fourteen days and thought to myself: the man is insane! He is introducing a type of warfare here which can lead only to England’s destruction. When the war in the West came to an end, I extended my hand once more to England. Once again I was chided in the most despicable fashion and spat on. Mr. Halifax behaved like a man gone mad. Well! They stepped up the bomb attacks. Again I waited.

    I must say it was becoming increasingly difficult for me. For many came to me who said: “How long do you still intend to wait, Fuhrer? They are not going to stop by themselves.” I waited three months altogether, and then one day I issued the order: alas, I am taking up this battle, and I am taking it up with the determination with which I always step up to do battle. That means: to fight to the last from now on! They wanted a fight; they shall have a fight! They wanted to destroy Germany in the war in the air. I will show them who shall be destroyed.

    The English people, whom I can only pity, can thank the common criminal Churchill for this. Mr. Churchill has produced the greatest military nonsense in this fight for which a statesman or warlord ever was responsible!He fought with the weapon which is his weakest. He fought from a position which has been geographically disadvantageous to England ever since we have held Trondheim and Brest. It was the weakest position which England could possibly maintain. We will persevere in this fight. I regret that it will demand sacrifices on our part as well. But I do know National Socialist Germany. Only Mr. Churchill does not know it. There is a big difference. He believed he could weary the German Volk. He completely forgot that now a different Germany has come into being. This Germany becomes all the more zealous with every bomb that is dropped. Its resolve is merely strengthened. Above all, it knows: this nonsense must be done away with once and for all. And in this, we are determined.

    When Mr. Chamberlain was here in Munich in 1938 and hypocritically presented his peace proposals to me, this man had already decided for himself to proclaim immediately after his return: “I have been granted a postponement, and now let us arm until we can attack Germany.” We are quite aware that any ceasefire agreement today would be just that: a ceasefire agreement. They would hope that in a few years I would no longer stand at the helm of this Reich and that then the fight could begin anew.

    Hence it is my unalterable resolve to see this conflict through to a clear decision. Just as I rejected compromise in my struggle for Germany as a National Socialist,so I reject compromise here as well.

    I extended my hand often-in vain. They wanted this fight; now they shall have it! The German Volk will see this fight through to the end! The danger that it might erupt again within one or two or three years, after a period of heightened tension, must be removed. The German Volk wants to have peace finally. It wants a peace that allows it to work and which does not allow international scoundrels to agitate among other peoples against us. These are the folks who make their fortunes through war. I have no reason to wage war for material considerations. For us, it is but a sad enterprise: it robs us, the German Volk and the whole community, of so much time and manpower. I do not possess any stocks in the armament industry; I do not earn anything in this war.

    I would be happy if we could work again as I used to work for my Volk. But these international war criminals are at the same time the armament industry’s greatest black marketeers. They own the factories, they make business. They are the same people we had here in Germany earlier. There can be but one confrontation with these people: one of us must break. And this one will not be, under any circumstances, Germany!And if this Germany today possesses a different attitude, this is because National Socialism has pulled the German Volk up by its bootstraps again. It has created the mental, psychological, moral, and also material conditions for the enormous victories by the Wehrmacht of our young Reich. Every soldier knows it and must know that the armies which today march beneath our banner are the revolutionary armies of the Third Reich! They carry in their hearts not only faith in a Germany as it once was, but they carry in their hearts the faith in a Germany as we all imagine it will be in the future, for which we have fought so long, the faith in a better Reich, in which the great goals of our national and social Movement shall be realized.

    And that we possess such a Germany today, this we owe to those who marched in the year 1923 and, above all, to those who then, as the first, shed their blood for the Movement. These sixteen dead are more than simply sixteen dead! They became the crown witnesses for a new resurrection of our Volk.

    Their sacrifice was all the greater, for back then they could yet barely perceive in their faintest fantasies what has come into being since. Then they acted out of a boundless love for Germany. When someone came to join the Movement then, one could only say to him: “You can give up everything else, since you will be laughed at and ridiculed and persecuted. You must be aware that you will be without bread, that they will throw you out of everywhere. You will have nothing of which you can be certain, other than death perhaps.

    But you see before you something for which we all fight. It is a new Germany of honor which we will resurrect and which will secure for its sons their daily bread. And it will take a place once more in this world which it deserves, based on the number of its people, its historical past, and our former, present, and future worth.” And all these men came to take their places. Many of them felt this but subconsciously. There were so many common folk in this Movement. We were avoided like the plague by those who held themselves to belong to the intelligentsia or the upper middle classes. We were avoided like the plague by them, so that the greater number of those who joined our ranks were mostly mere common people. Perhaps they had not so clear a vision of what was to come. They only knew: one day things will be better.

    Things will be better one day, because we will build up a new Reich. And in this Reich much will be realized that our foes actually yearn for deep inside themselves, without realizing that following along the path on which they have set out, they shall never be able to achieve it.

    For this these men stood up, and for this sixteen of them gave their lives back then.

    They were sixteen, although they might equally well have been five hundred or five thousand, and not one of them uttered a complaint. Not even the wounded betrayed the cause. To the contrary, the wounded all the more eagerly became Party comrades once again, all the more zealous than before! And in the footsteps of these sixteen many hundred followed, here and beyond the borders of the Reich. They followed along the path of martyrs for years, for nearly a decade. Their numbers were the greatest in the Ostmark and the Sudetenland perhaps-all the stronger was their belief because the battle seemed the most hopeless there. How could all these common folk surmise the course of history as it has now truly come to pass? How could they foresee the miracle which would return them home gloriously to a great Reich one and a half or two decades later? Still they fought, with a faithful heart, without knowing precisely if this would come to pass during their own lives.

    And all this took its beginning from this November 8, and November 9, 1923. And so we celebrate the commemoration of these men, all the more profoundly moved today than even then, since all of them bore in their hearts the disgrace of the collapse of the year 1918–19. And this disgrace gnawed at their hearts and upset them. How often did we sit together, aglow with the one thought: this must be repaired in our history: this cannot last and this cannot remain! Otherwise the German Volk would be burdened with this blemish for all time! We will erase this from the book of our history! We will wash it away again! We will resurrect a Germany of might, power, and magnificence.

    Germany must be resurrected, one way or another! And in this spirit we fought.

    In this spirit they fell. In this spirit the battle continued to be waged. And in this spirit we face the outside world today, and we will complete that for which they fell back then. They [the World Powers] believe they are destroying Germany. They will be proved mistaken! Germany will rise from the battle all the more!

    Adolf Hitler speech v churchill ww2 EngSubs

    Published on Jul 30, 2013
    International jewry had declared war on Germany in 1933. That's the actual start of World War 2. (Look it up if you doubt.) Germany was forced to be on the Defense since then, March 1933. Six years later, 1939, WW2 "officially" started. In 1940, Adolf Hitler gave a speech on 8 November in which he described what Winston Churchill and the Allies bombers had done at night to women and children and how he, Hitler, had waited and offered peace proposals before finally responding. This is one continuous 10-minute segment of that speech. Adolf Hitler preferred speaking to large audiences and with the microphone, if any, at some distance -- so he could use the range of volume and expression he had used in public speaking without microphones for a decade. Get a grasp on his personality from this video: Soft speaking, humor, sadness, anger, and passionate commitment.

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    Adolf Hitler (PHOTO SOURCE:

    Adolf Hitler:
    Speech on the 19th Anniversary of the “Beer Hall Putsch”

    (November 8, 1942)

    My German fellow-countrymen and women! Party Comrades! It is, I think, something very extraordinary when a man after about 20 years can stand before his old followers, and when in doing so he has not had to make any revisions of his program during these 20 years. 

    Today's gathering, however, reminds us most of all of the evening which we were able to celebrate in the former hall 10 years ago. It reminds us of this because at that time too we were in the midst of a very hard fight. Our fight to take over power in, Germany was just as decisive for our fate as the fight which we are waging today. It was only during the past year that this became known to us in all its meaning, and if victory had not been achieved in 1933, then Germany would have remained what it was then, that is, a powerless nation with an Army of 100,000 men, which would necessarily have (had to submit) to destruction. 

    And at the same time, a colossus had arisen in the East with only a single thought in mind, to fall upon this weak, lazy, defeatist and internally-torn Europe. And if at that time this challenge had not been successfully taken up, then the power which alone was capable of opposing this danger would not have entered world history. 

    Today we know that there would probably not be any Europe left. Therefore the battle which we fought then was only apparently an internal struggle for power. In reality, even then it was a struggle for the preservation of Germany and, in the broadest sense of the word, for the preservation of Europe. At that time, we were close to victory. And yet when, 10 years ago, we met in the former hall, no one knew exactly how close it was. Only one thing went without saying as far as we were concerned, namely the conviction that this victory, no matter what happens, must come and will come. 

    It is with the same conviction that I now stand before you, and it has never left me, either, since the day on which, as an unknown man in this city, I began the struggle, first for the soul of the German people, and then, on beyond this city, forever more and more followers. And in the beginning I did not have much more to give than faith, the faith that if anyone pursues a just aim I with unchanging and undisturbed loyalty and never lets himself be diverted from it, but puts everything into it, then others will be found who are determined to be his followers, and that from this host an ever stronger faith must gradually radiate to the whole people, and that out of this host the worthiest part of the whole people must one day finally find themselves together, and that finally this worthiest part must acquire the power in the state. 

    And today I stand by this same view. Fate, or Providence, will give the victory to those who most deserve it. We could have had it before, in the year 1918. The German people did not deserve it at that time. They had grown confused and untrue to themselves. And that was the reason that I, an unknown, a nobody, at that time resolved to build up this movement in the midst of utter ruin and complete collapse, the reason why I also had faith that it would have to succeed, because I saw before me, not the defeatist phenomena of a crumbling bourgeois-Marxist world, but the millions of brave men who had done their utmost and who faltered only because the homeland was no longer worthy of them in the critical hour-because it had failed. I then had the conviction that if only the effort to bring back internal order to the German people and to get hold of the soundest kernel in them proved successful, that then another 1918 could never be repeated. 

    Since I made this resolve, many more than 20 years have gone by. Ten years ago we were about to have a dress rehearsal, after the movement had already encountered the greatest difficulties-in a preceding ten-year period, many had lost their faith, and our opponents already were saying that we were dead. We need only recall that time. It was no wonder, either. A movement which was just getting ready to seize power collapsed completely. Its leaders were either dead or wounded, or in prison or in flight because of their activities. 

    And yet barely ten years were enough for this whole movement to rise anew from its ashes, like a phoenix. And when we met here 10 years ago, we had just had another setback. Many-especially our enemies-believed that we had lost our chance because we had not acted at the moment we were offered something which would only have burdened the movement, but not made it at all possible to realize its real aims. At that time, too, I stood before you, my old party comrades, with the same faith as now, absolutely convinced that victory will be his who best deserves it, and that therefore our only task will be to deserve it. 

    And when now, after 10 years, I again survey this period, I can say that upon no people has Providence ever bestowed more successes than upon us. The miracles we have achieved in the last three years in the face of a whole world of enemies are unique in history, especially the crises we very naturally often had in these years. 

