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  • 10/12/14--14:39: OPERATION REINHARD



  • On this date, October 13, 1941, SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik headquartered in Lublin received an oral order from Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler to start immediate construction work on the first Aktion Reinhard camp at Bełżec in the General Government territory of occupied Poland. I will post information about this deadliest phase of the Holocaust from Wikipedia and other links.




    Treblinka German death camp in Poland railway sign at Yad Vashem.

    Also known as
    German: Aktion Reinhardt
    or Einsatz Reinhard
    Location
    Occupied Poland
    Date
    October 1941 - November 1943
    Incident type
    Mass deportations to extermination camps
    Perpetrators
    Odilo Globocnik, Hermann Höfle, Richard Thomalla, Erwin Lambert, Christian Wirth, Heinrich Himmler, Franz Stangl and others.
    Participants
    Nazi Germany
    Organizations
    Schutzstaffel, Orpo Battalions, Sicherheitsdienst, Trawnikis
    Camp
    Bełżec
    Sobibór
    Treblinka
    Additional:

    Chełmno
    Majdanek
    Ghetto
    European, and Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland including Białystok, Częstochowa, Kraków, Lublin, Łódź, Warsaw and others
    Victims
    Approximately 2 million
    Memorials
    On camp sites and deportation points
    Notes
    This was the most lethal phase of the Holocaust.

    Operation Reinhard or Operation Reinhardt (German: Aktion Reinhard or Aktion Reinhardt also Einsatz Reinhardor Einsatz Reinhardt) was the codename given to the Nazi plan to murder European as well as most Polish Jews in the General Government. The operation marked the deadliest phase of the Holocaustwith the introduction of extermination camps. As many as two million people, almost all of whom were Jews, were sent to Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka set up specifically for Operation Reinhard, to be put to death in gas chambers built for that purpose. In addition, mass killing facilities were developed at the Majdanek concentration camp, and at Auschwitz II-Birkenau near the existing Auschwitz I camp, at about the same time.

    Background

    The first concentration camps in Nazi Germany were established in 1933 as soon as the National Socialist regime developed. They were used for coercion, forced labour and imprisonment, not for mass murder. The camp system expanded dramatically with the onset of World War II. The foreign prisoners sent to these brand new camps built in Germany, Austria and elswhere in Europe, were dying from starvation, untreated disease and murder by the tens of thousands already since the beginning of war, including at Dachau, Bergen-Belsen, Mauthausen-Gusen, Soldau, Gross-Rosen, Stutthof and the 44 subcamps of Auschwitz among others.

    By 1942 the Nazis had decided to undertake the Final Solution. Operation Reinhard would be a major step in the systematic liquidation of the Jews in Europe; beginning with those within the General Government. Camps at Bełżec, Sobibór and Treblinka were created solely to efficiently kill thousands of people each day. These camps differed from the likes of Auschwitz-Birkenau or Majdanek because the latter also operated as forced-labour camps initially before they became death campsfitted with crematoria.
    The organizational apparatus behind the extermination program was developed during AktionT4 in which more than 70,000 German handicapped men, women and children were murdered between 1939 and 1941. The SS officers responsible for the Aktion T4, such as Christian Wirth, Franz Stangl, and Irmfried Eberl, were all given key roles in the implementation of the "Final Solution."

    Heydrich as a SS-Gruppenführer (1940)
    Operational name

    The origin of the name of the operation is debated by Holocaust researchers. It is hypothesized that Aktion Reinhardt was named after Reinhard Heydrich, the coordinator of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question) which meant the extermination of the Jews living in the European countries occupied by the Third Reich during World War II. After the plans were outlined at the Wannsee conferencein January 1942, Heydrich was attacked by British-trained Czechoslovak agents on 27 May 1942 and died of his injuries eight days later.

    Some argue that, since the more prevalent Nazi designation was "Aktion Reinhardt" (with "t" after "d"), it could not have been named after Reinhard Heydrich but rather, after the German State Secretary of Finance Fritz Reinhardt. Likewise, in November 1946 Rudolf Höss, the former commandant of Auschwitz, asserted in a report while in the Polish custody in Kraków, that Operation Reinhardt was actually the code name for the collection, sorting and utilization of all articles acquired from the transports of Jews sent to extermination camps.


    Globocnik in 1938 at the rank of SS-Standartenführer
    Death factories

    On 13 October 1941, SS and Police LeaderOdilo Globocnik headquartered in Lublin received an oral order from Reichsführer-SSHeinrich Himmler to start immediate construction work on the first Aktion Reinhard camp at Bełżec in the General Governmentterritory of occupied Poland. The killing centre was operational by March 1942. Globocnik was given complete control over the entire programme. All highly secretive orders he received came directly from Himmler and not from SS-GruppenführerRichard Glücks, head of the greater Nazi concentration camp system engaged in slave labour for the war effort and managed by the SS-Totenkopfverbände. Each death camp was run by between 20 and 35 SS men from Sicherheitsdienst (branch of the SS) augmented by the Aktion T4 personnel selected by Globocnik. The extermination mechanism was designed by them based on prior experience from the forced euthanasiacentres. The bulk of the actual labour at each "final solution" camp was performed by up to a hundred Trawniki guards recruited from among the Soviet prisoners of war, and up to a thousand Sonderkommando prisoners whom they used to terrorise. The SS called these volunteer guards Hiwis, an abbreviation of Hilfswillige (lit. "willing to help"). According to the testimony of SS-OberführerArpad Wigand during his 1981 war crimes trial in Hamburg, only 25 percent of recruited collaborators could speak German.

    By mid-1942, two more death camps had been established: Sobibór (operational by May 1942), and Treblinka (operational by July 1942). The killing mechanism consisted of a large internal-combustion engine delivering exhaust fumes to gas chambers through pipes, while the bodies were burned in pits starting in February–March 1943. Treblinka, the last camp to become operational, utilised the knowledge the Nazis had acquired from the other camps. With two powerful V-8 gasoline engines run by SS-ScharführerErich Fuchs, and gas chabers built of bricks and mortar, this death factory had killed between 800,000 and 1,200,000 people within 15 months, disposed of their bodies, and sorted their belongings for shipment to Germany.

    The camps were based on a pilot project of mobile killing conducted at the Chełmno extermination camp (Kulmhof) that began operating in late 1941 and used gas vans. Chełmno was not a part of Reinhard, which was marked by the construction of stationary facilities for mass murder; rather, it was a testing ground for the establishment of faster methods of killing and incinerating people. It is important to note that these death factories developed progressively as each site was built. Chełmno, which was under the control of SS-StandartenführerErnst Damzog, commander of the SDin occupied Posen, was built around a manor house in the Reichsgau Wartheland. It did not have crematoria, only mass graves in the woods. The three gas vans used to exterminate Jews from the Łódź Ghetto, had been previously utilized by Einsatzgruppenon the Russian Front. The Jews from General Government were sent to Chełmno between early December 1941 until mid-January 1942.

    Overall, Globocnik's camps at Bełżec, Sobibór and Treblinka had almost identical design and transferable SS staff. All of them were situated within wooded areas well away from population centres. Secondly, they were constructed near branch lines that linked to the Polish rail system. Each camp had an unloading ramp at a fake train station, as well as the reception area that contained undressing barracks, barber shops, and money depositories. Beyond these buildings was a narrow, camouflaged path (the so-called Himmelfahrtsstraßeor the Road to Heaven) that led to the extermination zone consisting of gas chambers, burial pits up to 10 metres (33 ft) deep, and later, cremation pyres with rails laid across the pits on concrete blocks, refuelled continuously by the Totenjuden. The SS guards and Ukrainian Trawnikis lived in a separate area of the camp. Wooden watchtowers and barbed-wire fences, partially camouflaged with pine branches, surrounded each of these camps.

    Unlike the large camps such as Dachau or Auschwitz, the killing centers had no electric fences, as the size of prisoner Sonderkommandosremained relatively easy to control. Only specialised squads were kept alive to assist with the arriving transports, removing and disposing of bodies, and with sorting of property and valuables from the dead victims. The Totenjudenwho were forced to work inside the death zones were kept in isolation from those who worked outside in the reception and sorting areas. Periodically these groups would be killed and replaced with new arrivals to remove any potential witnesses to the scale of the mass murder.

    During Operation Reinhard, Globocnik oversaw the systematic killing of more than 2,000,000 Jews from Poland, Czechoslovakia, France, the Reich (Germany and Austria), the Netherlands and Soviet Union. An undetermined number of Roma were also killedin these death camps, a large number of whom were children.


    Treblinka II extermination camp of the Operation Reinhard in occupied Poland. Aerial photograph of the camp perimeter taken in 1944; several months after the dismantling of the camp. All known structrures are gone except for the farmhouse built within it and lifestock shed (lower left). The photograp is overlayed with the known structures as described on the map of Treblinka drawn by Mr. Peter Laponder, builder of the Treblinka Model at the new Cape Town Holocaust Center, digitized by ARC and made available at the Mapping Treblinkawebpage. On the left hand side, the color outlines show dismantled SS and Hiwi guards living quarters with most barracks clearly defined by the surrounding walkways. The railway unloading platform (lower centre) consisted of two parallel ramps visible in the bottom, marked with the red arrow. Location of new expanded gass chambers marked with a cross. Undressing barracks and sorting yard (separate for men and women with hair-cropping area) marked with two rectangles surrounded by solid fence with no view of the outside. The adjacent "Sluice" through the woods separated by barb-wire fence, marked with red dashed-line.
    Extermination process

    In order to achieve their purposes, all death camps used subterfuge and misdirection to conceal the truth and trick their victims into cooperating. This element had been developed in Aktion T4 when disabled and handicapped people were taken away by the SS from "Gekrat" wearing white lab coats, thus giving the process an air of medical authenticity. After supposedly being assessed, the unsuspecting patients were transported by them to killing centers for "special treatment". The same euphemism "special treatment" (Sonderbehandlung) was re-used in the Holocaust.

    In a similar fashion, the SS used a variety of ruses to move thousands of new arrivals in Holocaust trainsto the disguised killing sites without unleashing unimaginable panic. Even though, death on the trains was rampant, the victims were still willing to believe that the German intentions were different. Common tricks included the presence of a railway station with awaiting medical personnel and signs directing people to disinfection facilities. Treblinka had a booking office with signs stating there were connections for other camps further East.

    Guards would segregate the men and young boys from the women and children. Sometimes prisoners with suitable skills were selected to join the Sonderkommando. Guards either ordered everyone to leave their luggage behind and march directly to the "cleaning centers" or voluntarily hand over their valuables. Collected items would eventually be sent to the Reichsbank via the Main SS Economic and Administrative Department. Once at the changing areas, everyone was ordered to get undressed. Clothing would later be searched for hidden jewelry and other valuables. At this point, very old or sick prisoners were moved to a building named the Lazarett (field hospital) because their slowness would hinder the killing phase. They would be killed once the rest of the transport had been moved to the gas chambers.