    I need only remind you of the one great crisis we had to go through in Norway, where, indeed, it was a toss-up, and where we might have asked ourselves, will we be able to hold Narvik? Won't the entire Norwegian undertaking go to pieces? One needed boundless faith in order not to become despondent at that time, and this faith was finally rewarded. Far from the homeland, with barely a single sure line of communication connected with this advanced out-post, a small, heroic German force then was fighting. Finally they were forced to evacuate Narvik. Our opponents were jubilant. But, thanks to bravery and a fanatical determination not to capitulate under any circumstances, the final result was victory for us and not for our opponents. 

    If we look back over this entire period, and let everything pass before our eyes, one thing will become obvious to us: We are. facing the same opponents, whom we always have had before us nothing has been changed. . . . In the Great War there were the same opponents whom we have had to conquer in this war, and there is only one thing which differentiates the present from that time: First of all, a clearer recognition of the background of the actions of that opponent, of the driving forces, and secondly, the successes which have been gained in the meanwhile, successes which are unique in the history of the world. 

    For perhaps many a person will ask himself the question, why are we fighting at such great distances? We are fighting at such great distances in order to protect our homeland, in order to keep the war as far removed from it as possible and to spare it what would otherwise be its fate, and which now only certain German cities are experiencing and must experience. It is therefore preferable to keep the front line at a distance of 1,000 and if necessary 2,000 kilometers from the borders of the Reich, than to hold that front somewhere near the border of the Reich and to be forced to hold it there. 

    Our opponents are the same, and behind these opponents there stands the same eternally driving force, the international Jew. And it is again by no means an accident that these forces were on the inside, and have now met again on the outside. Internally, in the "coalition" which we know only too well, they included all the enemies of the Reich, beginning with the Frankfurter Zeitung, and the entire stock market speculator-group, all the way to the Rote Fahne(Red Banner) in Berlin, and everything which lay in between.

    And outside, we have again today the same coalition as before, from the chief of that international Masonic lodge, the half-Jew Roosevelt, and his Jewish brain trust, to the Jewry of purest water in Marxist-Bolshevik Russia. They are the same enemies as before, the same foes as then. In the World War we had them as external foes, in our struggle as internal foes, and now, as a National-Socialist State, as external foes again. 

    And again it is no accident that the same State which at that time thought it could bring about the collapse of Germany by a flood of lying propaganda, now again sends a man on the same mission. Then his name was Wilson; now his name is Roosevelt. The Germany of that time, without any education in state and national politics, without any unity, without any enlightenment on the problem of the Jewish question and the working of that power, fell victim to that attack. 

    The great mistake is that our enemies now imagine it will happen a second time. For if at that time we were perhaps the best organized people in the world, without doubt again we are now the best organized people in the world. And if anyone in the rest of the world imagines he can shatter this people, he does not know the enduring heart of this people today, nor the enduring power, the knowledge which guides this people politically today-the National Socialist Party and its mighty organization. 

    Neither has he any idea of what this movement has achieved since then, how it has taken hold of our people by its accomplishments, and how it has fulfilled the Socialist ideal-which is free of all international cheating, all the "lying tirades," how it has fulfilled these Socialist ideals in a way that no other State has even begun to approach up to now, to say nothing of attain. 

    I am calm therefore when I face any German who is fighting in the East, or who comes home on leave-and I can tell each one of them, just look at our organization. Compare our home cities, compare the workers' settlements which we are building, compare our social organization with what you have seen on the other side. Compare the fate and the lot of the German farmer with the lot of that Russian farmer. Compare all of that, my dear friend, and then give me your judgment as to who has managed things better, and above all else, who has had more honorable intentions? 

    Not one man has as yet returned, who could express any other opinion than that if a Socialistic State were in the process of being realized anywhere, it was in Germany only that it was actually taking place. That is still another reason why this other world which so willingly represents capitalistic interests in particular, is attacking us. It is a combine, which even today still pretends to be able to rule the world according to its private capitalistic interests, to manage it, and when necessary, to keep on ruling it. 

    When, for example, a few days ago, a regular snobbish, perfumed hooligan like this Mr. Eden declared: "We English have had experience in ruling," then the only thing one can say is: "In ruling? In exploitation! In plundering!" What does experience in ruling mean, when in a country which, with 46,000,000 persons itself, is administering 40,000,000 square kilometers over the entire world, there were 2,500,000 unemployed at the beginning of the war. 

    Where is this art of ruling, to say nothing of the art of leadership? It is only the unscrupulousness for robbery. And when this same man then says: "We have a fine instinct for idealism and material values." Yes indeed they have. They have destroyed idealism everywhere, and they have grabbed and taken possession of material worth and always grabbed and taken possession of it, too, by brutal force only. For in 300 years that nation has oppressed and yoked and subjected nation after nation, people after people, race after race. 

    If they were really such brilliant rulers, then they should now be able to leave after the Indian people have expressed their explicit desire that they do, and then to wait and see whether the Indians call them back again. They have been careful not to leave, although they know how to rule so wonderfully, and in this they are completely of one mind, these plunderers, whether they run around in a Marxist cap (Translator's note: This refers to the typical workman's visored cap used in post-war Germany as a symbol of communism) or in a capitalistic one. 

    No, my friends, they don't know how to rule. They can only subjugate peoples and then pauperize them for their own benefit. A handful of people-very rich ones, to be sure-of both Jewish and non-Jewish origin are determining the fate of the world. And we can say with calmness that Germany itself has had an example of the ability of these people to rule. For when in the year 1918 the Reich collapsed, the blinded German people turned then in its blind faith to these people, in the hope that they might be shown a path by them which would lead them back out of-their misery, the democratic Germany, not the National-Socialist Germany. 

    For we would not have come at all, if this democratic Germany had not been plundered and oppressed in that way. They did their best to make a second India out of Germany, and they were even successful to a large extent. They brought it about for us, too, that finally many millions of persons had no sort of livelihood whatever, and many other millions were working part-time. They brought it about for us, too, that finally not ten thousands, but hundreds of thousands of farmers were evicted from their ancestral plots of ground. They brought it about for us, too, that commerce and exchange finally came to a standstill, and that social welfare provisions of any kind were non-existent. They tried out on us their governmental experiments, just as in India or elsewhere, and if this head-tramp-I can't describe him in any other way-Roosevelt comes and declares that they had to rescue Europe by American methods, then the only thing I can say is, that this gentleman could best-or should best-have rescued his own country, and then he would not have had to enter the war at all. It would have been more fitting for him to get rid of his own 13,000,000 unemployed than to throw the world into a war, but he did it, because he could not solve his internal problems and because he was setting out to plunder, just like his British allies, not recognizing merely idealism, but primarily the material values, for Mr. Roosevelt knows as little about idealism, aside from ..., as an Englishman. 

    From out of this art of government of our foes and its horrible results in our democratic Germany, the National Socialist movement gradually developed. For if they had really made Germany happy, we would not have had any reason at all, and I would not have had any ground, for devoting myself to this work day after day, week after week, month after month, and year after year. 

    You know that too, all my old fellow-combatants. I wasn't loafing then. I didn't speak in a fine club here and there, and I didn't sit down now and then at a fireplace, and deliver a little chat. Then I was making pilgrimages up and down through the German countryside, from North to South and from East to West, and wore myself out, only in order to save my people from this misery, into which these rulers of international capitalism had forced it. 

    This conspiracy of Jews and capitalists and Bolsheviks of that time, we wanted to do away with. And we finally have got rid of it. And hardly had it been done away with, when this other world immediately began its encirclement. 

    At that time it was the Germany of the Kaiser. Now it is National Socialist Germany. At that time it was the Kaiser. Now it is I. There is only one difference: the Germany of that time was theoretically an empire, practically it had all gone to pieces internally. 

    The Kaiser of that time was a man who lacked all force for resistance against these enemies. But in me, now, they have to face an opponent who does not even think of the word "capitulate." 

    That's always been the way, ever since I was a boy-at that time perhaps it was improper behavior but as it is, perhaps it is a virtue after all-my habit of reserving the last word for myself. And all our opponents can be convinced that the Germany of former times laid down its arms at a quarter to twelve. On principle I have never quit before five minutes after twelve. My domestic foes found that out ten years ago. They too did not believe it, and it really was not surprising, because naturally the position of my internal foes was different from the position of my external foes of today, because the internal foes of that time- 

    God-you know, my Party Comrades, when I began, uh, uh, it was already easy to prophesy that . . . my whole work would have to miscarry. On the one side this power of the press, this power of capital, this conspiracy of influential circles, this . . . parliamentarians, petty politicians and so forth, and the labor unions, and on the other side the employers' organizations, and then the . . . and the parliaments and the Reichstag. How could one single man with a small group of supporters overcome all that? And even in the year 1932, they were still able to believe he would fail regardless, because they could say: "We are still stronger; we still have more men behind us than the others." 

    Today, I must say, the faith that they would stifle by their might is already dead anyway, because in actuality today we are the stronger. When I compute the number of men who are in our camp today, and who are fighting in our camp, working in our camp, it exceeds the number of those who today have taken up positions against us. There is certainly no longer any comparison with the situation of that time. And there is something else besides: this battle is now being waged on a military basis. 

    And now, my Party Comrades, here we have behind us a great German history. The English say they have never yet lost a war. They have lost many wars; but in every war they have fought to their last ally. That is correct, and that probably distinguishes the English method of waging war from ours. Germany has a great history behind her, and I need only select one hero from this history and compare his fate with our fate-Frederick the Great against whom in his worst time there was actually a coalition of 54,000,000 to about 3,900,000. 

    And today, when I compare our position with his-our bastions, our fronts advanced everywhere far beyond the borders-then I must say they are completely stupid if they imagine that they can ever crush Germany. And especially if they imagine that they could possibly impress me in any way or could make me afraid. I know perfectly well that the battle is a very hard one, for that is probably just the difference between me and, let us say, a man like Churchill. Churchill said that we-the Reichsmarshal and I-had made whining speeches recently. I don't know if I hit someone right and left and then he says that is absolute defeatism, then one can have a good laugh. 

    Since 1939 I haven't felt like whining at all. Previously, I was of course very sad, because I had done everything to prevent the war. Recently Sven Hedin published a book in which he gratifyingly now quotes word for word my offer to the Poles which was conveyed at that time through the English. I must say that I really felt a chill when I read through this offer again recently, and I can only thank Providence that it has managed everything otherwise. 

    Then, too, from what I now know since then, because if at that time this offer had been accepted, then Danzig would be German, to be sure, but for the rest everything would have remained as it was. We would have devoted ourselves to our social tasks, we would have worked, we would have beautified our cities, we would have built dwelling settlements, we would have put our roads in order, we would have established schools, we would have built up a real National Socialist state. 

    And then, of course, we probably would have expended only very little for the Wehrmacht, and one day this storm would have broken loose from the East, would have passed over Poland, and, before we knew it, would have been a mere 150 kilometers east of Berlin. For that I thank the gentlemen who refused it then. At any rate, 3 years ago I could not yet guess that either. Three years ago I was sad about it, and therefore when the Polish campaign was at an end, I wanted to offer my hand once more in peace, which would have cost these enemies nothing, either. As you know, it was refused. Then I was forced to conduct another campaign, and still another. 

    In the year '40 I tried again to offer my hand in peace once more. It was refused again. With that the case was settled for me, because every offer of peace was interpreted by these enemies as weakness, and therefore really turned to the disadvantage of the German Reich. Thus it would have been disloyal to try anything like it again. It was clear to me-now only one thing matters-a state or a world must now fall. Either ours or the other. We shall not fall; consequently the other must fall. 

    You will recall, my old comrades-in-arms, how often, in exactly the same way, I held out my hand to the internal enemies. How long I wooed them. What pains I took with them. What didn't I do to bring about a sensible understanding! Only after it was useless did I decide to take those measures which are the only ones that can be carried out in this world when reason is stilled. And to this we owe our Brown Shirts, to this we owe our Storm Troops, to this we owe our S. S. Elite Guards; and at last the hour came when we were rid of these enemies, and rid of them how? And this struggle within was perhaps only seemingly easier than the external struggle. In reality the men who led the struggle within were once the fighters externally, too, and they are today the fighters both within and without; because, my Party Comrades, one thing certainly is a reason for us National Socialists to be rather proud. 

    When bourgeois Germany was fighting, the Germany composed of Marxists and Bourgeois and Center, then, to take but one example, two deputies of the Reichstag were killed in the course of the war out of more than two million dead. The National Socialist Reichstag has thus far already left 39, I believe, on the field of battle, out of a total, however, of hardly 350,000. Yes, that is certainly a different ratio, and when I calculate the ratio of the party comrades I can say that wherever my Storm Troopers or Party comrades or where the Elite Guards stand at the front, they do their duty in exemplary fashion. 

    Here too the Reich has changed. And above all, they fight also with a different comprehension: they know the fate that would be in store for us if the other world should be victorious. Because we know this fate and know it well, there is not even the slightest thought there of any compromise. When the gentlemen say from time to time that there is another peace offer from us, they do it only to make up for something to their own people. From us there will be no more peace offers at all. The last one was made in the year 1940. 

    There is only one thing left, that is to fight. Just as I said at a certain moment to the internal enemies: "It is not possible to come to an understanding with you peacefully; you want force, so now you'll get it." And these internal enemies have been taken care of. 

    Another power, too, which was very strong in Germany has meanwhile been able to learn from experience that the National Socialist prophecies are no mere phrases; it is the main power to which we owe all this misfortune-international Jewry. You will recall the Reichstag session at which I declared: "If Judaism imagines by any chance that it can bring about an international world war for the extermination of the European races, the result will not be the extermination of the European races, but the extermination of the Jews in Europe." 

    They have always derided me as a prophet. Today countless numbers of those who laughed at that time, laugh no longer. Those who are still laughing now, also will perhaps laugh no longer after a while . . . will spread beyond Europe and over the whole world. International Jewry will be recognized in all its demoniac peril. We National Socialists will see to that. This peril is recognized in Europe, and country after country is adopting our legislation. Thus today we see in this vast struggle only one single possibility; it is that of complete success, and there now remains only the question of whether there are any reasons at all to doubt this success. 

    If we follow our enemies' propaganda, then I must say that it is to be compared with the quotation: "Rejoicing to heaven, depressed unto death." The slightest success anywhere and they literally turn somersaults for joy. They have already destroyed us. Then the page turns and they are again completely cast down, and are again depressed. I need point to only one such example: 

    If you read the Russian communiqués since June 22, you will read the following every day: "Fighting of unimportant character" or maybe "of important character.""We have shot down three times as many German planes.""The amount of sunken tonnage is already greater than the entire naval tonnage, greater than all types of German tonnage before the war." They have so many of us missing that they amount to more divisions than we can ever muster. But above all, they are always fighting in the same place. Here and there they then say modestly, after 14 days, "We have evacuated a city." But in general they have been fighting since June 22 in the same place, always successfully; we are constantly being beaten back, and in this continued retreat we have slowly come to the Caucasus. I say "slowly"! 

    I should say that for my enemies, not for our soldiers. For the speed with which our soldiers have now traversed territory is gigantic. Also what was traversed this year is vast and historically unique. Now I do not always do things just as the others want them done. I consider what the others probably believe, and then do the opposite on principle. So if Mr. Stalin expected that we would attack in the center, I did not want to attack in the center, not only because Mr. Stalin probably believed I would, but because I didn't care about it any more at all. But I wanted to come to the Volga, to a definite place, to a definite city. It accidentally bears the name of Stalin himself, but do not think that I went after it on that account. 

    Indeed, it could have an altogether different name. But only because it is an important point, that is, there 30 million tons of traffic can be cut off, including about 9 million of oil shipments. There all the wheat pours in from those enormous territories of the Ukraine, of the Kuban territory, then to be transported to the North. There the manganese ore was forwarded. A gigantic terminal was there; I wanted to take it. And do you know, we're modest: that is, we have it; there are only a couple of very small places left there. 

    Now the others say: Why aren't you fighting there? Because I don't want to make a second Verdun but would rather do it with very small shock units. Time plays no part here. No ships come up the Volga any more-that is the decisive thing. 

    They have also reproached us, asking why it took us so long at Sevastopol? Because there, too, we did not want to cause an enormous mass murder. Blood is flowing as it is-more than enough. But Sevastopol fell into our hands, and the Crimea fell into our hands. We have reached goal after goal, stubbornly, persistently. 

    And if the enemy, on his part, makes preparations to attack, don't think I want to forestall him there, but at the same moment we let him attack also. Because then defense still is less expensive. Then just let him attack; he'll bleed to death that way, and thus far we have always taken care of the situation anyhow. 

    At any rate, the Russians are not at the Pyrenees or before Seville; that, you see, is the same distance as for us to be in Stalingrad today, or on the Terek, let us say;-but we are there; that can really not be disputed. That is a fact, after all. 

    Naturally, when nothing else will do any more, they also say it's a mistake. Then they suddenly turn around and say: "It is absolutely a mistake for the Germans to have gone to Kirkenes, or to have gone to Narvik, or now perhaps to Stalingrad-what do they expect to do in Stalingrad? For Stalingrad is a capital mistake, a strategic mistake." We will just wait and see whether that was a strategic mistake. 

    We see already from present indications whether it was such a great mistake that we took possession of the Ukraine, that we-uh,-took possession of the ore region of Krivoi Rog, that we got our hands on the manganese ores, or whether it was really such a great mistake that we got hold of the Kuban region, the greatest granary in the entire world, perhaps, whether it was a mistake that we, and I can safely say this, have now destroyed or got into our own possession four-fifths or five-sixths of all their refineries, that we alone either have right in our hands or have completely shut off, a production of 9 or 10 million tons of oil, and we have further cut off the transportation of perhaps 7, 8 or 9 million tons over the Volga. 

    And everything else which we plan to do there, whether all-that was really so mistaken, we will soon see. Now I really don't know, if the English had managed to take the Ruhr valley, or the Rhine too, and then the Danube and the Elbe also, it would be-and then also Upper Silesia, that is just about the same as the Donetz region, and that is the Krivoi Rog ore region, and the Kerch ore region, if they had also after that got a portion of our petroleum sources, and if they had also got the Magdeburg Stock Exchange, whether they would still say to us: "We made a great mistake to take those things away from the Germans." That was an extraordinary mistake. 

    If they impose on their own very narrow-minded, provincial people with that, uh-there may be a certain number of them who will believe it. And yet everyone does not seem to believe it, because you do hear press comments which sometimes become very angry, and say that they should leave off with that stuff now. If they say that in order to impose on us, well, I must say then that they are really confusing present-day Germany with a Germany which may have existed numberless centuries ago. They cannot convince present-day Germany of that, and if they perhaps wish to convince me, then I can only say: "I have never yet made my strategic plans according to the receipts or ideas of others." 

    It was certainly a mistake that we made the break through France that time and went around from above; but still it paid. In any case the English have been marched out of France, even after they had been in France for a rather long period of time. I believe that they had frequently boasted that they had 1,000,000 men there, and we don't want to forget one thing, my Party comrades men and women,-they were then very near to our borders. They had 13 divisions there, and besides that more than 130 French divisions, approximately another 24 Belgian divisions, and also 20 Dutch divisions, all right at our borders on our Rhine, and where are they now? 

    And so if they say today that they are for all I care advancing somewhere or other in the desert, well, they have already-made advances several times before, and they moved back again. The decisive thing in this war is who will deal the final blow, and you can be sure of it that we will be the one. 

    It's the same way with their production. Of course they manufacture everything and above all, they make everything much better than we do. Whenever the Americans come out with something new,-for instance, I read a few days ago that they have constructed a new submarine,-as I read it, I thought at once: "Surely, that will again be the best." And I was right. It said below: "The best submarine in the world, with by far the most ingenious construction. It is fastest in submerging and the best in every respect." Compared to them we are real amateurs in the construction of submarines. 

    My German racial comrades, we are not asleep. Our builders are not asleep either, and let me point out only one thing to you. During the winter of 1939-1940 a certain Mr. Churchill stated: "The submarine danger is eliminated. Hitler is finished." He has destroyed two, three, five submarines daily. At that time, he destroyed more than we even had then. He was exhausted. He had destroyed nothing, for then I again committed a very great error. The error was: I had only a very small number of our submarines fighting and held back the greater part of the submarines in order to train the crews for the new submarines being launched. 

    At that time the number of submarines operating against the enemy was so small that I am today still ashamed even to speak of it. Most of them, more than nine-tenths, remained at that time in our home waters and trained the new crews, for we started mass production at a certain moment. They just can't comprehend anything but American mass production. They always act as if they are the only ones who understand it. We understand it just as well. When they say they build so-and-so many warships per year-well, when they count all their corvettes and all their uh-uh-herring boats and the rest of them and stick a cannon on them, they act as if this . . . If we figure in everything, then I guarantee that we are not building fewer ships, only I think we are building more useful ships than they. 

    In any case, this has again been proved. We have now at any rate sunk more than 24,000,000 tons, that is almost 12,000,000 tons more than in the World War, in all. And the number of U-boats is considerably greater than the number of U-boats in the World War. And we go on building and constructing and do it with all types of weapons, and when the gentlemen over there say they have wonderful new weapons, then they haven't the slightest idea whether we haven't possessed a better one for a long time already. 

    And here it is my practice only to put out a new weapon when the old one actually is of no use any more. Why disclose new weapons in advance? So far this policy has always proved right. We have always had worse weapons. Of course. We have worse soldiers. That is perfectly clear. We had a far worse organization. Who should be surprised at that? If one compares the organization of such geniuses as-uh-Churchill and Duff Cooper and Chamberlain and all those people, or even Roosevelt, this organizer of . . . 

    If one compares these people, then, from the point of view of organization, we, of course, were nothing but blunderers. That is true. But so far we have achieved one success after another. Regarding internal affairs, my dear party members, it has been just the same. We were also continuously worse in internal affairs. We have been incompetent. We have had no qualifications at all, but one day we came into power. That was decisive. 

    It is understandable that one may not expect a new success perhaps each week in a struggle of world-wide extent such as we are confronted with today. That is an impossibility. Neither is it at all decisive. Decisive is the fact of gradually occupying the positions which must (eventually) crush the enemy, of holding and of fortifying those positions in such a way that they cannot be retaken. You may well believe me: Whatever we once conquer, we actually hold on to so tightly that in this way at least no one else can dislodge us from wherever we gain a foothold. You may rely upon that. 