    When it was time for the final stage, guards used whips, clubs and rifle butts to drive the naked people into the gas chambers. Panic was instrumental in filling the gas chambers because the need of the naked victims to evade blows on their bodies forced them rapidly forward. Once packed tightly inside (to minimize available air), the steel air-tight doors were closed. Although other methods of extermination, such as the cyanic poison Zyklon B, were already being used at other Nazi killing centers such as Auschwitz, the Aktion Reinhard camps used lethal exhaust gases from captured Soviet tank engines. Fumes would be discharged directly into the gas chambers for a given period then the engines would be switched off. SS guards would determine when to reopen the gas doors based on how long it took for the screaming to stop from within (usually 25 to 30 minutes). Special teams of camp inmates (Sonderkommando) would then remove the corpses on flat bed carts. Before the corpses were thrown into grave pits, gold teeth were removed from mouths and orifices would be searched for jewellery, currency and other valuables.

    During the early phases of Operation Reinhard, victims were simply thrown into mass graves and covered with lime. However from 1943 onwards to hide the evidence of this war crime, all bodies were burned in open air pits. Special Leichenkommando(corpse units) had to exhume bodies from the mass graves around these death camps for incineration. Nevertheless Reinhard still left a paper trail. In January 1943, Bletchley Parkintercepted a SS telegram by SturmbannführerHermann Höfle, Globocnik's deputy in Lublin, to ObersturmbannführerAdolf Eichmann in Berlin. The decoded Enigma message contained statistics showing a total of 1,274,166 arrivals at the four Aktion Reinhard camps up until the end of 1942. In retrospect, the message shows how many people were murdered but the British codebreakers did not understand the meaning of the message at the time.


    The railway schedule (or Fahrplananordnung) outlining all transports being sent to Treblinka on 25 August 1942.


    Telegram from deputy commander of Aktion Reinhard, listing number of arrivals in the extermination camps. Translation:
    Letter and 14 day report year-end report

    Camp i.d.            to 31.12.1942                 1942 total
    L ? Lublin              12761                          24733
    B ? Belzec                  0                         434508
    S ? Sobibor               515                         101370
    T ? Treblinka           10335                         713555 (*)
     total:                 23611                        1274166
    (*) note - the original reads 71355, but this is probably a typo as 713555 gives the correct total.

    Transcript of a telegram by Hermann Höfle. Public Record Office, Kew, England, HW 16/23, decode GPDD 355a distributed on January 15, 1943, radio telegrams nos 12 and 13/15, transmitted on January 11, 1943 Government Code and Cypher School German Police Section Decrypts of German Police Communications during Second World War; Reprinted in: Peter Witte and Stephen Tyas: A New Document on the Deportation and Murder of Jews during ‚Einsatz Reinhard’ 1942 In: Holocaust and Genocid Studies 15(2001) V 3, , S. 468-486 Online

    Operation Reinhard 5
    Map of the Holocaust in Poland during the Second World War (1939-1945) at the time of German occupation of Poland.
    This map shows all German Nazi extermination camps (or death camps), prominent concentration, labor and prison camps, major prewar Polish cities with ghettos set up by Nazi Germany, major deportation routes and major massacre sites.

    Notes:
    1. Extermination camps were dedicated death camps for gassing, but all camps and ghettos took a toll of many, many lives.
    2. Concentration camps include labor camps, prison camps & transit camps.
    3. Not all camps & ghettos are shown.
    4. Borders are at the height of Axis domination (1942).
    5. Regions have German designations (e.g. "Ostland"), with the country name denoted in uppercase letters, e.g. LITHUANIA, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, or in parenthesis below the German occupational designation, e.g. (POLAND).

    Temporary substitution policy

    In the winter of 1941, before "Wannsee" but after "Barbarossa" the Nazi demands for forced labor greatly intensified, therefore Himmler and Heydrich approved the Jewish substitution policy in Upper Silesia and in Galicia under the "destruction through labor" doctrine. The masses of ethnic Poles were already sent to the Reich creating a labour shortage in the General Government. Around March 1942, while the first extermination camp only began gassing, the deportation trains arriving in the Lublin reservationfrom the Third Reich and Slovakia were searched for the Jewish skilled workers. After selection, they were delivered to Majdan Tatarski instead of for "special treatment" at Bełżec. For a short time these Jewish laborers were temporarily spared death while their families and all others perished. Some were relegated to work at a nearby airplane factory or as forced labor in the SS-controlled Strafkompaniesand other work camps. Hermann Höflewas one of the chief supporters and implementers of this policy. However, the problem was the food they required and the ensuing logistical challenges. Globocnik and Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger complained, and the mass transfer had stopped even before the three extermination camps were working at full throttle.

    Disposition of the property of the victims


    Approximately 178 million German Reichsmark worth of Jewish property (current approximate value: around 700 million USD or 550 million Euro) was taken. But this wealth did not only go to the German authorities because corruption was rife within the death camps. Many of the individual SS and police men involved in the killings took cash, property and valuables for themselves. SS-Sturmbannführer Georg Konrad Morgen, an SS judge from the SS Courts Office, prosecuted so many Nazi officers for individual violations that by April 1944, Himmler personally ordered him to restrain his cases.

    Aktion Reinhard camp commanders

    Extermination camp
    Commandant
    Period
    Estimated deaths
    December 1941 - July 31, 1942
    600,000
    1 August 1942 - December 1942
    SS-HauptsturmführerRichard Thomalla
    March 1942 - April 1942
    250,000
    SS-HauptsturmführerFranz Stangl
    May 1942 - September 1942
    SS-HauptsturmführerFranz Reichleitner
    September 1942 - October 1943
    SS-Hauptsturmführer Richard Thomalla
    May 1942 - June 1942
    800,000-1,400,000
    SS-ObersturmführerIrmfried Eberl
    July 1942 - September 1942
    SS-Hauptsturmführer Franz Stangl
    September 1942 - August 1943
    SS-UntersturmführerKurt Franz
    August 1943 - November 1943
    Aftermath and cover up

    Operation Reinhard ended in November 1943. Most of the staff and guards were then sent to northern Italy for further Aktion against Jews and local partisans. Globocnik went to the San Sabba concentration camp, where he supervised the detention, torture and killing of political prisoners.

    At the same time, to cover up the mass murder of more than two million people in Poland during Operation Reinhard, the Nazis implemented the secret Sonderaktion 1005, also called Aktion 1005 or Enterdungsaktion ("exhumation action"). The operation, which began in 1942 and continued until the end of 1943, was designed to remove all traces that mass murder had been carried out. Leichenkommando ("corpse units") were created from camp prisoners to exhume mass graves and cremate the buried bodies, using giant grills made from wood and railway tracks. Afterwards, bone fragments were ground up in special milling machines and all remains were then re-buried in freshly dug pits. The Aktion was overseen by squads from the SD and Orpo.

    After the war, some guards were tried and sentenced at the Nuremberg Trials for their role in Operation Reinhard and Sonderaktion 1005; however, many others escaped conviction such as Ernst Lerch, Globocnik's Chief of Staff.

    OTHER LINKS:







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    On this date, October 14, 2008, Richard Wade Cooey II was put to death by lethal injection in Ohio. He was convicted of the double murders of Wendy Jo Offredo and Dawn McCreery on September 1, 1986. Please go to the Unit 1012 Blog to hear from the victims’ families. 

     

    Richard Wade Cooey II






    Victim, Dawn McCreery


    Victim, Wendy Jo Offredo


    Summary: Dawn McCreery, 20, and Wendy Offredo, 21, were University of Akron sorority sisters who were leaving their jobs as waitresses when 17-year-old Clint Dickens threw a chunk of concrete off an I-77 overpass, striking the windshield of the car that Ms. Offredo was driving. Cooey, who was 19 and on leave from the U.S. Army, was hanging out with a longtime friend, Kenny Horonetz, and Dickens. The three got into a car and offered the two women help. The five drove to a shopping mall and Ms. Offredo used a pay phone to call her mother. "I'm game if you're game," Cooey said as Dickens suggested they rob the two women. Cooey pulled a knife on the women when they realized they were not being driven back to their car. Horonetz demanded to be let out of the car after Cooey told him to tie Ms. McCreery's hands. Driving to a wooded area in nearby Norton, Dickens and Cooey both raped the two girls. Dickens then suggested the women should be killed because they knew his name, records show. Dickens grabbed Ms. Offredo in a chokehold, and Cooey used a shoelace to strangle her as Dickens strangled Ms. McCreery with his other shoelace. Cooey beat both women with a club. Dickens was sentenced to life in prison for the crimes, in which both girls suffered through more than three hours of torture. 

    Citations:
    Cooey v. Coyle, 289 F.3d 882 (6th Cir. 2002) (Habeas)
    State v. Cooey, Not Reported in N.E.2d, 1987 WL 31921 (Ohio App. 1987). (Direct Appeal) 


    Final/Special Meal:
    A T-bone steak with A1 sauce, french fries and onion rings, four eggs over easy, hash browns, buttered toast, bear claw pastries, a pint of Rocky Road ice cream and Mountain Dew. 


    Final Words:
    ''You [expletive] have not paid attention to anything I've had to say for the past 22 years. Why would you pay attention to anything I have to say now?'' 


    Internet Sources:

    Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction
    Inmate#: OSP #A194-16
    Inmate: Richard Wade Cooey II
    DOB: 06/09/67
    County of Conviction: Summit County
    Date of Offense: September 1, 1986
    Date of Admission: 12/10/86
    Gender: Male
    Race: White
    Institution: Southern Ohio Correctional Facility 

    Convictions: AGG MURDER WITH SPECIFICATIONS (2 COUNTS), KIDNAPPING (2 COUNTS), RAPE (4 COUNTS), AGG ROBBERY (2 COUNTS), FELONIOUS ASSAULT

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                    On this date, October 15, 2012, a Prison Killer and Escapee by the name of Eric Donald Robert, was executed by lethal injection in South Dakota. He was convicted of murdering Prison guard, Ron Johnson on April 12, 2011 in an escaped attempt. He was put to death only after a year and a half of committing the homicide as he requested a suicide assist. Please go to this Unit 1012 Blog Post to hear from the victim’s families.



    Eric Donald Robert
    Summary: On July 24, 2005, while posing as police officer, Robert pulled over an 18-year-old woman and forced her into the trunk of his car. After driving to a remote location, Robert flees after he hears her talking to someone on her cell phone. In 2006, he was convicted and sentenced to 80 years imprisonment. Maintained in "high security" at the South Dakota State Penitentiary after a lock is found cut in his working area, Robert and accomplice Rodney Berget attempt an escape, beating 62 year old corrections officer Ronald “R.J.” Johnson with a pipe and covering his head in plastic wrap, killing him. They take his uniform, but are spotted and captured before they can escape. Robert pled guilty and waived all appeals. Accomplice Berget also pleaded guilty and was sentenced to death. Accomplice Michael Nordman received a life sentence for providing materials used in the slaying.

    Citations:
    State v. Robert, 820 N.W.2d 136 (S.D. 2012). (Direct Appeal) 


    Final/Special Meal:
    Robert fasted in the 40 hours before his execution, consuming his last meal on Saturday: Moose Tracks ice cream. 


    Final Words:
    “In the name of justice and liberty and mercy, I authorize and forgive Warden Douglas Weber to execute me for my crimes. It is done.” 


    Internet Sources:

    South Dakota Department of Corrections

    Office of Gov. Dennis Daugaard
    500 E. Capitol Ave.
    Pierre,S.D.57501
    www.sd.gov
    FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Monday, Oct. 15, 2012 

    “This is a sad day for South Dakota. Executions are rare in our state, and they are warranted only with extreme forethought and certainty. In this case, Eric Robert admitted to his crime and requested that his punishment not be delayed. I hope this brings closure to “RJ” Johnson’s family and all those who loved him. I also commend Warden Weber and others in the state Department of Corrections who planned this very difficult task in a professional and careful manner.” 

    FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: October 12, 2012 

    Execution Date, Time Set For Inmate Eric Robert 

    PIERRE, S.D. - In accordance with South Dakota Codified Law 23A-27A-17, Doug Weber, Director of Prison Operations and Warden of the South Dakota State Penitentiary, has set the date and time for the execution of inmate Eric Robert as Monday, Oct. 15, 2012, at about 10 p.m. CDT. 

    State law allows judges in capital punishment cases to appoint a week for the executions to occur. The exact date and time of the execution is left to the warden's discretion. The warden is required by state law to publicly announce the scheduled day and hour of the execution not less than 48 hours prior to the execution. 

    FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Friday, Aug. 24, 2012 

    Warrant of Execution For Eric Robert Issued 

    PIERRE, S.D - Attorney General Marty Jackley announced today that the warrant of execution for Eric Donald Robert has been issued by Second Circuit Court Judge Bradley Zell. Robert is scheduled to be executed between the hours of 12:01 a.m. and 11:59 p.m. during the week of Sunday, Oct. 14, 2012, through Saturday, Oct. 20, 2012, inclusive, at a specific time and date to be selected by the warden of the State Penitentiary. Pursuant to South Dakota law, the warden will announce to the public the scheduled day and hour within 48 hours of the execution. 

    South Dakota law further provides that for the execution, the warden is to request the presence of the attorney general, the trial judge who oversaw the conviction or the judge’s successor, the state’s attorney and sheriff of the county where the crime was committed, representatives of the victims, at least one member of the media, and a number of reputable adult citizens to be determined by the warden. 


    Ronald Johnson


    "Execution: South Dakota delivers Eric Robert his death wish," by Steve Young. (2:08 AM, Oct 16, 2012) 

    Eric Robert, whose botched attempt for freedom from the state penitentiary resulted in the murder of a prison guard, finally escaped Monday night from the bitter life behind bars he loathed — this time through the execution chamber. Robert, 50, died by lethal injection at 10:24 p.m. for his role in the April 12, 2011, murder of officer Ron “R.J.” Johnson on the same penitentiary grounds where the inmate was put to death Monday. 

    Asked by Warden Doug Weber before the execution if he had any last statement, Robert began by saying, “In the name of justice and liberty and mercy, I authorize and forgive Warden Douglas Weber to execute me for my crimes. It is done.” Robert’s lawyer, Mark Kadi of Sioux Falls, said it was important for Robert to forgive the warden. “It may seem like a minor, odd point for everybody else,” Kadi said. “But from the perspective of a man who’s got seconds left, the last thing he wanted to do was forgive the individual who was causing the execution, causing his death.” 

    Speaking afterward in the prison training academy that was renamed for her husband on the one-year anniversary of his death, Johnson’s widow, Lynette, said the family understands that Robert’s death won’t bring their loved one back. Still, “we, Ron’s children and I, want everyone please, do not forget how kind, how wonderful and caring Ron Johnson is,” Lynette Johnson said. “We know this execution tonight is not going to bring back my husband to me. It’s not going to bring our children’s father back to them. ... our six grandchildren’s ‘Papa’ to them. But we know that the employees of the Department of Corrections and the public in general will be just a little bit safer now.” 

    Corrections spokesman Michael Winder said Robert was removed from his holding cell at 9:31 p.m. and placed on the table in the execution chamber at 9:32 p.m. The first intravenous line was started in his right arm five minutes later, and the second IV line, in his left arm, at 9:41 p.m. After the witnesses were escorted to the viewing rooms, Weber ordered the curtains opened at 9:59 p.m. Robert gave his last statement at 10:01, and the injections were completed at 10:04. Media witness Dave Kolpack of The Associated Press said Robert appeared to be clearing his throat as the lethal drug was being administered. “He began to make some heavy gasps, and then started snorting. That lasted about 30 seconds,” Kolpack said. 

    Dressed in a white T-shirt and orange prison pants, with a sheet pulled up to about the middle of his chest, Robert appeared to stop moving at about 10:03 p.m., said John Hult of the Argus Leader, the second media witness to the execution. After the clearing of his throat, “there was no movement,” Hult said. “I didn’t see his chest move at all after that.” Coroners checked for a pulse in his neck and chest for several minutes before he was finally declared dead. Hult said the inmate’s eyes remained open the entire time, even after an assistant coroner tried to close them. By the time he was declared dead, his skin color had turned purple, witnesses said. 

    One controversial drug 

    Unnamed correctional officers on the execution team administered a single drug, pentobarbital — a powerful barbituate that stopped Robert’s respiration and created blood pressure changes that caused his heart to give out. Attorney General Marty Jackley said he never considered bringing in executioners from outside South Dakota’s penitentiary system, even though the murdered guard was one of their own. “From everything that I witnessed, Corrections staff were exceptionally professional,” the attorney general said. “They carried out a humane sentence. I saw no need to have another entity.” 

    The protocol for Robert’s execution was different from that used five years ago, when Elijah Page was put to death for his role in the 2000 murder of Chester Allan Poage near Spearfish. Back then, South Dakota used a three-drug procedure that started with an injection of sodium thiopental to knock him unconscious and numb the pain of the other two drugs — pancuronium bromide to collapse the lungs and potassium chloride to stop the heart. But a shortage of those execution drugs in recent years led to controversy and delays nationwide, and prompted South Dakota and states such as Georgia, Ohio, Arizona, Idaho and Texas to make the switch to the single drug. After South Dakota decided on pentobarbital, federally appointed public defenders for death row inmate Donald Moeller challenged the quality of the chosen barbituate, saying its plan to mix the drug from powder posed a serious risk of contamination that could lead to pain and suffering. 

    But Moeller, sentenced to die for the 1990 rape and murder of 9-year-old Rebecca O’Connell, told a judge Oct. 4 that he had no interest in pursuing that challenge and delaying his scheduled execution two weeks from now. And Robert had long nixed any appeals on his behalf, saying he could kill again if left to a life in prison. In a prepared statement, Gov. Dennis Daugaard called Monday’s execution “a sad day for South Dakota.” “Executions are rare in our state, and they are warranted only with extreme forethought and certainty,” the governor said. 

    'Calm and reserved' 

    On Saturday evening, Robert consumed his last meal — Moose Tracks ice cream. Kadi said Robert chose to fast during his last 40 hours before his execution. Kadi said Robert considered the fast to be religious in nature and a metaphor for the 40-day fast of Christ in the Bible. From 6:30 p.m. to 8 p.m. Monday, the inmate “was actually calm and reserved,” Kadi said, adding that the actual execution itself “was so antiseptic and peaceful that it masks what was actually being done to the person.” 

    Robert never denied his role in the escape attempt that resulted in the death of Johnson on April 12, 2011 — the correctional officer’s 63rd birthday. From the beginning, Robert took responsibility for the crime, asking for and receiving the death penalty and eschewing all appeals — thus the relative quickness in which he was adjudicated and executed. Johnson, a 20-year veteran at the prison, had volunteered for a shift in the Pheasantland Industries building on the penitentiary grounds the morning that Robert and fellow inmate Rodney Berget walked into the building with a load of laundry. Even though both inmates were classified as maximum security risks, their jobs afforded them the freedom of movement. 

    Each man testified that they had hid and waited for Johnson, then snuck up on him, struck him in the head with a metal pipe, then wrapped his head in plastic to stop him from screaming. Robert put on Johnson’s uniform. Berget climbed into a box atop a wheeled cart. They never made it out of the penitentiary before being caught. A third inmate, Michael Nordman, 47, was given a life sentence for providing materials used in the slaying. 

    Execution: Key dates in Eric Robert's life 

    May 31, 1962: Born in Massachusetts, later moves to Hayward, Wis., with mother and younger sister
    1980: Graduates 18th in his class at Hayward High School
    1987: Graduates from University of Wisconsin-Superior
    1988: Working as chemist for Murphy Oil in Superior
    1992: Returns to Hayward, begins coaching youth baseball, later joins volunteer EMT service
    1994-99: Works in Cable, Wisconsin for wastewater treatment plant, builds house in Drummond.
    1999-2000: Works for Bayfield County, Wis., Zoning Office
    2000-2004: First manages, then consults for, wastewater treatment plant in Superior
    2005: Moves to Piedmont, S.D., to help a friend
    July 24, 2005: Posing as police officer, pulls over and kidnaps an 18-year-old woman.
    Jan. 3, 2006: Sentenced to 80 years for kidnapping
    2007: Classified as “high security” at South Dakota State Penitentiary
    2009: Attempted sentence reduction fails, Robert denied transfer to prison closer to Wisconsin
    April 12, 2011: With Rodney Berget, kills corrections officer during an escape attempt.
    Sept. 16, 2011: Pleads guilty to frst-degree murder
    Oct. 19, 2011: Asks for a death sentence from Judge Bradley Zell
    Oct. 20, 2011: Zell sentences Robert to death
    Aug. 2012: South Dakota Supreme Court upholds death sentence.
    Oct. 12, 2012: Warden Doug Weber announces that Robert will be put to death at 10 p.m. Oct. 15
    Oct. 15, 2012: 9:31 p.m. Robert removed from his holding cell

    9:32 p.m. Robert transferred to the execution table
    9:35 p.m. Restraints are secured
    9:37 p.m. First IV started in the right arm
    9:41 p.m. Second IV is started
    9:46 p.m. Staff begins to escort witnesses to the viewing rooms
    9:59 p.m. With all witnesses present, warden orders the curtains open
    10 p.m. Secretary of Corrections informs warden he is clear to proceed with execution
    10:01 p.m. Last statement: “It is done”
    10:04 p.m. Injections are completed
    10:24 p.m. Time of death



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            On this date, October 15, 1976, SS Corporal Erwin Lambert passed away. He was one of the Holocaust Perpetrators. I will post information about him from Wikipediaand other links.


    Erwin Lambert



    Erwin Lambert in civilian clothing with a female companion
     
    Birth name
    Erwin Hermann Lambert
    Born
    7 December 1909
    Schildow, Mühlenbecker Land, German Empire
    Died
    15 October 1976 (aged 66)
    Stuttgart, West Germany
    Allegiance
    Nazi Germany
    Service/branch
    Schutzstaffel
    Rank
    Unterscharführer, SS (Corporal)
    Commands held
    Headed construction of gas chambers during Action T4, and at Sobibor and Treblinka extermination camps during Operation Reinhard
    Other work
    Mason, Ceramic tile salesman


    Erwin Hermann Lambert (7 December 1909 – 15 October 1976) was a perpetrator of the Holocaust. In profession, he was a master mason, building trades foreman, Nazi Party member and member of the Schutzstaffel with the rank of SS-Unterscharführer(corporal). He supervised construction of the gas chambers for the Action T4 euthanasia program at Hartheim, Sonnenstein, Bernburg and Hadamar, and then at Sobibor and Treblinka extermination camps during Operation Reinhard. He specialized in building larger gas chambers that killed more people than previous efforts in the extermination program.