    Furthermore, this war has been actually far extended to our allies, the Italians, the Rumanians, the Hungarians, and the Finns and all the other European peoples, such as the Slovaks, the Croats, and the Spaniards, to the volunteers, . . . the Nordic volunteers. A real world power has been achieved, a world power which also has been suffering continuous defeats. 

    Since the beginning of Japan's entrance, there were nothing but failures; everything the Japanese did was a mistake. But when the mistakes are added up, the result amounts to something brilliant. Just in this process they have acquired about 98 percent of the rubber production of the Americans. In this process they have acquired the greatest tin production in the world. They have acquired an enormous wool production. They have acquired gigantic oil wells. So if you do nothing but make such mistakes and this is the result, you can be quite content. 

    And conversely, the others have carried out none but the right operations. Full of genius, brave, heroic, calculating, they have indeed great generals, MacArthur, or Wavell, or one of those very great ones such as the world has never seen before. In between, the generals are already writing books about the other generals. And in spite of this, in spite of all this, the people who had no generals have first of all got a bit further in the war than those blessed with generals. Thus I can speak on the very day that brings us indeed the recollection of the greatest collapse of our movement, a collapse which at that time really seemed to mean also . . . the end of the Party. All our enemies (were certain) that National Socialism was dead. 

    Now on that very day I can only say: For us National Socialists, recollection must now mean an enormous strengthening, a strengthening for the defiance of all dangers, never to waver and never to yield, to meet every emergency with courage and to hold out even when the enemy is ever so menacing. 

    There one must really adopt Luther's precept: "And if the world were full of devils, we must and shall succeed." Precisely today we look into the future with so much confidence, now that we have survived the past winter, a winter which indeed we could not comprehend in all its terrible danger when I spoke to you a year ago. Today I look into the future quite differently. 

    That time somehow, many even leading and thinking people were oppressed by the recollection of Napoleon's fate in 1812, and the winter of 1812 was exactly 50 percent as cold as the winter we put behind us last year. 

    This year we are indeed prepared quite differently. Here too, this or that person may lack this or that and miss it, and so on. Then, in any case, we turn to the nation with the request that it might give this, perhaps, or give that or contribute something else besides, but for this winter we are equipped differently. That I can say. Even if it should prove to be exactly as severe as the last one, all that happened to us this last winter will no longer happen to us this time. 

    And I have already said once: A great philosopher declared that when a blow does not knock a man down it only makes him stronger. There I can only say: The blow which did not knock us down last winter has only made us stronger. 

    It is immaterial where the front may be, Germany will always ward off the blows and will always advance and attack, and I do not doubt for a moment that our method will be successful in the end.

    If today Roosevelt conducts his attack upon North Africa with the remark that he must protect it from Germany and from Italy and so on, we need not waste words regarding these lies by this one scoundrel. He is beyond a doubt the chief gangster of this whole outfit we are confronting. But one may be sure that Mr. Roosevelt will certainly not have the last decisive word in the matter. 

    We shall prepare all our blows thoroughly, as we always have done, and they always have been struck at the right time. And not one blow which the others intended to strike against us so far has been successful. There was once triumphant shouting, when the first Englishman landed at Boulogne and then advanced. Six months later this triumphant shouting was over. Events turned out differently. They will be different again, today. 

    You may have full confidence. Your leaders and the Armed Forces will do all that must be done and all that can be done. And I have unyielding confidence that, above all, the German homeland is behind the leadership and the armed forces, and that the entire National Socialist Party particularly, stands behind me as one pledged community. That which distinguishes our period from the last one is the fact that at that time the people did not stand behind the Kaiser while behind me stands one of the most splendid organizations that has ever been built up on this earth, and that organization represents the German people. 

    Vice versa, however, what distinguishes the present time from then is the fact that at the head of this people there is no one who would ever, in critical times, go to a foreign land, but that at the head of this people is someone who has never known anything but struggle, and who has always known but one principle: "Strike, strike and strike again." 

    Another factor distinguishes the present German people from those of that time. Then there was a leadership that had no roots in the people, because in the last analysis it had been a . . . 

    Today we are in the midst of the completion of what grew out of the war of that time, because when I returned from the war I brought the front experience into the homeland with me. From that front experience I built up at home my National Socialist community of the people. 

    Today the National Socialist community of the people goes to the front, and you will perceive from many things how this Wehrmacht grows more National Socialistic from month to month, how it constantly takes on more and more the imprint of the new Germany, how all privileges, class prejudices and so on are being eliminated more and more, how the German community of the people here becomes more dominant from month to month, and how at the end of-this war the German community of the peoples will have proved itself most in this very war, perhaps. This distinguishes the present Germany from the Germany of that time. 

    And to this we owe, on the one hand, immeasurable heroism at the front, a heroism of millions of iron soldiers, known and unknown, a heroism of tens and tens of thousands of brave officers who today feel themselves more and more in closer community with their men. They have in part already sprung from these men. They have in fact put aside all obstacles. 

    Just as in the Party, anyone can reach any position, if he is capable, and just as even the poorest child of our nation can aspire to any government position, even the highest one, ever since this Party has been in power, so also it is exactly the same in the armed forces. And as a matter of fact not only theoretically, or merely as an exception which occurs here and there, but in actual practice. Today there are the Oak Leaf wearers, the subordinate officers or the corporals. Knight's Crosses were given to numerous iron men who have distinguished themselves heroically. Countless officers have advanced from the ranks. We are building an army in the midst of the war which is unparalleled in the history of the world. 

    And back home, on the other hand, a people is working, and here I must also state before the German homeland what I have already stated in the Reichstag: In the year 1917-1918, the munitions factories went on strike. Today we have overtime, and work and more work. Today the-German worker in the homeland knows that he is forging the weapons for his comrades out there (on the front). 

    What is being accomplished here in the country and in the city, by men, and above all also by innumerable women, is tremendous. It is also quite clear, that there is one sphere in which we can not compete with our opponents. 

    Just as at one time the Party was the poorest among the parties existing then, and members solely on the strength of idealism, so it is natural today also that the German nation is perhaps the poorest of all the nations in the world as regards its gold reserves. 

    We have no gold. But what we have, is a capacity for work which is a real value. What we have, is sacred industriousness and a sacred will, and that is in the long run a thousand times more decisive than gold in such a struggle for life or death. 

    For of what value are their gold treasure (Translators note: Uses English term "treasures") to the Americans now, except for having dentures made, or something of that sort? But of what real benefit is that to them? If they had ten synthetic rubber factories instead of gold, that would be worth more to them, than the entire gold reserves, which they have accumulated. I have had other things built for me. In any case we didn't go into this war with gold, but with the provisions necessary for the conduct of this struggle, and anyway we Germans do not have a tank which is without rubber treads but the English do have them today. 

    We will see the war through as to material, and better than ever now. For they have put us in possession of regions providing raw materials which are necessary in order to be able to last through this war under all circumstances. And if anyone says, "Well, why don't we see more of it?" well, it's very simple. 

    Don't get the idea, my internationalist gentlemen, or whatever I might call them-that we just stood there in front of the destroyed railroad bridges or the destroyed railroad tracks or the destroyed water power works or the destroyed ore mines or the destroyed coal mines and, our hands in our pockets, and contemplated them at length. During these years work has been done, and how! And now it is gradually beginning to pay dividends. 

    And when next year comes, only then will the fruits of this labor really appear, and I can say here with pride that the party has proven itself mightily in this, and innumerable brave party comrades are out there and are organizing with a handful of persons as experienced National Socialist district leaders or local group leaders, and are organizing gigantic regions, and opening up making these regions available for our efficient industrial economy, our nourishment, and in fact, in a broader sense, for the feeding and maintenance of all of Europe. 

    For this is not a war which Germany is waging for herself alone, but it is a war which is actually being fought for Europe, and only thus is it understandable that such willing-that so many willing volunteers have been found from the North to the South who are in part fighting in our own ranks and in part are arrayed as independent armies or independent detachments with us in this most tremendous front of world history. Therefore, it is our irrevocable determination that the peace which will come some time, because it has to come, will really be a peace for Europe, and one without the sponsorship of those men with the fine instinct for idealism and material values. 

    For what instinct Mr. Eden has for idealism we don't know. He has never proved nor shown it anywhere. His behavior doesn't indicate it either. Above all, the culture of his own country is by no means such as could possibly impress us. Of the man across the ocean I shall not speak at all in this connection. So their instinct for idealism is surely smaller than our instinct, for we probably have given more idealism to the world than the society which is in care of Mr. Eden. The same applies to the people who are our allies; some of them look back upon cultures compared to which the culture of the English Island kingdom is really an infinitely young, not to say infantile, culture. 

    Regarding the material values, however, I believe them; they do have a fine instinct for them. But we have it too. The only difference is that we want to make sure under all circumstances that the material values of Europe will in the future benefit the European peoples also, and not an extra-continental little international finance's clique-that is our unshakable and inexorable resolve. The people of Europe are not fighting afterwards so that a few people of fine instincts should again come along and begin to plunder mankind and make millions of unemployed, just in order to fill their vaults. 

    We had good reason to depart from the gold standard. We wished to eliminate in that way one of the conditions for this kind of economic conception and economic management. And this is very certain: Europe will come out of this war much healthier economically than before, because a large part of this continent, which was hitherto organized against Europe, has now been placed in the service of the European nations. 

    If now I am told: "Ha, ha, so you want to transplant the Dutch," well, I want to transplant no one, but I believe there will be many people who will be happy to get a bit of earth of their own and to be able to work on it, and not to have to drudge and slave, as is partly the case in this over-settled and overfilled continent. Above all, however, they will be happy if they themselves get the benefit of the reward for this work, if their peoples benefit, if their working men and women benefit, and not a vault which is in the Bank of London, if you wish, or in New York. I believe therefore that at the end of this war there will be collapse of this domination of gold, externally also, and thereby the collapse of this whole society which is to blame for this war. 

    We all know the mission of the National Socialist Party. I need not repeat it today. We started out to fight this enemy in the interior, we have done everything to find our way through this world by our work. What have we not organized! They have laughed at us, yes, always they have laughed whenever we had new substitute materials (Ersatzstoffe). We have not done this for pleasure. We were compelled to do it. Either millions of men would have not had work and unbelievable values would not have been produced or we would have had to adapt ourselves to new methods. We have done it. 

    By performing this work we have simultaneously identified ourselves with peace, for by doing so we wanted to maintain peace. Our enemies have rejected it. National Socialism was a fighting phenomenon, for many, many years in the interior, and today it has to be one against the exterior, there against the surroundings against the outside world. And so I expect each party member, above all, to be a representative of this faith in victory and in success, with the utmost fanaticism just as he was during the period of the struggle. Today it is much easier than it was then. Today, I must admire each of my party members of that party, all these many small men, who believed in the unknown nameless soldier of the world war, these men, who followed me at that time, who placed their lives at my disposal, so many of them who gave their lives, not only here, at that time in the old Reich, but also in the Eastern territories and in the Sudeten country, and also elsewhere in other countries. 

    I must admire them. They followed me at that time, when I was an absolutely unknown man. Today there appears before all of us together, the powerful, great Reich, and above all, what stands before us is the "to be or not to be" of our entire nation. Every National Socialist who believed in me then, can still be a fanatic for the fight on the outside today, and he must struggle through to the same fanatical consistency that we possessed at that time. We have opponents. There can be no mercy allowed them. On the contrary there is only one possibility: Either we fall or our opponent falls. We are aware of that, and we are men enough to look this knowledge straight in the eye, cool as ice. And that differentiates me from those gentlemen, in London and America; if I require much of the German soldier, I am demanding no more than I myself have always been ready to do also. 

    If I demand this of the German nation, I am calling for no more work than I myself do also. If I require overtime work of many of them, I don't even know what overtime is in my life. That I don't know at all. For every individual has the good for tune, perhaps, that at a certain time he can leave his work and then he is free. My work is the fate of the Reich. I can't leave it. It pursues me day and night, because I have stepped to the head of the nation. 

    In these days of gray misery and wretchedness and grief and ruin, any leave at all for me would be ridiculous. After all, what is leave? A leave is always in my eyes one single thing; it is Germany, it is my people, it is its future, it is the future of its children. Therefore I demand from no one else . . . therefore I demand from no one else more than I demand of myself, or what I am ready to do myself.
    I know that my old party comrades now actually constitute the core of this movement, and that in memory of the first blood sacrifices offered by us at that time, they are already leading the nation with their example, and that they are being joined by all the hundreds and hundreds of thousands, the millions, of National Socialist functionaries, of party members, and those who belong to the organizations associated with us are marching with us, all of our men of the Storm Troops, of the S. S. (Schutzstaffel or Elite Guard), are marching with us, the men of our Labor Front are marching with us, the men of the Reich Labor Service; in short, the entire National Socialist German people. 

    The wonderful thing today is that we are not isolated like people crying in the wilderness, as was once the case with me, but that every word which we address to the nation today, finds a thousand-fold echo. 

    And if the foe believes that he can soften us by any means whatsoever, he is mistaken. Nor can he influence me to turn aside from an objective. The hour strikes and then I hit back and I do it with interest and compound interest. 

    You will remember the long period when we had to be legal as party comrades. How often did my old party comrades come to me and say: "Fuehrer" and they also called me "Chief" in those days, or they said "Adolf Hitler, why may we not strike back? Why do we have to take that?" For years I had to force them repeatedly to be legal. 

    I had to expel party members from the movement with an aching heart, because they believed that they could not obey this command, year after year, until finally the hour came, when I could call upon them. 

    And that's the way it is today too. Sometimes for months at a time I have to let things go somewhere. But don't you believe that that does not make my heart feel like bursting with anger when I hear about these air-raids. You know that I did not do those things for months. I did not allow a single bomb to be dropped in the city of Paris. Before we attacked Warsaw, I called for surrender five times, I was always refused. I asked that at least the women and children be sent out. Not even the officer bearing the flag of truce was received. Everything was refused, and only then did I decide to do what is permitted by every law of war. 

    When the English started to drop their bombs, I waited three and a half months and did nothing. At that time there were many who said: "Why don't we answer them? Why isn't . . . ? We were already strong enough to do it. I waited, thinking simply that perhaps they would still come to their senses.
    It turned out differently. Believe me, it is no different today. I am taking note of it all. They will still learn over there that the German spirit of invention has not rested, and they will get such an answer that it will leave them dizzy. 

    And I have already had to tell the people several times before that the fact that now and then I don't talk for a long time, does not mean that I have lost my voice, but it means only that I did not consider it expedient to talk. Today it is the same. Why should I talk a lot now? Today in the last analysis it is the front that talks. Everything else is babble. Only on the rarest occasion would I like to take the floor, because what the front says is so forceful, it is such a unique language, that it is binding upon every single German anyway. Whoever reads the army communiqué or the Wehrmacht communiqué and then does not make himself fanatically one with his people, after hearing over and over again this tremendous number of heroic deeds, cannot be helped by talk either. 

    And as for the outside world-well, I do not speak for the benefit of the outside world at all. I have never yet spoken for the outside world. I speak only for my German people. Whether people abroad listen to me or not is entirely immaterial to me. 

    If Mr. Roosevelt says he does not hear my speeches, I can only say, I do not talk for Mr. Roosevelt's benefit at all. Once he accosted me by telegraph, and thereupon I gave him my reply, as a polite man would, but otherwise I do not talk to Mr. Roosevelt at all. I now talk through that instrument through which one can only talk today and that instrument talks loud and distinct enough. 

    Otherwise I talk only on the rarest occasions to the movement and to my own German people, and all that I can say for such a speech is only one thing: Think incessantly, men and women, only of the fact that this war will decide the "To be or not to be" of our people. And if you understand that, each one of your thoughts and each of your actions will be one single prayer for our Germany.

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    On this date, November 9, 1938, The Nazi German diplomat Ernst vom Rath dies from the fatal gunshot wounds of Jewish resistance fighter Herschel Grynszpan, an act which the Nazis used as an excuse to instigate the 1938 national pogrom, also known as Kristallnacht (Crystal Night). I will post information about this Holocaust antisemitic incident from Wikipedia and other links.


    Interior of Berlin's Fasanenstrasse Synagogue, opened in 1912, after it was set on fire during Kristallnachton November 9, 1938. It was destroyed entirely during an Allied air raid on Berlin in 1943, and a Jewish Community Center was opened in its place in 1959.

    Nazi Germany and Austria (then part of Germany)
    9–10 November 1938
    Jewish population of Germany and Austria
    Attack type
    Pogrom, looting, arson
    Sturmabteilung (SA) stormtroopers, German & Austrian civilians

    Kristallnacht (German pronunciation:[kʁɪsˈtalnaχt]; English: "Crystal Night"), also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, or Reichskristallnacht[ˌʁaɪçs.kʁɪsˈtalnaχt], Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome, was a pogrom (a series of coordinated attacks) against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and Austria on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and non-Jewish civilians. German authorities looked on without intervening. The name Kristallnachtcomes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after Jewish-owned stores, buildings, and synagogues had their windows smashed.

    At least 91 Jews were killed in the attacks, and 30,000 were arrested and incarcerated in concentration camps. Jewish homes, hospitals, and schools were ransacked, as the attackers demolished buildings with sledgehammers. Over 1,000 synagogues were burned (95 in Vienna alone) and over 7,000 Jewish businesses destroyed or damaged. Martin Gilbert writes that no event in the history of German Jews between 1933 and 1945 was so widely reported as it was happening, and the accounts from the foreign journalists working in Germany sent shock waves around the world. The Times wrote at the time: "No foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults on defenseless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday."

    The pretext for the attacks was the assassination of the German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan, a German-born Polish Jew living in Paris. Kristallnachtwas followed by additional economic and political persecution of Jews, and is viewed by historians as part of Nazi Germany's broader racial policy, and the beginning of the Final Solution and The Holocaust.



    Early Nazi persecutions

    Expulsion of Polish Jews in Germany

    Shooting of vom Rath


    Death of vom Rath


    Concentration camps


    Responses to Kristallnacht

    From the Germans

    From the global community

    Kristallnacht as a turning point

    Modern response


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    On this date, November 9, 2005, a Malaysian Terrorist, Dr. Azahari Husin was killed in a police raid in Indonesia. I will post information about him from Wikipedia.

    Azahari Husin
    Dr. Azahari bin Husin (14 September 1957 – 9 November 2005), also Azahari Husin, Azhari Husin, was a Malaysian who was believed to be the technical mastermind behind the 2002 Bali bombing. He was killed in a police raid on his hideout in Indonesia in 2005. He was nicknamed the "Demolition Man".


    He received extensive bomb training in Afghanistan. He authored the JI bomb manual, used in the Bali bombing and the 2003 Marriott Hotel bombing. He also planned the 2004 Jakarta embassy bombingand was implicated in the 2005 Bali bombings. Prior to his death, he was one of the most wanted men in Indonesia along with Noordin Mohammed Top.

    In July 2004, Husin and Noordin narrowly escaped a police raid on a rented house west of Jakarta, where forensic experts later found traces of explosives used in the embassy bombing. Neighbours described both as reclusive men who left the property only to pray at a nearby mosque; and they said that before the bombing, they saw the duo loading heavy boxes into a white delivery van which is the same type used in that attack.

    Before the Marriott Hotel bombing, Husin is known to have stayed with Asmar Latin Sani, the suspected Marriott suicide bomber, at his home in Bengkulu on the island of Sumatra.

    Both men were close associates of Jemaah Islamiyah's former operational chief, Riduan Isamuddin (better known as Hambali), who was captured in Thailand in 2003.


    On 9 November 2005, Indonesian police, acting on a tip-off, located Husin. They conducted a raid on one of his hideouts in Batu, near Malang in East Java with Detachment 88operators sent to assist regular police officers. Three suspected jihadist terrorists barricaded themselves inside a house and they put up stiff resistance, throwing grenades and firing bullets at the police outside. This was followed by a series of explosions, one of which was a suicide blast by his assistant setting off his bomb vest. Police identified the intact corpse of Azahari, with a bullet wound in his chest. Husin was shot and killed by a police sniper, after which one of his disciples blew himself up to prevent him from being taken alive.

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    On this date, November 9, 2005, Suicide bombers attacked three hotels in Amman, Jordan, killing at least 60 people. I will post information about the female suicide bomber who survived the bombing from Wikipedia before giving my thoughts.

    Iraqi Sajida Mubarak al-Rishawi, 35, displayed her explosive belt during her televised confession.
    Sajida Mubarak Atrous al-Rishawi (born 1970) is an alleged attempted suicide bomber, who is believed to have taken part in the 2005 Amman bombingsin Jordan but survived when her explosive belt failed to detonate. She was the wife of Ali Hussein Ali al-Shamari, who killed 38 people during a wedding party in the bombings at the Amman Radisson hotel, and is reportedly the sister of a former close aide of deceased al-Qaida in Iraq leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi.

    She was later captured by Jordanian authorities and confessed on national TV. She was shown making a videotaped confession with an apparent suicide bomb device around her and a detonator in hand showing that the device failed to explode, but later retracted her confession.

    She was sentenced to death by hanging by a Jordanian military court on September 21, 2006. She appealed against this conviction but her appeal was dismissed in January 2007. As of October 4, 2010, she was in the process of appeal of her sentence.

                    I feel that the death sentence was just in this case. Although she survived when the bombs failed to activate, she should be charged for an attempted murder. What if she had succeed? One might said, “She is dead already!”
                True but she would have caused more lives too. She got what she deserve, please put her at the end of the rope.

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    On this date, 9 November 2008, the Amrozi A.K.A the Smiling Assassin was executed together with Imam Samudra and Ali Ghufron Mukhlas by firing squad in Nusa Kambangan Island, Indonesia. They were involved in the 2002 Bail Bombings

    From left to right: Ali Ghufron Mukhlas, Imam Samudra & Amrozi


    2. Imam Samudra

    3. Ali Ghufron Mukhlas



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  • 11/09/14--03:32: ABWEHR

  •             It is because of my respect and adoration of the German Resistance during the Third Reich, that I admire the German Military Intelligence; Abwehr during World War II. They inspired me to change my Blog from Force 1109 to Abwehr 1109. I will post information about this MI from Wikipedia and other links.