    OTHER LINKS:



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    On this date, 15 October 1946, Hermann Göring, one of Hitler’s Henchman committed suicide before his execution. I will post one of his anti-Semitic quote, I do it for educational purposes and not because I am an anti-Semite (I am Pro-Semite). I have Jewish friends and I like their company. 



    QUOTE: “The Jew must clearly understand one thing at once, he must get out!”
    [Speech in Vienna after the Austrian Anschluss (1938); when asked at the Nuremberg trials whether he meant what he said in this speech he replied "Yes, approximately." As reported from testimony in the Imperial War Museum, Folio 645, Box 156, , (20 October 1945), pp. 5-6]

    AUTHOR: Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946), was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP). A veteran of World War I as an ace fighter pilot, he was a recipient of the coveted Pour le Mérite, also known as the "Blue Max". He was the last commander of Jagdgeschwader1, the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen, the "Red Baron".

    A member of the NSDAP from its early days, Göring was wounded in 1923 during the failed coup known as the Beer Hall Putsch. He became permanently addicted to morphine after being treated with the drug for his injuries. After helping Adolf Hitler take power in 1933, he became the second-most powerful man in Germany. He founded the Gestapo in 1933. Göring was appointed commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe (air force) in 1935, a position he held until the final days of World War II. By 1940 he was at the peak of his power and influence; as minister in charge of the Four Year Plan, he was responsible for much of the functioning of the German economy in the build-up to World War II. Adolf Hitler promoted him to the rank of Reichsmarschall, a rank senior to all other Wehrmacht commanders, and in 1941 Hitler designated him as his successor and deputy in all his offices.

    Göring's standing with Hitler was greatly reduced by 1942, with the Luftwaffe unable to fulfill its commitments and the German war effort stumbling on both fronts. Göring largely withdrew from the military and political scene and focused on the acquisition of property and artwork, much of which was confiscated from Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Informed on 22 April 1945 that Hitler intended to commit suicide, Göring sent a telegram to Hitler asking to assume control of the Reich. Considering it an act of treason, Hitler removed Göring from all his positions, expelled him from the party, and ordered his arrest. After World War II, Göring was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials; he was the highest-ranking Nazi to be tried there. He was sentenced to death by hanging, but committed suicide by ingesting cyanide the night before the sentence was to be carried out.

    Please go to this previous Blog Post to learn more about this Fatty Nazi.





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    On this date, October 16, 1946, Nazi War Criminal, Julius Streicher was executed by hanging. I will post information about him from Wikipedia.


    Julius Streicher as a defendant before the International Military Tribunal. (November 24, 1945)

    Gauleiter of Franconia
    In office
    1929 – 16 February 1940
    Leader
    Preceded by
    None
    Succeeded by
    Hans Zimmermann
    (Acting, 1940)
    Karl Holz
    (acting from 1942, permanent from 1944)
    Personal details
    Born
    12 February 1885
    Fleinhausen, Kingdom of Bavaria, German Empire
    Died
    16 October 1946 (aged 61)
    Nuremberg, American Occupied Zone, German Realm
    Political party
    National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP)
    Spouse(s)
    Kunigunde Roth (m. 1913, died 1943)
    Adele Tappe (m. 1945)
    Children
    2
    Profession
    Teacher, publisher, activist
    Religion
    Former Roman Catholic

    Julius Streicher(12 February 1885 – 16 October 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to World War II. He was the founder and publisher of Der Stürmer newspaper, which became a central element of the Nazi propaganda machine. His publishing firm also released three anti-Semitic books for children, including the 1938 Der Giftpilz ("The Toadstool" or "The Poison-Mushroom"), one of the most widespread pieces of propaganda, which purported to warn about insidious dangers Jews posed by using the metaphor of an attractive yet deadly mushroom. After the war, he was convicted of crimes against humanity and executed.


    Julius Streicher in 1935
    Early life

    Streicher was born in Fleinhausen, Kingdom of Bavaria, one of nine children of the teacher Friedrich Streicher and his wife Anna (née Weiss). He worked as an elementary school teacher like his father, and in 1911 he began his political career, joining the Democratic Party. He would later claim that because his political work brought him into contact with German Jews, he "must therefore have been fated to become later on a writer and speaker on racial politics." In 1913 Streicher married Kunigunde Roth, a baker's daughter, in Nuremberg. They had two sons, Lothar (born 1915) and Elmar (born 1918).

    Streicher joined the German Army in 1914. He won the Iron Cross and reached the rank of lieutenant by the time the Armistice was signed in November 1918.


    Julius Streicher mug shot
    Early politics

    In February 1919 Streicher became active in the anti-SemiticDeutschvölkischer Schutz und Trutzbund (German Nationalist Protection and Defense Federation), one of the various radical-nationalist organizations that sprang up in the wake of the failed German Communist revolution of 1918. Such groups fostered the view that Jews had conspired with "Bolshevik" traitors in trying to subject Germany to Communist rule. In 1920 he turned to the Deutschsozialistische Partei (German-Socialist Party), a group whose platform was close to that of the young NSDAP, or National Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei (National Socialist German Worker's Party). The German Socialist Party (Deutsch-Sozialistische Partei, DSP) was created in May 1919 as an initiative of Rudolf von Sebottendorf as a child of the Thule society, and its program was based on the ideas of the mechanical engineer Alfred Brunner (1881–1936) – including socialist ideas like the takeover of the financial sector by the state and the cutting-back of the "interest-based economy". Leading members of the DSP were Hans Georg Müller, Max Sesselmann and Dr. Friedrich Wiesel, the first two being editors of the Münchner Beobachter. Julius Streicher founded his local branch in 1919 in Nuremberg. Streicher's arguments were primitive, vulgar, and crude but he believed in what he said and was an uninhibited, wild agitator, to whom masses would listen; which was what mattered to the party. The DSP was officially inaugurated in April 1920 in Hanover. Streicher sought to move the German-Socialists in a more virulently anti-Semitic direction – an effort which aroused enough opposition that he left the group and brought his now-substantial following to yet another organization in 1921, the Deutsche Werkgemeinschaft (German Working Community), which hoped to unite the various anti-Semitic Völkisch movements.

    National Socialism

    In 1921, Streicher finally found his mentor. He visited Munich in order to hear Adolf Hitler speak, an experience that he later said left him transformed:


    "Have you already heard Adolf Hitler speak?" I had been asked for quite some time. ... It was on a winter's day in 1922. And there I sat in a public meeting, an unknown among unknowns. ... It was the last hour before midnight when his speech ended ... It was an immense wealth of ideas that in a more than three hour long speech came from his mouth, clad into the beauty of a gifted oratory. ... When he was standing on the podium with a face radiant with joy and looking at the stormy enthusiasm, I felt that there had to be something special in Hitler! ... Everybody could feel it: this man speaks on behalf of a divine appointment, as a messenger sent from heaven at a time when hell had opened to devour everything.


    In 1921, Streicher joined the Nazi Party and merged his personal following with Hitler's, more than doubling the party membership.

    In May 1923 Streicher founded the newspaper, Der Stürmer (The Stormer, or, loosely, The Attacker). From the outset, the chief aim of the paper was to promulgate anti-Semitic propaganda. "We will be slaves of the Jew," the paper announced. "Therefore he must go."
    In November of that year, Streicher participated in Hitler’s first effort to seize power, the failed Beer Hall Putsch in Munich. Streicher marched with Hitler in the front row of the would-be revolutionaries and braved the bullets of the Munich police. His loyalty earned him Hitler's lifelong trust and protection; in the years that followed, Streicher would be one of the dictator's few true intimates.

    As a reward for his dedication, when the Nazi Party was legalized again and re-organized in 1925 Streicher was appointed Gauleiter of the Bavarian region of Franconia (which included his home town of Nuremberg). In the early years of the party’s rise, Gauleiter were essentially party functionaries without real power; but in the final years of the Weimar Republic, they became paramilitary commanders. During the 12 years of the Nazi regime itself, party Gauleiter like Streicher would wield immense power, and be in large measure untouchable by legal authority.

    Streicher was also elected to the Bavarian "Landtag" or legislature, a position which gave him a margin of parliamentary immunity– a safety net that would help him resist efforts to silence his racist message.


    1934 Stürmer issue: "Storm above Judah" - criticizing institutional churches as "Judaized" organizations. Caption: I called the Jews a cursed people, but you have made out of them the Elect Nation.
     

    German citizens, public reading of Der Stürmer, Worms, 1933
    Rise of Der Stürmer

    Beginning in 1924, Streicher used Der Stürmer as a mouthpiece not only for general antisemitic attacks, but for calculated smear campaigns against specific Jews, such as the Nurembergcity official Julius Fleischmann, who worked for Streicher's nemesis, mayor Hermann Luppe. Der Stürmeraccused Fleischmann of stealing socks from his quartermaster during combat in World War I. Fleischmann sued Streicher and successfully disproved the allegations in court, where Streicher was fined 900 marks); but the detailed testimony exposed other less-than-glorious details of Fleischmann's record, and his reputation was badly damaged anyway. It was proof that Streicher's unofficial motto for his tactics was correct: "Something always sticks."

    The slanderousattacks continued, and lawsuits followed. Like Fleischmann, other outraged German Jews defeated Streicher in court, but his goal was not necessarily legal victory; he wanted the widest possible dissemination of his message, which press coverage often provided. The rules of the court provided Streicher with an arena to humiliate his opponents, and he characterized the inevitable courtroom loss as a badge of honor. Der Stürmer's infamous official slogan, Die Juden sind unser Unglück(the Jews are our misfortune) was deemed unactionable under German statutes, since it was not a direct incitement to violence.

    Streicher's opponents complained to authorities that Der Stürmer violated a statute against religious offense with his constant promulgation of the "blood libel"– the medievalaccusation that Jews killed Christian children to use their blood to make matzoh. Streicher argued that his accusations were based on race, not religion, and that his communications were political speech, and therefore protected by the German constitution.

    Streicher orchestrated his early campaigns against Jews to make the most extreme possible claims, short of violating a law that might get the paper shut down. He insisted in the pages of his newspaper that the Jews had caused the worldwide Depression, and were responsible for the crippling unemploymentand inflationwhich afflicted Germany during the 1920s. He claimed that Jews were white-slaversand were responsible for over 90 percent of the prostitutesin the country. Real unsolved killings in Germany, especially of children or women, were often confidently explained in the pages of Der Stürmer as cases of "Jewish ritual murder."

    One of Streicher's constant themes was the sexual violation of ethnically German women by Jews, a subject which served as an excuse to publish semi-pornographictracts and images detailing degrading sexual acts. These "essays" proved an especially appealing feature of the paper for young men. With the help of his notorious cartoonist, Phillip "Fips" Rupprecht, Streicher published image after image of Jewish stereotypesand sexually-charged encounters. His portrayal of Jews as subhuman and evil is widely considered to have played a critical role in the dehumanization and marginalization of the Jewish minority in the eyes of common Germans – creating the necessary conditions for the later perpetration of the Holocaust.

    Streicher also combed the pages of the Talmud and the Old Testament in search of passages that painted Judaism as harsh or cruel. In 1929, this close study of Jewish scripture helped convict Streicher in a case known as "The Great Nuremberg Ritual Murder Trial." His familiarity with Jewish text was proof to the court that his attacks were religious in nature; Streicher was found guilty and imprisoned for two months. In Germany, press reaction to the trial was highly critical of Streicher; but the gauleiterwas greeted after his conviction by hundreds of cheering supporters, and within months Nazi party membership surged to its highest levels yet.


    Ruined Ohel Yaakov shul in Munich


    Eisenach synagogue, Germany, destroyed by the Nazis during Pogromnacht on the 9th November 1938
    Streicher in power

    In April 1933, after Nazi control of the German state apparatus gave the Gauleitersenormous power, Streicher organised a one-day boycott of Jewish businesses which was used as a dress-rehearsal for other anti-Semitic commercial measures. As he consolidated his hold on power, he came to more or less rule the city of Nuremberg and his Gau Franken. Among the nicknames provided by his enemies were "King of Nuremberg" and the "Beast of Franconia." Because of his role as Gauleiter of Franconia, he also gained the nickname of Frankenführer.

    To protect himself from accountability, Streicher relied on Hitler's protection. Hitler declared that Der Stürmer was his favourite newspaper, and saw to it that each weekly issue was posted for public reading in special glassed-in display cases known as "Stürmerkasten". The newspaper reached a peak circulation of 600,000 in 1935.

    Streicher later claimed that he was only "indirectly responsible" for passage of the anti-Jewish Nuremberg Laws of 1935, and that he felt slighted because he was not directly consulted.

    Streicher was ordered to take part in the establishment of the Institute for the Study and Elimination of Jewish Influence on German Church Life, that was to be organized together with the German Christians, the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, the Reich Ministry of Education and the Reich Ministry of the Churches. This anti-Semitic standpoint concerning the bible can be traced back to the earliest time of the Nazi movement, e.g., Dietrich Eckart's (Hitler's early mentor) book Bolshevism from Moses to Lenin: A Dialogue Between Adolf Hitler and Me, where it was claimed that "Jewish forgeries" had been added to the New Testament.

    In 1938, Streicher ordered the Great Synagogue of Nuremberg destroyed as part of his contribution to Kristallnacht; he later claimed that his decision was based on his disapproval of its architectural design.


    Julius Streicher in custody
    Fall from power

    Streicher's excesses brought condemnation even from other Nazis. Streicher's behaviour was viewed as so irresponsible that he alienated much of the party leadership; chief among his enemies in Hitler's hierarchy was Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, who loathed him and later claimed that he forbade his own staff to read Der Stürmer.

    In spite of his special relationship with Hitler, after 1938 Streicher's position began to unravel. He was accused of keeping Jewish property seized after Kristallnacht in November 1938; he was charged with spreading untrue stories about Göring – such as alleging that Göring's daughter Edda was conceived by artificial insemination, and he was confronted with his excessive personal behaviour, including unconcealed adultery, several furious verbal attacks on other Gauleiters and striding through the streets of Nuremberg cracking a bullwhip (this last is portrayed in the 1944 Hollywood film The Hitler Gang). In February 1940 he was stripped of his party offices and withdrew from the public eye, although he was permitted to continue publishing Der Stürmer. Streicher also remained on good terms with Hitler.

    Streicher's wife, Kunigunde Streicher, died in 1943 after 30 years of marriage.

    When Germany surrendered to the Allied armies in May 1945, Streicher said later, he decided to commit suicide. Instead, he married his former secretary, Adele Tappe. Days later, on 23 May 1945, Streicher was captured in the town of Waidring, Austria, by a group of American officers led by Major Henry Plitt – who was Jewish. At first Streicher claimed to be a painter named "Joseph Sailer," but after a few questions, quickly admitted to his true identity.

    During his trial, Streicher claimed that he had been mistreated by Allied soldiers after his capture. By his account they ordered him to take off his clothes in his cell, burned him with cigarettes and made him extinguish them with his bare feet, allowed him to drink only water from a toilet, made him kiss the feet of Negro soldiers and beat him with a bullwhip. He further claimed that some of the soldiers also spat at him and forced his mouth open to spit in it.

    Julius Streicher at the Nuremberg Trials. From the National Archives.
    Trial and execution

    Julius Streicher was not a member of the military and did not take part in planning the Holocaust, or the invasion of other nations. Yet his pivotal role in inciting the extermination of Jews was significant enough, in the prosecutors' judgment, to include him in the indictment of Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal– which sat in Nuremberg, where Streicher had once been an unchallenged authority. Most of the evidence against Streicher came from his numerous speeches and articles over the years. In essence, prosecutors contended that Streicher's articles and speeches were so incendiary that he was an accessory to murder, and therefore as culpable as those who actually ordered the mass extermination of Jews (such as Hans Frank and Ernst Kaltenbrunner). They further argued that he kept them up when he was well aware Jews were being slaughtered.

    He was acquitted of crimes against peace, but found guilty of crimes against humanity, and sentenced to death on 1 October 1946. The judgment against him read, in part:


    "... For his 25 years of speaking, writing and preaching hatred of the Jews, Streicher was widely known as 'Jew-Baiter Number One.' In his speeches and articles, week after week, month after month, he infected the German mind with the virus of anti-Semitism, and incited the German people to active persecution. ... Streicher's incitement to murder and extermination at the time when Jews in the East were being killed under the most horrible conditions clearly constitutes persecution on political and racial grounds in connection with war crimes, as defined by the Charter, and constitutes a crime against humanity.”


    During his trial, Streicher displayed for the last time the flair for courtroom theatrics that had made him famous in the 1920s. He answered questions from his own defence attorney with diatribes against Jews, the Allies, and the court itself, and was frequently silenced by the court officers. Streicher was largely shunned by all of the other Nuremberg defendants. He also peppered his testimony with references to passages of Jewish texts he had so often carefully selected and inserted (invariably out of context) into the pages of Der Stürmer.

    Streicher was hanged in the early hours of 16 October 1946, along with the nine other condemned defendants from the first Nuremberg trial (Göring, Streicher's nemesis, committed suicide only hours earlier). Streicher's was the most melodramatic of the hangings carried out that night. At the bottom of the scaffold he cried out "Heil Hitler!". When he mounted the platform, he delivered his last sneering reference to Jewish scripture, snapping "Purim-Fest 1946!". The Jewish holiday Purim celebrates the escape by the Jews from extermination at the hands of Haman, an ancient Persiangovernment official. At the end of the Purim story, Haman is hanged, as are his ten sons. Streicher's final declaration before the hood went over his head was, "The Bolshevikswill hang you one day!" Joseph Kingsbury-Smith, who covered the executions, said in his filed report that after the hood descended over Streicher's head, he also apparently said "Adele, meine liebe Frau!" ("Adele, my dear wife!").

    The consensus among eyewitnesses was that Streicher's hanging did not proceed as planned, and that he did not receive the quick death from spinalsevering typical of the other executions at Nuremberg. Kingsbury-Smith, who covered the executions for the International News Service, reported that Streicher "went down kicking" which may have dislodged the hangman's knot from its ideal position. Smith stated that Streicher could be heard groaning under the scaffold after he dropped through the trap-door, and that the executioner intervened under the gallows, which was screened by wood panels and a black curtain, to finish the job. U.S. Army Master Sergeant John C. Woods was the main executioner, and not only insisted he had performed all executions correctly, but stated he was very proud of his work.

    Portrayals

    Julius Streicher was played by Rolf Hoppe in the German film Comedian Harmonists.


    Last words of Julius Streicher, 10/16/46, quoted in The Quest for the Nazi Personality - Page 157 by Eric A. Zillmer - History – 1995

    Julius Streicher(February 12, 1885 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to and during World War II. He was the publisher of the Nazi Der Stürmer newspaper, which was to become a part of the Nazi propaganda machine. His publishing firm released anti-Semitic books for children. After the war, he was convicted of crimes against humanity and executed.