    German Resistance Memorial Center
    The Abwehr was a German military intelligence (information gathering) organization which existed from 1920 to 1945. Despite that the Treaty of Versailles prohibited the establishment of a German intelligence organization altogether, they formed an espionage group in 1920 anyway within their defence ministry, calling it the Abwehr with its purpose being the defence against foreign espionage - an organizational role which evolved considerably over time. As part of its implied task of counterespionage, the Abwehrgathered both domestic and foreign information, most of it human intelligence in nomenclature. Under General Kurt von Schleicher the individual military service intelligence units were combined and in 1929, placed under his Ministry of Defence, forming the foundation for the more commonly understood manifestation of the Abwehr. Each Abwehr station throughout Germany was based on military (army) districts and more offices were opened in amenable neutral countries and in the occupied territories as the greater Reich expanded. When Hitler replaced the Ministry of War with the OKW and made the organization part of the Führer's personal "working staff" in June 1938, the Abwehr became its intelligence agency and Vice-Admiral Wilhelm Canaris was placed at the head of the organization. The headquarters (HQ) of the Abwehr were located at 76/78 Tirpitzufer, Berlin, adjacent to the offices of the OKW.

    Before Canaris

    Under Canaris

    Before the War

    Canaris to Spain

    1938 reorganisation

    Ast / Abwehrstelle

    Operational structure in neutral countries

    Canaris and Die Schwarze Kapelle

    Pre-war activities and Abwehr intrigue

    During World War II

    Minor successes

    Commissar Order

    North Africa

    Questionable commitment

    Repression and NS complicity

    Undermining the regime

    The Frau Solf Tea Party and the end of the Abwehr

    Effectiveness and Legacy


    See also
    Grams, Grant W.: “Enemies within our bosom, Nazi Sabotage in Canada”, in John Ferris, Jim Keeley, Terry Terriff (eds.) Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, 2012.


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                As of November 9, 2014, I name my blog, Abwehr 1109 and I will introduce my blog to all.

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  • 11/09/14--03:33: THE FIRING SQUAD

  • If we can send The Seal Team Six to kill Osama Bin Laden and other terrorists. Why can we not use them as the firing squad to kill all guilty murderers in America?

           The Firing Squad is one of my favorite method of execution, as it is much more frightening and more painful than the painless death of lethal injection.

    I did mention that if nobody wants to be an executioner, we can hire a Saudi Arabian Executioner to do the profession. My second option is to order the soldiers to do the job, as they are trained to kill, in this case, the firing squad. I agree with the idea of using a single live bullet with the rest of the bullets are dummies as it will prevent any of the shooters from knowing who fired the fatal shot. As one of my beloved judges, Sir James Fitzjames Stephen said:

    “There is as much moral cowardice in shrinking from the execution of a murderer as there is in hesitating to blow out the brains of a foreign invader.”

    I will post some information from about The Firing Squad from Wikipedia, before recommending two different types of rifles for the execution and give some names of people whose blood were shed by the firing squad.

    German soldiers captured as spies are tied to posts wearing marked American combat fatigues during Post World War II.
    Execution by firing squad, sometimes called fusillading (from the French fusil, rifle), is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in the military and in times of war. Execution by shooting is a fairly old practice. Some reasons for its use are that firearms are usually readily available and a gunshot to a vital organ usually kills the subject relatively quickly. Before the introduction of firearms, bows or crossbows were often used — Saint Sebastian is usually depicted as executed by a squad of Roman auxiliary archers in around 288 AD; King Edmund the Martyr of East Anglia, by some accounts, was tied to a tree and shot dead by Viking archers on 20 November 869 or 870 AD.

    A firing squad is normally composed of several soldiers or law enforcement officers. Usually, all members of the group are instructed to fire simultaneously, thus preventing both disruption of the process by a single member and identification of the member who fired the lethal shot. The prisoner is typically blindfolded or hooded, as well as restrained, although in some cases prisoners have asked to be allowed to face the firing squad without their eyes covered. Executions can be carried out with the condemned either standing or sitting. There is a tradition in some jurisdictions that such executions are carried out at first light, or at sunrise, which is usually up to half an hour later. This gave rise to the phrase "shot at dawn".

    Execution by firing squad is distinct from other forms of execution by firearms, such as an execution by a single firearm to the back of the head or neck. However, the single shot (coup de grâce) is sometimes incorporated in a firing squad execution, particularly if the initial volley turns out not to be immediately fatal.

    Military significance

    Blank cartridge

    By country














    South Africa


    United Arab Emirates

    United Kingdom

    United States

    As for what firearm to be used in the firing squad, there are two rifles recommended by my friend, who loves weapons. They are:

    1. FN FAL Rifle

    FAL 50.63 variant, featuring a folding-stock and reduced barrel length.
    2. M14 Rifle

    M1 Garand with en bloc clips.

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                On this date, November 12, 2013, a rapist-killer, Darius Mark Kimbrough was executed by lethal injection in Florida. He was convicted of the October 3, 1991 murder of Denis Collins. Please go to the Unit 1012 Blog to learn more about the victim.

    Darius Mark Kimbrough
    The victim, Denise Collins

    Summary: Denise Collins was discovered in her bathroom by paramedics. She was nude, semiconscious, and covered in blood. The sliding glass door on her second-floor apartment was partially open, and there were ladder impressions on the ground under the balcony. Collins was rushed to the hospital but died shortly thereafter. DNA evidence showed that the semen taken from the bed sheets matched Kimbrough, and some of the pubic hairs matched his. However, additional pubic hairs from another unidentified black male and a Caucasian male were also found. The DNA evidence indicated that the blood samples taken from the bed matched Kimbrough. A workman at the apartment complex identified Kimbrough as the man who had watched him put away a ladder in the complex at the time of the murder. The crime went unsolved until Kimbrough was arrested for raping a 22-year-old woman in March 1992. He was sentenced to 10 1/2 years for burglary and sexual battery. DNA from that attack was then used to connect him to the Collins assault. 

    Kimbrough v. State, 700 So. 2d 634 (Fla. 1997). (Direct Appeal)
    Kimbrough v. State, 886 So. 2d 965 (Fla. 2004). (PCR)
    Kimbrough v. Sec'y, DOC, 565 F.3d 796 (11th Cir. Fla. 2009). (Habeas) 

    Final / Special Meal:
    Two slices of pizza, fried green tomatoes, fried chicken, chicken gizzards, chocolate-chip ice cream and fruit punch. 

    Final Words:

    Internet Sources:

    Florida Department of Corrections
    DC Number: 374123
    Race: BLACK
    Sex: MALE
    Hair Color: BLACK
    Eye Color: BROWN
    Height: 5'09"
    Weight: 237 lbs.
    Birth Date: 12/04/1972

    Current Prison Sentence History:
    03/09/1992 BURGLARY ASSAULT ANY PERSON 12/15/1993 ORANGE 9202630 10Y 6M 0D
    03/09/1992 SEX BAT/INJURY NOT LIKELY 12/15/1993 ORANGE 9202630 10Y 6M 0D
    10/03/1991 1ST DG MUR/PREMED. OR ATT. 12/09/1994 ORANGE 9210868 DEATH SENTENCE
    10/03/1991 SEX BAT/ WPN. OR FORCE 12/09/1994 ORANGE 9210868 SENTENCED TO LIFE 

    Incarceration History: 12/19/1994 to 11/12/2013 

    Darius Mark Kimbrough

    The victim, Denise Collins, was found nude and semi-conscious in her bathroom by paramedics;?she was covered with blood. The sliding glass door to her second floor apartment was partially open, and there were some ladder impressions under the balcony. Collins was rushed to the hospital, where she died soon thereafter. The officers took semen evidence from the bed sheets, took blood evidence from the victim, and found pubic hairs in the bed and in a towel. The samples were sealed in a bag and sent to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement lab for analysis. 

    A resident of the apartment complex named Lee told officers that he had twice seen a man in the vicinity of the apartment and had seen a ladder on the apartment's balcony. Officers were unsuccessful in searching for the man, but later Lee identified Kimbrough from a picture lineup. A workman in the complex identified Kimbrough as a man who had watched him putting away a ladder in the complex around the time of the murder. The DNA evidence showed that the semen taken from the bed sheets was compatible with Kimbrough's, and some of the pubic hairs matched his. There were, however, additional pubic hairs from another unidentified black man and a caucasian male. The DNA evidence indicated that the blood samples taken from the bed matched Kimbrough's. The medical examiner testified at trial that the victim had a fractured jaw and fracturing around her left temple. The cause of death was hemorrhaging and head injury in the brain area resulting from blunt injury to the face. There was also evidence of vaginal injury, including tears and swelling consistent with penetration. There were bruises on her arms. 

    The defense's theory suggested that the victim's ex-boyfriend had committed the crime since he was with the victim shortly before, had used a ladder before at her apartment, had a key, and had beaten her previously. The evidence of prior beating was excluded. In the sentencing order, the judge listed three aggravators: prior violent felony, committed during the course of a felony, and heinous, atrocious, or cruel. To support the prior violent felony aggravator, the judge cited Kimbrough's prior convictions for both burglary of a dwelling with battery therein and sexual battery. The court found that the murder here was committed during sexual battery or attempt to commit sexual battery, citing DNA evidence and bruising, as well as evidence that the victim and defendant did not know each other. The heinous nature of the crime was supported by the size of the victim, the three blows to her head causing fracture by blunt force, evidence of a struggle (the room was in disarray), and the amount of blood found around the room. The judge considered age as a statutory mitigator (Kimbrough was nineteen), but rejected it because there was no evidence establishing that he was immature or impaired. The court considered the following nonstatutory mitigation: Kimbrough had an unstable childhood, maternal deprivation, an alcoholic father, a dysfunctional family, and a talent for singing. The court found that the mitigation did not temper the aggravators. 

    Denise Collins was an aspiring artist at the time of her death. She went to high school in Titusville and attended colleges in Boston. She got a job at Kinko's in Orlando after earning a fine arts degree, but she wanted to be a graphic artist. She loved cats and was "big-hearted," said her mother. "She had a very pleasing personality. She was outgoing and laid-back," Stewart said. "She was very pretty, a very attractive girl." Collins spent her last evening listening to CDs at a friend's apartment along with other friends, including Gary Boodhoo, her former boyfriend. She returned to her apartment at night, and detectives believe she was attacked sometime between midnight and 4 a.m. the next day. 

    "He lived 22 years too long and too well and he's going to go out clean and easy, and he doesn't deserve it," said Diane Stewart, Collins' mother, in a recent telephone interview. "She didn't go out that way, and he doesn't deserve what he's getting. He should go out the way she did. That's how we feel." Stewart, who lives in New Jersey, said she planned to attend the execution with Collins' sister. Boodhoo recalled Collins as a loving person who did work in painting, drawing and collages. "There was such a beauty to her work, her personality, her relationship with others," Boodhoo said. "I'm just glad he's going to die ... I couldn't be happier about it. He's the worst kind of human being there is."

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                On this date, November 15, 2011, a rapist-killer, Oba Chandler was executed by lethal injection in Florida. I will post information about him from Wikipedia and other links.