    Sourced

    • Heil Hitler! (when asked to state his name) You know my name well. Julius Streicher! The Bolsheviks will hang you one day! (to the hangman) Purim festival, 1946! I am now by God my father! Adele, my dear wife.
      • Last words, 10/16/46, quoted in "The Quest for the Nazi Personality" - Page 157 by Eric A. Zillmer - History - 1995
    • I have to repeat again and again: He who knows the Talmud, knows the Jew! The laws of the Talmud are contrary to the German system of laws. You should acknowledge the importance of discussing this matter in connection with the judiciary budget. Once you know what the Talmud orders the Jew to do, you will understand today's state of affairs.
      • Ich muss es immer wieder sagen: Wer den Talmud kennt, kennt den Juden! Die Gesetze des Talmuds sind unserer deutschen Rechtsordnung entgegengesetzt. Erkennen Sie daraus, wie wichtig es ist, dass diese Frage im Zusammenhang mit dem Justizetat besprochen wird. Wenn Sie wissen, was der Talmud dem Juden befiehlt, dann werden Sie auch unseren Zustand von heute begreifen.
      • 05/01/1925, speech in the Bavarian regional parliament; debate about the budget of ministry of justice ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • We handed the most important belongings of our people -- the railroads and the banks -- to aliens who 2000 years ago had turned the temple into a house of usury. Back then there was a man who had the bravery to drive out these scoundrels with a whip! If today a national socialist is seen with such a temple-whip, he's thrown into jail.
      • Wir haben unsere wichtigsten Volksgüter, die Eisenbahnen und die Banken, den Fremdlingen überlassen, die schon vor 2000 Jahren den Tempel zu einem Wucherhaus gemacht haben. Damals hatte schon einer den Mut besessen, mit einer Peitsche dieses Gesindel auszutreiben! Wenn heute ein Nationalsozialist mit einer solchen Tempelpeitsche angetroffen wird, wird er ins Gefängnis geworfen.
      • 05/01/1925, speech in the Bavarian regional parliament; debate about the budget of the ministry of justice ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • When one listens to your speeches it sounds as if you had always fought against capitalism. The truth is that it was you who gave all the power to capitalism. In this republic capitalism has grown as it had never before. You can think about the old state as you will, one thing is certain: it was not as rotten as the one you brought about! ...
      What shall one say when Reich president Ebert in his letters addresses the Jewish scoundrel Barmat as "My dear Barmat" and closes with the greeting "Yours Ebert"? Despite all the veneration that I feel for this man, whom by the way I respect more as a master saddle-maker than as a Reich president, I simply have to be astonished. Gentlemen, where is the "beauty and dignity"?
      • Wenn man Euch reden hört, dann habt Ihr immer den Kapitalismus bekämpft. In Wirklichkeit habt Ihr den Kapitalismus erst in den Sattel gehoben. In dieser Republik hat sich der Kapitalismus ausgewachsen wie niemals zuvor. Mag man über den alten Staat denken wir man will, eines steht fest: so verlumpt war er nicht wie der, den Ihr uns gebracht habt! ...
        Was soll man dazu sagen, wenn ein Reichspräsident Ebert den jüdischen Schurken Barmat in Briefen mit "Mein lieber Barmat" anredet und ihn am Schlusse mit "Dein Ebert" grüßt? Bei aller Ehrfurcht, die ich vor dem Mann habe, den ich übrigens als Sattlermeister weit mehr schätze denn als Reichspräsident, muss ich mich doch sehr wundern. Meine Herren, wo ist da "Schönheit und Würde"?
      • 01/23/1925, speech in the Bavarian regional parliament ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • Moreover I want to tell Dr. Süßheim -- who wants to portray every anti-Semite as a psychopath -- about his racial fellow Dr. Otto Weininger, who as an honest Jew wrote down his thoughts in the book "Sex and Character":
      "Jewry seems to be somewhat anthropologically related to the Negroes and the Mongolians. To the Negro points the readily curling hair, to an admixture of Mongolian blood points the very Chinese or Malayan formed skull, that one finds so often among Jews, which matches the usually yellowish complexion ... The fact that excellent men have almost always been anti-Semites (Tacitus, Pascal, Voltaire, Goethe, Kant, Jean Paul, Schopenhauer, Grillparzer, Richard Wagner) can be explained in the following way: they, who have so much more in their own nature than other men, can also better understand Jewry."
      • Ferner möchte ich Herrn Dr. Süßheim, der jeden Antisemiten als Psychopathen hinstellen möchte, seinen Rassegenossen Dr. Otto Weininger nennen, der als ehrlicher Jude seine Gedanken in einem Buch "Geschlecht und Charakter" niedergeschrieben hat:
        "Das Judentum scheint anthropologisch mit den Negern wie mit den Mongolen eine gewisse Verwandtschaft zu besitzen. Auf den Neger weisen die so gern sich ringelnden Haare, auf Beimischung von Mongolenblut die ganz chinesisch oder malaiisch geformten Gesichtsschädel, die man oft unter Juden antrifft, und denen regelmäßig gelbe Hautfärbung entspricht, hin ... Daß hervorragende Menschen fast stets Antisemiten waren (Tacitus, Pascal, Voltaire, Goethe, Kant, Jean Paul, Schopenhauer, Grillparzer, Richard Wagner) geht eben darauf zurück, daß sie, die soviel mehr in sich haben als andere Menschen, auch das Judentum besser verstehen als diese."
      • 12/9/1925, Streicher's pleading when sued because of ani-Semitic slurs; courthouse in Nuremberg ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • The Roman historian Tacitus once said, that the health and the disease of a state can be measured in the number of its laws. If we Germans nowadays look at the huge number of laws, we have to say, that it's not health, but death that we're approaching. ... It is strange that it is Social Democracy of all movements, which in the old state complained about exceptions, that now issues exception laws itself. These exception-laws are means of force and are created in the parliaments with the help of supranational financial powers. ...
      In the old state an interest rate of more than 6 percent was deemed usury. Today this usury is legalized. It was YOU, the men of the left -- who always pretend to fight against capitalism and exploitation -- who accomplished this. It will be your downfall!
      • Der römische Geschichtsschreiber Tacitus hat einmal gesagt, dass man die Gesundheit und die Krankheit eines Staates nach der Zahl seiner Gesetze ermessen könne. Wenn wir Deutsche heute die große Zahl unserer Gesetze betrachten, dann müssen wir sagen, dass wir nicht der Gesundheit, sondern dem Tode entgegengehen. ... Es ist sonderbar, dass ausgerechnet die Sozialdemokratie, die sich im alten Staat immer über Ausnahmen aufgeregt hat, jetzt selbst Ausnahmegesetze erläßt! Diese Ausnahmegesetze sind Zwangsmittel und werden in den Parlamenten mit Hilfe überstaatlicher Finanzmächte geschaffen. ...
        Im alten Staate galt ein Zinsfuß von mehr als 6 Prozent als Wucher. Heute ist dieser Wucher gesetzlich genehmigt. Das haben SIE, meine Herren von der Linken, die Sie immer vorgeben, Kapitalismus und Ausbeutung zu bekämpfen, fertiggebracht! Daran werden Sie zugrunde gehen!
      • 04/20/1926, speech in the Bavarian regional parliament ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • If you know these things, the question has enormous importance: who will be the judge in the future? It is not trivial, who is the judge. It's not sufficient to dress somebody in a robe, put a beret on his head and open the lawbook! It's a big difference whether a German or a negro takes place on the judgement seat. Sure, you can teach a negro the German language, the schematic application of laws and paragraphs -- and yet the negro will always judge like his blood commands!
      • Wenn man diese Dinge weiß, dann ist die Frage von ungeheurer Bedeutung: Wer soll künftig Richter sein? Es ist nicht gleichgültig, wer Richter ist. Damit, dass einer die schwarze Robe anlegt, das Barett aufsetzt und das Gesetzbuch aufschlägt, ist es nicht getan! Es ist ein großer Unterschied, ob ein Deutscher oder ein Neger auf dem Richterstuhl sitzt. Gewiß, Sie können einen Neger die deutsche Sprache, die schematische Anwendung der Gesetze und Paragraphen lehren -- trotzdem wird der Neger immer so richten, wie es ihm sein Blut gebietet!
      • 04/20/1926, speech in the Bavarian regional parliament ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • And further, I tell you that the Jew is right, when he acts as he does – because we are too timid to be as German as the Jew is Jewish! ... It happened at the time of the [Bavarian] Soviet Republic: When the unleashed subhumans rambled murdering through the streets, the deputies hid behind a chimney in the Bavarian parliament.
      • Und weiter sage ich Ihnen noch, dass der Jude recht hat, wenn er so handelt, wie er handelt - weil wir Deutsche zu feige sind, so deutsch zu sein, wie der Jude jüdisch ist! ... Es war zur Zeit der Räteherrschaft. Als das losgelassene Untermenschentum mordend durch die Straßen zog, da versteckten sich Abgeordnete hinter einem Kamin im bayerischen Landtag.
      • 05/25/1927, speech in the Bavarian regional parliament ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • Who are the moneylenders? They are those who were driven out of the Temple by Christ Himself 2000 years ago. They are those who never work but live on fraud.
      • Wer sind aber die Geldverleiher? Es sind die, welche schon vor 2000 Jahren von Christus aus dem Tempel gejagt wurden. Es sind die, welche niemals arbeiten, sondern nur vom Betruge leben.
      • 06/01/1927, speech in the Bavarian regional parliament ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • Social Democracy preached against capitalism for half a century. After the November revolution the Reds had the opportunity to direct capitalism into the proper paths: but nothing happened!
      • Die Sozialdemokratie hat ein halbes Jahrhundert den Kampf gegen den Kapitalismus gepredigt. Nach der Novemberrevolution hatten die Roten Gelegenheit, den Kapitalismus in richtige Bahnen zu leiten: aber es geschah nichts!
      • 06/01/1927, speech in the Bavarian regional parliament ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • In Soviet-Russia the Jew is forging the tool with which he wants to enslave Europe.
      • In Sowjet-Rußland schmiedet sich der Jude das Werkzeug, mit dem er Europa versklaven will.
      • 04/25/1928, speech in the Bavarian regional parliament ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • A moment ago a deputy of the communist party pleaded for the abortion of developing life. ... In Russia there has been a soviet rule for ten years already. ... Where is the promised paradise after these ten years? Where is the foretold happiness? Is that supposed to be the happiness that in Russia the abortion has been legalized?
      • Vorhin ist eine Abgeordnete der Kommunistischen Partei in ihrer Rede für die Abtreibung des keimenden Lebens eingetreten. ... In Rußland besteht seit zehn Jahren die Sowjetherrschaft. ... Wo ist nach diesen zehn Jahren das vielgepriesene Paradies geblieben? Wo ist das verheißene Glück? Besteht vielleicht das Glück darin, daß in Rußland die Möglichkeit der Abtreibung zum Gesetz erhoben wurde?
      • 02/22/1929, speech in the Bavarian regional parliament ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • You may baptize as long as you want, but the Jew remains a Jew, the Chinese a Chinese and the Negro a Negro.
      • Sie mögen taufen, solange sie wollen: der Jude bleibt Jude, der Chinese Chinese und der Neger Neger.
      • 02/22/1929, speech in the Bavarian regional parliament ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • Can't you feel that the German people has carried for seven years from one station of pain to another a huge cross? Can't you feel that it is persecuted, hounded and whipped bloody like the Nazarene? If you cannot feel that it is gasping under the weight of the cross which was burdened on it and that it walks on its way to Golgatha -- then you're not worth that God the Lord will again let the sun of his mercy shine upon you. ...
      Help us so that in this decisive hour the German people will be freed from the weight of the cross of the yoke of Jewry! Help us, so that a mighty man who's been gifted by God can give us back our freedom and that it will again be a proud people in a German country! Take care that Germany is freed from the chains she has been bound with for seven years. Put an end to this slavery! Our people shall again be great, proud and beautiful!
      • Fühlt Ihr denn nicht, dass das deutsche Volk sieben Jahre lang von einer Leidensstation zur anderen ein Riesenkreuz geschleppt hat? Fühlt Ihr nicht, dass es gejagt, gehetzt und blutig gepeitscht worden ist wie jener Nazarener? Wenn Ihr nicht fühlt, dass unser Volk sich keuchend unter der Last des Kreuzes, das man ihm auflud, auf dem Weg nach Golgatha schleppt, dann seid Ihr nicht wert, dass unser Herrgott Euch noch einmal mit seiner Gnadensonne bescheint. ...
        Helft in dieser entscheidungsvollen Stunde mit, dass das deutsche Volk von der Kreuzeslast des jüdischen Joches befreit wird! Helft mit, dass ein starker, von Gott begnadeter Mann ihm die Freiheit schenkt und dass es wieder ein stolzes Volk in deutschen Landen wird! Sorgt, dass Deutschland von der Kette, die es sieben Jahre lange tragen musste, frei wird. Deshalb heraus aus der Sklaverei! Unser Volk muss wieder groß, stolz und schön werden!
      • 03/07/1932, speech in the convention center (Kongresshalle) in Nuremberg ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • In spite of the fact that the Jews do not even refrain from attacking Christendom, they are protected by those who wear the cassock. The Christendom of the early time was different to the one of today.
      The first Christians were fighters, who wanted to free their people from the Jewish ignominy. Then the Jew crept into that community and had the originally pure Christendom ridiculed by mankind. The first Christians were willing to die to defend the Christian doctrine.
      • Obwohl die Juden auch nicht vor Angriffen auf das Christentum zurückschrecken, werden sie noch von denen geschützt, die das Priesterkleid tragen. Das Christentum der ersten Zeit war ein anderes als das heutige.
        Die ersten Christen waren Kämpfer, die ihr Volk von der jüdischen Schmach befreien wollten. Dann stahl sich der Jude in diese Gemeinschaft ein und machte aus dem ursprünglich reinen Christentum ein Gespött der Menschheit. Die ersten Christen waren bereit, für die Erhaltung der christlichen Lehre zu sterben.
      • 04/21/1932, speech in the Hercules Hall in Nuremberg ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • You are blinded and you serve the God of the Jews, who is not the God of love but the God of hatred. Why don't you listen to Christ Himself, who said to the Jews: "Ye are of your father the devil!"
      • Ihr seid verblendet und dient dem Gott der Juden, der nicht der Gott der Liebe, sondern der Gott des Hasses ist. Warum hört Ihr nicht auf Christus, der zu den Juden sagte : "Ihr seid Kinder des Teufels!"
      • 04/21/1932, speech in Nuremberg, Herkulessaal ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • That's why the peoples have to die -- so that the Jew can live. He drives the peoples to war to make a profit from the fratricide of the white race.
      In the World War 11 million gentiles had to die. The Jew was the winner.
      • Deswegen müssen die Völker sterben, damit der Jude leben kann. Er hetzt die Völker zum Krieg, um aus dem Brudermord der weißen Rasse Gewinn zu ziehen.
        Im Weltkrieg mussten 11 Millionen Nichtjuden sterben. Der Jude aber war der Sieger.
      • 05/20/1932, speech in the Hercules Hall in Nuremberg ("Kampf dem Weltfeind", Stürmer publishing house, Nuremberg, 1938)
    • They are hated because they satisfy their greed according to Talmudic principles. In the Jewish lawbook "Talmud" the Jews are told that the possessions of gentiles were "ownerless property", which the Jew was allowed to obtain through deceit and cheating. Whatever the "profession" may be called where the Jew earns his money, everywhere he remains a Jew. Such criminal behavior must inevitably provoke the hatred of Jews (anti-Semitism) and fighting repulsion. The fight that the Nazarene led 2000 years ago against the Jewish usurers resulted in a gruesome way of suffering and his slaughter at Calvary. The judgement passed by Jesus on the Jews marks the Jewish people for all time:
      "Ye are of your father the devil! He was a murderer from the beginning." (John 8:44-45)
      • Sie werden gehasst, weil sie ihre Gier nach Geld nach talmudischen Grundsätzen befriedigen. Im jüdischen Gesetzbuch "Talmud" wird den Juden gesagt, dass der Besitz der Nichtjuden "herrenloses Gut" sei, den der Jude durch Wucher, durch Betrug und Übervorteilung an sich bringen dürfe. Und wie der "Beruf" auch heißen mag, in dem der Jude sein Geld verdient, überall ist und bleibt er Jude. Solch verbrecherisches Verhalten muss zwangsläufig den Hass gegen die Juden (Antisemitismus) erzeugen und Abwehrkämpfe heraufbeschwören. Der Kampf, den der Nazarener vor 2000 Jahren gegen die jüdischen Zinseintreiber führte, endete mit einem grauenvollen Leidensweg und seiner Hinschlachtung auf Golgatha. Das Urteil, das Jesus Christus über die Juden fällte, kennzeichnet das Volk der Juden für alle Zeiten:
        "Ich habt zum Vater nicht Gott, sondern den Teufel. Er war ein Verbrecher und Menschenmörder von Anfang an". (Joh. VIII | 44,45.)
      • Foreword to the book "Juden stellen sich vor", Stürmer publishing house, 1934
    • The way that Adolf Hitler chose to follow to rescue the German people was an inner and outer one. Inwards he overcame the Jewish power by destroying Marxism and the secret lodges. Thereby he removed the hindrances which prevented building a German people's community. Outwards he broke the slave chains of Versailles by rebuilding the People's Army, bringing home those of the German people that had been ripped out, defeating Jewry's vassals and laying the foundation for a Europe that is liberated from Jewish financial power.
      • Der Weg, den Adolf Hitler zur Rettung des deutschen Volkes zu gehen sich entschlossen hatte, führte nach innen und nach außen. Nach innen überwand er die Machtpositionen des Juden durch Ausrottung des Marxismus und durch die Vernichtung der Geheimbünde. Damit wurden die Hemmnisse weggeräumt, die der Schaffung einer deutschen Volksgemeinschaft entgegenstanden. Nach außen zerbrach er die Sklavenketten von Versailles durch Wiederherstellung des Volksheeres, Heimholung der aus dem Reichsverband gerissenen Volksteile, Niederzwingung der Großvasallen des Weltjuden und Grundsteinlegung eines von der jüdischen Geldmacht befreiten Europas.
      • Stürmer, August 22, 1940
    • When the Jew says "mankind" he is talking about himself. It is written in the Talmud, that only Jews were human beings, gentiles on the other hand were animals created to serve the chosen people.
      If looking back and comparing the corresponding articles in the "democratic" and "neutral" countries, one is astonished at the systematic nature of the propaganda whose final goal was the creation of a state of affairs in which a war was inevitable.
      • Mit der "Menschheit" meint nämlich der Jude sich selbst, die Gesamtheit der Juden. Steht doch im Talmud geschrieben, dass nur die Juden Menschen seien, die Nichtjuden dagegen Tiere, die dazu erschaffen wurden, damit sie dem auserwählten Volk der Juden besser dienen könnten.
        Vergleicht man zurückschauend die darauf bezüglichen Artikel in den "demokratischen" und "neutralen" Ländern, dann staunt man über die Planmäßigkeit jener Propaganda, deren Endziel die Schaffung eines Zustandes war, der zwangsläufig zum Krieg führen musste.
      • Stürmer, September 5, 1940
    • In all peoples where Jews have lived as tolerated people or do so today, they prove to be disturbers of the inner peace and thus the destroyers of naturally grown people's communities. The Old Testament, which as the Jews claim tells their history, is at the same time the history of the peoples that the Jews destroyed physically and spiritually. The Jew does not only prove to be the disturber of the natural development within the peoples. He is also the destroyer of peace between the peoples.
      • In allen Völkern, in denen Juden als Geduldete lebten oder heute noch leben, erwiesen sie sich als Störer des inneren Friedens und damit als Vernichter natürlich gewordener Volksgemeinschaften. Das Alte Testament der Bibel, von dem die Juden behaupten, dass es ihre Geschichte enthalte, ist zugleich die Geschichte von Völkern, die von den Juden materiell und geistig zugrunde gerichtet wurden. Der Jude hat sich aber nicht allein als Störer der natürlichen Entwicklung in den Völkern erwiesen. Er ist auch der Vernichter des Friedens unter den Völkern.
      • Stürmer, October 17, 1940
    • The Jew always lives from the blood of other peoples, he needs such murders and such sacrifices. The victory will be only entirely and finally achieved when the whole world is free of Jews.
      • 1937 speech, quoted in "The Trial of the Germans" - Page 57 - by Eugene Davidson - History - 1997
    • There must be a punitive expedition against the Jews in Russia, a punitive expedition which will expect: death sentence and execution. Then the world will see the end of the Jews is also the end of Bolshevism.
      • Der Stürmer, May 1939, quoted in "The Trial of the Germans" - Page 50 - by Eugene Davidson - History - 1997
    • This is our mission at home, to approach these future decisions without hesitation, to do our duty and to remain strong. We know the enemy, we have called him by name for the last twenty years: he is the World Jew. And we know that the Jew must die.
      • October 31, 1939 speech, quoted in "The Trial of the Germans" - Page 50 - by Eugene Davidson - History - 1997
    • Developments since the rise of National Socialism make it probable that the continent will be freed from its Jewish destroyers of people and exploiters forever, and the German example after the German victory in World War II will also serve to bring about the destruction of the Jewish world tormentors on other continents.
      • Der Stürmer, January 6, 1944, quoted in "The Trial of the Germans" - Page 57 - by Eugene Davidson - History - 1997
    • My publication was for a fine purpose. Certain snobs may now look down on it and call it common or even pornographic, but until the end of the war, I had Hitler's greatest respect, and Der Stürmer had the party's complete support. At our height, we had a circulation of 1.5 million. Everybody read Der Stürmer, and they must have liked it or they wouldn't have bought it. The aim of Der Stürmer was to unite Germans and to awaken them against Jewish influence which might ruin our noble culture.
      • To Leon Goldensohn, April 6, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
    • Hitler promised me protection after I had participated in the Munich putsch in 1923. I am very proud that I marched alongside Hitler in that affair. Hitler was never forgetful of that fact, and his faith and confidence in me was unshaken until the end. I, in turn, never broke my oath of loyalty to him.
      • To Leon Goldensohn, April 6, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
    • Christ was a Jew, and God, he is supposed to have made the universe. That's a little far-fetched because if God made the world, who made God?
      • To Leon Goldensohn, April 6, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
    • I was all for setting up a separate Jewish state in Madagascar or Palestine or someplace, but not to exterminate them. Besides, by exterminating 4 million Jews - they say 5 or 6 million at this trial, but that is all propaganda, I am sure it wasn't more than 4.5 million - they have made martyrs out of those Jews. For example, because of the extermination of these Jews, anti-Semitism has been set back many years in certain foreign countries where it had been making good progress.
      • To Leon Goldensohn, April 6, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
    • The main thing I tried to stress was how badly I was treated in the American camp at Freising, but the American prosecutor and the judges ruled that my comments on my poor treatment there had to be expunged from the record because it was irrelevant. I don't think it is irrelevant when we National Socialists are accused of war crimes and of murdering 5 million Jews and millions of other innocent people such as partisans, hostages, war prisoners. Therefore, I should have been allowed to insert into the record of this trial how badly I was treated personally as a prisoner of war, after the war was over, mind you, in Freising.
      • To Leon Goldensohn, June 15, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
    • It is a trial within a nation but a trial of victors against the vanquished. Even before the trials started, the victors who are our judges were quite convinced that we were guilty and that we should all pay the price.
      • To Leon Goldensohn, June 15, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
    • I remember reports that the American and English newspapers were very happy about the fact that so many were killed in Dresden. There are many instances of barbarity and cruelty on the part of the Allies which I could tell you.
      • To Leon Goldensohn, June 15, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
    • It's perfectly understandable and proper for one to be anti-Semite, but to exterminate women and children is so extraordinary, it's hard to believe. No defendant here wanted that.
      • To Leon Goldensohn, June 15, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
    • Yes, I believe I had a part in it insofar as for years I have written that any further mixture of German blood with Jewish blood must be avoided. I have written such articles again and again; and in my articles I have repeatedly emphasized the fact that the Jews should serve as an example to every race, for they created the racial law for themselves - the law of Moses, which says, "If you come into a foreign land you shall not take unto yourself foreign women." And that, Gentlemen, is of tremendous importance in judging the Nuremberg Laws. These laws of the Jews were taken as a model for these laws. When after centuries, the Jewish lawgiver Ezra demonstrated that notwithstanding many Jews had married non-Jewish women, these marriages were dissolved. That was the beginning of Jewry which, because it introduced these racial laws, has survived throughout the centuries, while all other races and civilizations have perished.
      • After Streicher was asked about his participation in the Nuremberg Race laws of 1935. Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, 14 November 1945 - 1 October 1946, Volume 12, Secretariat of the Tribunal, Nuremberg, Germany, page 315
    • Germans must fight Jews, that organized body of world criminals against whom Christ, the greatest anti-Semite of all time, had fought.
      • Quoted in "Hitler's Elite, Shocking Profiles of the Reich's Most Notorious Henchmen," Berkley Books, 1990
    • Only the Jews had remained victorious after the dreadful days of World War I. These were the people of whom Christ said, "Its father is the devil."
      • Quoted in "Anti-Judaism and the Fourth Gospel" - Page 14 - by Reimund Bieringer, Didier Pollefeyt, Frederique Vandecasteele-Vanneuville - Religion - 2001
    • Anti-Semitic publications have existed in Germany for centuries. A book I had, written by Dr. Martin Luther, was, for instance, confiscated. Dr. Martin Luther would very probably sit in my place in the defendants' dock today, if this book had been taken into consideration by the Prosecution. In this book The Jews and Their Lies, Dr. Martin Luther writes that the Jews are a serpent's brood and one should burn down their synagogues and destroy them...
      • Quoted in "The Destruction of the European Jews: Third Edition" - by Raul Hilberg - History - 2003
    • Two niggers undressed me and tore my shirt in two. I kept only my pants. Being handcuffed, I could not pull them up when they fell down. So now I was naked. Four days! On the fourth day, I was so cold that my body was numb. I couldn't hear anything. Every two - four hours (even in the night!) Niggers came along under command of a white man and hammered at me. Cigarette burns on the nipples. Fingers gouged into eye-sockets. Eyebrows and chest hair pulled out. Genitals beaten with an oxwhip. Testicles very swollen. Spat at. "Mouth open" and was spat into. When I refused to open, my jaws were pried apart with a stick and my mouth spat into. Beaten with a whip - swollen, dark-blue whelps all over the body... Photographed naked! Jeered at wearing an old army greatcoat which they hung round me.
      • Note handed to his lawyer, Dr. Hans Marx, about the torture he endured in his cell. Quoted in "Julius Streicher" - Page 42 - by Randall L. Bytwerk - 2001
    • He who knows the truth and does not speak it is a miserable coward.
      • Alternate version: He who knows the truth and does not speak it truly is a miserable creature.
      • Quoted in "Julius Streicher" - Page 211 - By Randall L. Bytwerk
    • A people that does not protect its racial purity will perish!