    Mug shot of Oba Chandler
    October 11, 1946
    Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
    November 15, 2011 (aged 65)
    Raiford, Florida, United States
    Other names
    Dave Posner or Posno
    Building contractor
    Criminal penalty
    Death sentence
    Criminal status

    First degree murder, armed robbery

    Oba Chandler(October 11, 1946 – November 15, 2011) was an American man convicted and executed for the June 1989 triple murders of Joan Rogers and her two daughters, whose bodies were found floating in Tampa Bay, Florida, with their hands and feet bound. Concrete blocks had been tied to their necks and duct tape placed over their mouths. Autopsies showed the victims had been thrown into the water while still alive. The case became high-profile in 1992 when police posted billboards showing enlargements of samples of an unknown suspect's handwriting, which were found on a pamphlet in the victims' car. Chandler was identified as the killer when his neighbor recognized the writing. This was the first such use of billboards by police in the US and they became useful tools in later searches for missing people.

    Prior to his arrest, Chandler worked as an aluminum building contractor. He testified in his own defense against the advice of his attorneys and said that he had met the Ohio women and had given them directions, but said he never saw them again aside from in newspaper coverage and on the billboards set up by investigators. Police originally theorized that two men were involved in the murders of the Rogers women, but this was discounted once Chandler was arrested. Following his conviction, Chandler was incarcerated at Union Correctional Institution, and during his 17 years of incarceration until his execution, he was notable as not having had a single visitor.

    On October 10, 2011, Florida Governor Rick Scott signed a death warrant for Chandler, whose execution was set for November 15, 2011, at 4:00 pm. Chandler was executed with a lethal injection and was pronounced dead just after 4:25 pm. He wrote a last statement to prison officials which said, "You are killing a (sic) innocent man today"; it was read out at a post-execution news conference.

    In February 2014 DNA evidence identified Oba Chandler as the murderer of Ivelisse Berrios-Beguerisse, who was found dead in Coral Springs on November 27, 1990.

    Early life


    Crimes and incidents

    Murder victims


    Facts and arrest

    Second suspect theory


    Chandler's testimony


    Sentence and aftermath


    Coral Springs Murder

    Media on the subject


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                On this date, November 15, 1949, the assassin of Mahatma Gandhi, Nathuram Godse, was executed by hanging. I will post information about the assassin from Wikipedia.

    Nathuram Godse at his trial for the murder of Mahatma Gandhi

    19 May 1910
    Baramati, Pune District, Bombay Presidency, British India
    (now in Maharashtra, India)
    15 November 1949 (aged 39)
    Ambala Prison, Punjab Province, Dominion of India
    (now in Haryana, India)
    Cause of death
    Execution by hanging
    Known for
    Assassination of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

    Nathuram Vinayak Godse (19 May 1910 – 15 November 1949) was the sole assassin of Mahatma Gandhi—the pre-eminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India and apostle of non-violence—shooting Gandhi in the chest three times at point blank range on 30 January 1948 in New Delhi. Godse from Pune, Maharashtra, had been a member of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and Hindu Mahasabha. He left RSS in the early 1940s to form a militant organization, Hindu Rashtra Dal. He resented what he considered was Gandhi's partiality to India's Muslims, plotted the assassination with Narayan Apte and six others. After a trial that lasted over a year, Godse was sentenced to death on 8 November 1949. Although pleas for commutation were made by India's prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and by two of Gandhi's sons on the grounds that a death sentence would dishonour the legacy of a man opposed to all forms of violence, Godse was hanged a week later. This was the first execution in Independent India.

    Early life

    Nathuram Vinayakrao Godse was born at the nativity mission center, Pune District. His father, Vinayak Vamanrao Godse, was a post office employee and his mother was Lakshmi (née Godavari). At birth, he was named Ramachandra. Nathuram was given his name because of an unfortunate incident. Before he was born, his parents had three sons and a daughter, with all three boys dying in their infancy. Fearing a curse that targeted male children, young Ramachandra was brought up as a girl for the first few years of his life, including having his nose pierced and being made to wear a nose-ring (nath in Marathi). It was then that he earned the nickname "Nathuram" (literally "Ram with a nose-ring"). After his younger brother was born, they switched to treating him as a boy.

    Godse attended the local school at Baramati through the fifth standard, after which he was sent to live with an aunt in Pune so that he could study at an English-language school. During his school days, he highly respected Gandhi. In 1930, Nathuram's father was transferred to the town of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra.

    Political career

    Godse dropped out of high school and became an activist with Hindu nationalist organizations such as the Hindu Mahasabha, and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), although it is unclear how long this relationship endured. They were particularly opposed to the separatist politics of the All India Muslim League. Godse started a Marathi newspaper for the Hindu Mahasabha called Agrani, which some years later was renamed Hindu Rashtra.

    The Hindu Mahasabha had initially backed Gandhi's campaigns of civil disobedience against the British government.

    Godse later rejected Gandhi's philosophy, believing Gandhi repeatedly sabotaged the interests of Hindus by using the "fasting unto death" tactic on many issues. In Godse's view, Gandhi was giving in to Muslim interests in ways that seemed unfair and anti-national. He wasn't happy with Mahatma Gandhi's insistance of a united India. Godse believed parting ways with Pakistan would help maintain a clear majority for the Hindu population and would ensure Hindu rule. Such extremist views were common among right wing associations. This is a common understaing among a section of the general public behind his decision to kill Gandhi.

    A group photo of people accused in Gandhi's murder case. Standing: Shankar Kistaiya, Gopal Godse, Madanlal Pahwa, Digambar Badge (Approver). Sitting: Narayan Apte, Vinayak D. Savarkar, Nathuram Godse, Vishnu Karkare
    Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi

    Godse approached Gandhi on January 30, 1948 during the evening prayer at 5:17PM. When Godse bowed, one of the girls flanking and supporting Gandhi, said to Godse, "Brother, Bapu is already late" and tried to put him off, but he pushed her aside and shot Gandhi in the chest three times at point-blank range with a Beretta M 1934 semi-automatic pistol. Gandhi was taken to Birla House, where he later died.

    Trial and execution

    Following the assassination of Gandhi, Godse was put on trial at Peterhoff, Shimla which housed the Punjab High Court. On November 8, 1949, he was sentenced to death. Among those calling for commutation of the death sentence for the defendants were Jawaharlal Nehru, as well as two of Gandhi's sons, who felt that executing their father's killer would dishonour his memory and legacy which included a staunch opposition to the death penalty. Godse was hanged at Ambala Jail on November 15, 1949, along with Narayan Apte, a co-conspirator. Savarkar was also charged with conspiracy in the assassination of Gandhi, but was acquitted and subsequently released.


    Millions of Indians mourned Gandhi's assassination; the Hindu Mahasabha was vilified and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh was temporarily banned. However, investigators could find no evidence that the RSS bureaucracy had formally sponsored or even knew of Godse's plot. The RSS ban was lifted in 1949. The RSS, to this day, denies any connection with Godse, and disputes the claim that he was a member. However, Godse's brother, Gopal, claims that all Godse brothers were members of the RSS at the time of the assassination.

    In art

    The actor Horst Buchholz portrayed Nathuram Godse in the 1963 film Nine Hours to Rama.
    In the 1982 film Gandhi, the actor Harsh Nayyar portrayed Godse.

    The Marathi language play Me Nathuram Godse Boltoy (Marathi: मीनथुरामगोडसेबोलतोय) ("This is Nathuram Godse Speaking"), first staged in 1997, was also produced, but only from Godse's point of view.

    The film Hey Ram, made in 2000, also briefly touches upon events related to the assassination.

    Several books based on Nathuram Godse's life were banned by the Indian government:
    • Gandhi Vadh aur Main (Gandhi Hatya Aani Me), by Gopal Godse (1967)
    • May it Please your Honor!, published by Surya Bharti, India, (2003) - the play based upon the book was banned
    • Why I assassinated Mahatma Gandhi, published by Surya Bharti (1993)
    • Nine Hours to Rama, Stanley A. Wolpert (1962)

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                On this date, November 16, 2011, a pedophile from San Antonio, Texas, Guadalupe Esparza was executed by lethal injection in that state. He was convicted of the June 30, 1999 murder of 7-year-old Alyssa Vasquez. I will post information about him from

    Guadalupe Esparza

    The victim, 7-year-old Alyssa Vasquez
    Esparza, who was a registered sex offender after a 1985 rape, abducted 7 year old Alyssa Vasquez from her home while her mother was out and the babysitter was next door. He raped and strangled her, then abandoned her body in a nearby field. When the babysitter discovered the child missing, she saw Esparza running down the street. Esparza lived two miles away. Police recovered a blood spattered shirt and boxer shorts of Esparza in a nearby trash bin. Testimony of a cellmate and a guard at the County Jail confirmed that Esparza had admitted the murder to them. Scientific testing revealed that Esparza’s DNA was consistent with the DNA extracted from spermatozoa on Vasquez’s oral swab. The evidence was retested in 2001 with the same results.

    Esparza v. State, Not Reported in S.W.3d (Tex.Crim.App. 2003). (Direct Appeal)
    Esparza v. Thaler, 408 Fed.Appx. 787 (5th Cir. 2010). (Habeas)

    Final/Special Meal:

    Last Words:
    "To the family of Alyssa Vasquez, I hope you will find peace in your heart. My sympathy goes out to you. I hope you find it in your heart to forgive me. I don't know why all of this happened."

    Internet Sources:
    Texas Department of Criminal Justice - Executed Offenders (Esparza)

    Esparza, Guadalupe
    Date of Birth: 11/21/1964
    DR#: 999385
    Date Received: 05/25/2001
    Education: 10 years
    Occupation: bricklayer, cook, laborer
    Date of Offense: 06/30/1999
    County of Offense: Bexar
    Native County: Bexar
    Race: Hispanic
    Gender: Male
    Hair Color: Black
    Eye Color: Brown
    Height: 5' 4"
    Weight: 193 

    Prior Prison Record: #398586 on a 12 year sentence from Bexar County for one count of aggravated sexual assault. Released on parole on 07/27/1990. Returned from parole on 08/29/1993. #646560 on an 8 year sentence from Bexar County for possession of cocaine. released on mandatory supervision on 1/12/1996. 

    Summary of incident: On 06/06/1999 in San Antonio, Esparza kidnapped and sexually assaulted a 7 year old Hispanic female. Esparza then strangled the victim with his hands, causing her death.
    Co-Defendants: None. 

    Texas Attorney General

    Media Advisory: Monday, November 14, 2011 

    Media advisory: Guadalupe Esparza scheduled for execution 

    AUSTIN – Pursuant to a court order by the 175th District Court of Bexar County, Guadalupe Esparza is scheduled for execution after 6 p.m. on Wednesday, November 16, 2011. On March 6, 2001, a Bexar County jury found Esparza guilty of the kidnapping, sexual assault and murder of seven-year-old Alyssa Vasquez. 


    In its opinion on direct appeal, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals described the murder of Alyssa Vasquez as follows: . . .[O]n June 6, 1999, appellant [Esparza] abducted Alyssa Vasquez from her home while her mother was out and the babysitter was next door. He raped and strangled her, and abandoned her body in a nearby field . . . 

    . . .[O]n the night of the offense, before Alyssa Vasquez was discovered missing, appellant [Esparza] telephoned her residence several times and came by looking for her mother and asking when she was going to return home. The babysitter discovered that Vasquez was missing at around 2:30 a.m. and later observed appellant [Esparza] running down the street away from the residence. Police found appellant [Esparza] at his residence, which was one and one-half to two miles from Vasquez’s apartment, at approximately 4:00 a.m., and found appellant’s [Esparza’s] blood-spotted shirt and boxer shorts in a trash can outside the residence. The evidence also showed that appellant [Esparza] admitted his involvement in the offense to a detention guard and to a fellow inmate at the Bexar County Jail, and implied his involvement to another inmate; the only contrary evidence was appellant’s [Esparza’s] own testimony, in which he denied making these statements. Scientific testing revealed that appellant’s [Esparza’s] DNA was consistent with the DNA extracted from spermatozoa on Vasquez’s oral swab.


    On November 9, 1999, Esparza was indicted in the 175th District Court of Bexar County, Texas, for the capital murder of Alyssa Vasquez. Because Esparza was charged with committing the murder in the course of committing the offenses of sexual assault, kidnapping, and burglary, he was indicted for capital murder. 

    On March 6, 2001, Esparza was found guilty by a jury for the offense of capital murder as charged in the indictment. On March 15, 2001, following a separate punishment hearing, Esparza was sentenced to death. 

    On June 4, 2003, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals rejected Esparza’s direct appeal and affirmed his conviction and sentence. 

    On November 10, 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court rejected Esparza’s direct appeal when it denied his petition for writ of certiorari. 

    On February 28, 2007, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals ultimately adopted the trial court’s findings of fact and conclusions of law recommending that Esparza’s initial state application for habeas relief, filed in March 2003, be denied. The high court also found that Esparza’s subsequent application, filed in December 2003, did not meet any exception to the filing deadline, and dismissed the petition as an abuse of the writ. 

    On June 8, 2007, Esparza attempted to appeal his conviction and sentence by filing a pro se petition for federal habeas relief in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. The case was soon transferred to the Western District of Texas, San Antonio Division. 

    On September 21, 2007, Esparza, with the aid of counsel, filed an amended petition for federal habeas relief in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Texas. 

    On March 24, 2010, the federal district court denied Esparza the relief requested in his federal habeas petition, and also denied a COA. 

    On November 9, 2010, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit affirmed the district court’s denial of relief when it rejected Esparza’s request for a COA in an unpublished opinion. 

    On May 16, 2011, the U.S. Supreme Court again denied Esparza’s petition for certiorari. 

    On August 16, 2011, the trial court issued an order setting Esparza’s execution date for Wednesday, November 16, 2011. 

    On September 21, 2011, Esparza filed a third application for writ of habeas corpus with the state trial court. 

    On October 19, 2011, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals again dismissed Esparza’s subsequent state habeas application as an abuse of the writ. 


    Under Texas law, the rules of evidence prevent certain prior criminal acts from being presented to a jury during the guilt-innocence phase of the trial. However, once a defendant is found guilty, jurors are presented with information about the defendant’s prior criminal conduct during the second phase of the trial – which is when they determine the defendant’s punishment. 

    During the punishment phase of Esparza’s trial, jurors learned about Esparza’s criminal behavior and misconduct that stretched over a period of nearly 20 years. Testimony and exhibits established that Esparza, born in November 1964, was arrested for attempted arson in 1978 and received “informal adjustment” through Bexar County’s juvenile probation department instead of jail time. The following year, Esparza was arrested for attempting to steal a bicycle at knife point from a younger child. Though he was also arrested for criminal mischief, that charge was dismissed. 

    Jurors learned that in 1980, Esparza was suspended from high school. One former classmate testified that Esparza was a bully, and described how Esparza broke out the window of his family’s car with a pipe and threatened to beat him up at school the next day. Another former schoolmate testified that Esparza strangled and tried to sexually assault her in the woods late one night when she was 13 years old, but that she was able to run away. 

    Jurors also heard that in 1984, Esparza was convicted of assault causing bodily injury when he struck a man with a metal pipe and a baseball bat. The next year, Esparza was convicted and sentenced to 12 years’ imprisonment for committing an aggravated sexual assault, wherein he beat the victim with a loaded gun and forced her at gunpoint to submit to intercourse with him. During his incarceration, Esparza “constantly” caused trouble, physically attacked other inmates, and was an active member in a prison gang. In May 1989, Esparza and three other inmates attacked another inmate, who the correctional officer believed would have been killed had he and other officers not intervened. 

    While on parole for his aggravated sexual assault conviction, Esparza stole a car in May 1992 and conspired to steal the wheels off another car. Later, in May 1993, Esparza pled guilty to possession of cocaine and received an eight-year prison sentence. Esparza was paroled again in 1996, and was later cited for possessing narcotic paraphernalia, a Class C misdemeanor crime, in February 1998.
    Finally, jurors learned that in 1999, following his completion of a mandatory sex offender treatment program, Esparza attempted to engage in sexual relations with a seven-year-old child who was staying at the same apartment for the night. Approximately two weeks later, Esparza sexually assaulted and fatally strangled a different seven-year-old girl – Alyssa Vasquez. 

    Guadalupe Esparza
    Diana Berlanga, whose 7-year-old daughter Alyssa Vasquez was raped and strangled to death in 1999, is shown at her home.
    (Photo: Special To The Express-News, Jennifer Whitney / special to the Express-News)

    Texas Execution Information Center by David Carson.
    Guadalupe Esparza, 46, was executed by lethal injection on 16 November 2011 in Huntsville, Texas for the abduction, rape, and murder of a 7-year-old girl. 

    On 6 June 1999 at about 11 p.m., Diana Berlanga went out for the evening, leaving her daughter, Alyssa Vasquez, and two sons, Joel and Aaron Vasquez, in the care of Robin Wellbrock, who she had recently taken in as a roommate. 

    Moments after Berlanga left, Esparza, then 34, showed up. Berlanga and Esparza had seen each other socially for a few weeks, but Berlanga was friends with a woman whose sister, Connie Perez, knew Esparza as a teenager and warned her, "Stay away from him," so she had recently stopped taking his calls. Esparza came to Berlanga's west San Antonio apartment that Sunday night with three 32-ounce cans of beer to share with Berlanga and Wellbrock. Wellbrock took two of the beers and told Esparza to leave. 

    Later, Wellbrock went next door to visit with a neighbor. Upon her return at about 2:30 a.m., she found the front door open and noted that the television had been turned off while she was gone. She also found the green shorts Alyssa had been wearing on the floor. As she searched for Alyssa, she heard a trash bin lid close outside. She looked out and saw someone who appeared to be Esparza running down the street. 

    While Berlanga was still out, Alyssa's body was discovered in the tall grass behind a meat market near the apartments. She was naked from the waist down. Her legs were spread. Her face was swollen, scratched, and bruised. She had been raped and strangled. 

    At about 4:00 a.m., police arrested Esparza at his residence, which was a mile and a half to two miles from Berlanga's apartment. They also collected a blood-spotted shirt and boxer shorts that were in a trash can outside. Esparza's DNA was matched to sperm found in the victim's mouth. Her DNA was also found under his fingernails. 

    Esparza's criminal history extended back to his teens. At age 13, he and another boy were arrested for throwing a Molotov cocktail at a house. They were charged with attempted arson. The following year, Esparza was arrested for threatening a younger child with a knife while attempting to steal his bicycle. 

    Connie Perez, the woman who passed a warning along to Berlanga to stay away from Esparza, testified that he tried to rape and strangle her in the woods when she was 13, but she managed to run away. At age 19, Esparza was convicted of assault causing bodily injury after he struck a man with a metal pipe and a baseball bat. 

    In 1985, Esparza received a 12-year prison sentence for beating a woman with a gun and raping her. While in prison, he joined a gang. He and three other inmates attacked another inmate, who correctional officers testified would have been killed if not for their intervention. In July 1990, he was paroled as a result of Judge William Wayne Justice's orders to relieve overcrowding in Texas' prison system. 

    In May 1992, while on parole, Esparza stole a car. A year later, he pleaded guilty to cocaine possession and was returned to prison with an 8-year sentence. He was paroled again in January 1996. 

    At his trial, Esparza testified in his own behalf, against his attorneys' advice. He admitted that he was a registered sex offender at the time of the killing, but stated, "It was not with a child." When invited to elaborate by his attorney, he said, "I have nieces and nephews of my own and a 3-year daughter. I would never do that to a child, you know." 

    In response to Esparza's testimony, the state called Manuel and Teresa Longoria to testify. Manuel testified that in late May 1999, about one or two weeks prior to Alyssa's murder, he and his 7-year-old daughter Teresa were staying overnight at the home of Manuel's brother and sister-in-law. Esparza came to the house in the middle of the night, looking for a place to stay because his girlfriend had kicked him out. Manuel's brother and sister-in-law agreed to let him spend the night. Manuel and Teresa slept on couches in the living room, while Esparza slept on a chair in the same room.
    Teresa testified that she woke up in the middle of the night to find Esparza touching her on her stomach underneath her shirt. She ran to her cousin's room. Esparza followed her into the room, offered her a dollar bill, and told her to go into the bathroom with him. Teresa then ran into the living room and woke her father to tell him what happened. 

    Manuel testified that he confronted Esparza, who replied, "I didn't do nothing. I don't know what you are talking about." The two men then began arguing and fighting, and Manuel's brother made Esparza leave the house. 

    On rebuttal, Esparza claimed that Manuel and Teresa Longoria's allegations against him were false and were the result of "bad blood" between himself and Manuel. He stated that he was targeted as Alyssa's killer because he was a registered sex offender who lived nearby, who knew the victim's mother, and who just happened to have been at the victim's apartment on the night of her death. He claimed that the witnesses who testified against him were participants in a conspiracy organized by the district attorney's office, and he contested the accuracy and conclusiveness of the DNA evidence against him. 

    A jury convicted Esparza of capital murder in March 2001 and sentenced him to death. The Texas Court of Criminal Appeals affirmed the conviction and sentence in June 2003. All of his subsequent appeals in state and federal court were denied. Robin Wellbrock, the babysitter, died of a heart attack in 2004. 

    Esparza maintained his innocence in an interview from Death Row. He admitted that he went to the victim's apartment hoping to see her mother, but left when she wasn't there. "Diana wasn't there, and Robin told me she didn't want me there," he said, "So I went to a bar like, a mile away, Barton's Boozery." Esparza said while at the bar, he got into a fight and cut his hand on a bottle. He left at 2 a.m. and walked home. He threw away his clothes, which were bloodied from the cut, and crawled into bed with his girlfriend. "I wasn't there when she died, ma'am," he told the reporter. "I have a daughter. I always wanted to be a father. I'm not capable of doing anything like this." 

    Diana Berlanga, Joel Vasquez, and other members of Alyssa's family attended Esparza's execution. Esparza placed three of his siblings on his witness list, but they did not show up. Two of his friends were present. "To the family of Alyssa Vasquez, I hope you will find peace in your heart," Esparza said in his last statement. "My sympathy goes out to you. I hope you find it in your heart to forgive me. I don't know why all of this happened." The lethal injection was then started. He was pronounced dead at 6:21 p.m.

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