    About Julius Streicher

    • Bravo, Streicher!
      • Rudolf Hess yells this out from his cell when Streicher refused to get dressed for his execution, 10/16/46
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                Thirty years ago on this date, October 17, 1984, a murder occurred in a Mansion in Toddville, Texas.


     

    Photo By Paul Hobby/© Houston Chronicle 
    1981 - William Gerald List, shot to death in his Seabrook mansion on Todville Road

    The List Mansion Murder - Bill List

    Back in 1984, Bill List was 57-year-old successful businessman. He was known as a braggart with a quick temper and a very hard man to get along with. He was a disagreeable complainer. In his native Ohio Bill List also had a record as a sex offender. In 1959 he was sent to prison for molesting teen-age boys. Some of the boys said it happened after he promised them jobs and expected sex in return. A ninth-grade dropout, he told a prison psychologist he knew he was a homosexual when he was 8. Bill's idea of sexual gratification involved more than intercourse. It was a blend of sadomasochism and filth; of pain and degradation. A witness to one of the sex sessions said he threw up afterward. After he was paroled in 1962 he moved to Texas.

    Bill owned a trailer manufacturing business and prospered during the oil boom in the 1970s making trailers to haul drilling pipe. To celebrate that success, List built a 34,000-square-foot mansion at 3300 Todville Road in Seabrook, southeast of Houston. Backed to the edge of Galveston Bay, the brick and iron building rose three stories out of an otherwise middle-class neighborhood of unremarkable stilted bay front homes.

    When List poured the slab for the building the neighbors worried that an apartment complex was going to be built. He dug a reflecting pond the length of the driveway and used the dirt to build up the bay front lot. The house was divided into two wings with an atrium in the center and a catwalk between the wings at the second level. He covered the enormous verandas with iron bars. The ballroom in the front had terrazzo tile from Mexico on the floors. In the foyer, a fountain spouted water under the apex of two staircases that united at the ceiling. A 20-foot, U-shaped bar was at one side of the huge room, and a fireplace with a semicircular white brick bench around it was at the other end. On the first level beneath the entrance, a 40-by-70-foot game room had a pool table and 20-foot octagonal bar. There was a 40-foot swimming pool in the three-story atrium and hundreds of plants growing from brick planter boxes. A Jacuzzi at one end of the atrium, on a second-level balcony, overflowed water into a fountain below it. There was a 30-foot table in the dining room. The master bedroom suite upstairs, Bill's apartment, had its own kitchen.

    Yet, despite all the money spent to build it, the mansion was hideous. One visitor described the furnishings as “contemporary Holiday Inn.” The prices of some of the wall paintings were written in Magic Marker on the back. The carpets were not the expensive type you'd expect in such a place. The three-foot electric circuit box was located in the living room. The central air-conditioning units were on the verandas. A steam table, complete with sneeze guard," was in the dining room The iron bars on the facade made it look like a prison, which it was.

    To satisfy his sexual desires, Bill cruised Houston’s lower Westheimer strip in the Montrose district almost every weekend and picked up street hustlers. He preferred them in their teens. List would pick up a few boys, keep them drugged and locked in the mansion, providing everything for them but freedom while they provided him with sex. Some would stay and others would eventually be let go. Rumors still circulate that Bill List killed several of these boys in house. By September of 1984, List had several young men living in the grotesque mansion with him. One of them was 19-year-old Elbert Ervin Homan whose street name was “Smiley.” Cocky and confident, Smiley was a doper and a veteran street hustler who had once knifed another kid to steal his jeep. Jeff Statton, a 16-year-old homosexual who’d spent time in prison for auto theft and in a mental hospital was also living in the List mansion as was a kid named Joey, a hustler Bill picked up on one of his weekend trips to Montrose. Also there was Tim, a 19-year-old hustler from Belleville, Ill, whose street name was “Peppermint.”

    Sick of Bill and his freaky sex scenes, the foursome made up their minds to break out of the stark brick house. After shooting up heroin one morning while Bill was at work, they began hurling plates through the windows and tossing potted plants into the pool. Joey began writing obscenities about List in red ink on a wall. Smiley took the pen and wrote what amounted to his confession: “Bill List's a very sick man. He is going to die. Smiley 1984.” The next three or four hours were constant activity. Food was pulled from the refrigerators and thrown on the walls. Cushions were ripped open. The chandeliers and light fixtures were broken, and a house plant the size of a tree was rammed through a wall in the dining room. Furniture was smashed. Hundreds of planters were broken. The lawn furniture was tossed into the pool. Lamps were broken. A glass top from a table was dropped out of third floor bedroom window to shatter on the atrium floor. The pool was brown with dirt from broken planters. Laundry detergent was dumped in the Jacuzzi and the suds began dripping into the fountain below.

    They were literally looking for new things to break when Bill List's Pontiac pulled into the drive. They got Bill's shotgun from his bedroom closet and a box of shells. The only thing left was to decide who was going to use it. Smiley took it and went downstairs, and aimed the gun at the level he thought Bill's head would be when he walked in. When the door to the garage opened and Bill walked in, someone, either Tim or Joey, shouted, Hi, Bill!" Bill's foot was on the second step of the staircase. It was in that split second between drawing breath and responding that Smiley pulled the trigger. List grabbed at his head and dropped. Jeff went to the catwalk and looked down at Smiley standing over List's body. The blood from Bill's head was oozing toward the garage door and Smiley was urinating on the body.

    It took them less than five minutes to pack what they were taking and start driving. Nobody was talking in the car and Jeff stuck a Tina Turner tape in the cassette player. There was fear among them but no real regret, at least for Jeff and Smiley. Tim wanted out. They bought him a plane ticket with a credit card from Bill's wallet and sent him back to Illinois. They went to the home of two of Jeff's friends and told them about the killing. That night, Jeff said, they went to Bill's business (Jeff had a key) and took Bill's company checkbook. They ate at a Denny's restaurant and all stayed together in the same Holiday Inn motel room. They went shopping until one of the stolen cards was confiscated by a clerk. Smiley got a new suit. Joey got some leather pants. With what was in Bill's wallet and what they got from forging checks on his account, they had a few hundred. They lost $200 in a heroin deal ripoff. When they tried to cash that one last check at an icehouse they were caught by an off-duty deputy who worked there part-time. The deputy called List's business to verify the check Smiley was trying to cash and was told List had been murdered and the check was no good.

    For years after the death of Bill List, the mansion was up for sale and yet no one would buy it. Caretakers were brought in to maintain the property and eventually a bunch of people who had a rock and roll band rented it for a while. Nobody stayed long. Ultimately, a land developer bought the List Mansion and tore it down. In its place he built stucco condos with clay tile roofs. There is nothing left of the list mansion except the sorted stories of what went on there by old time residents. The people who live in the condos – few of whom know the property’s past -- have reported sighting a strange creature roaming the grounds, as well as noises, feelings of being watched, and shadowy figures moving around the area.

    Last edited by Taggerez; 02-17-2009 at 03:24 PM.


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    Anti-abortion demonstration "Each life matters" in Madrid – Spain


    One million protest against Spanish abortion liberalisation

    Saturday, October 17, 2009


    Anti-abortion demonstration "Each life matters" in Madrid – Spain
    According to organisers, more than one million people have marched across Madrid, Spain to oppose plans to liberalise abortion law. Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero wants to introduce abortion on demand, allowing women as young as 16 to have abortions without their parents' consent. Currently women may only terminate pregnancies in the predominantly Catholic country under specific circumstances.

    This new law is a barbarity. In this country, they protect animals more than human beings
    Description: Cquote2.svg
    —Jose Carlos Felicidad, 67, retired naval technician
    The 1.5-kilometer (one-mile) march contained members from 42 religious and civil society groups, with 600 buses and several planes used to bring anti-abortion supporters, according to organisers. The protest was also supported by the conservative opposition People's Party and the Roman Catholic Church.

    The march started under a banner emblazoned with "Every Life Matters", and tens of thousands of supporters carried banners and flags with "For Life, Women and Motherhood" and "Women Against Abortion" and "Madrid 2009, Capital of Life", along the route to the Plaza de Independencia, where many more waited.

    A spokesman for one of the rally organiser, HazteOir (Make Yourself Heard), reported that approximately 1.5 million people had participated in the rally and march. The Madrid regional government put the figures at around 1.2 million.

    The supporters want the government to withdraw the draft law currently up for debate in the parliament in November, which would introduce abortion on demand within the first 14 weeks of a pregnancy, based on laws currently in place in most other European Union countries. It would replace Spain's law introduced in 1985, which allows abortion in cases of rape, when there are signs of foetal abnormality, or when a woman's physicalor psychological health is at risk. This latter category has been used to justify 112,000 abortions in 2007, a majority of which occurred in Spain.

    "This new law is a barbarity. In this country, they protect animals more than human beings," said Jose Carlos Felicidad, aged 67, a retired naval technician, who had come to the rally in Madrid from the town of Algeciras.

    Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero spoke in defence of the draft law, saying the state should not "intervene in the free and private decision of a woman, who is the one who has to take on the responsibility of a pregnancy during her entire life." According to the government, the law is about respect and women's rights, and that alternatives will be explained first to anyone wishing to terminate a pregnancy. It also said that the new law will make abortion less dangerous, by making sure that the procedure is not done after 22 weeks.

    The prime minister has passed a series of social reforms since he came to power in 2004. Among them were measures to legalise gay marriage, give more rights to transsexuals, and permit fast-track divorces.


    Anti-abortion demonstration "Each life matters" in Madrid – Spain

    Thousands protest abortion in Spain
    • Story Highlights
    • The anti-abortion protest, themed "each life is important," began at 5 p.m.
    • Many leading conservative politicians attended
    • Local media estimated the crowd in the tens of thousands
    By Al Goodman
    CNN Madrid Bureau Chief

    MADRID, Spain (CNN) -- Thousands flocked to Spain's capital Saturday to protest the Socialist government's move to make it easier to get an abortion.


    Protesters in Madrid on Saturday demonstrate against legislation to loosen restrictions on abortion in Spain.
    The anti-abortion protest, themed "each life is important," began at 5 p.m. in central Madrid and many leading conservative politicians attended, including former Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar. Local media estimated the crowd in the tens of thousands.

    The protest was prompted by a proposed law that would ease restrictions on obtaining an abortion.

    Since 1985, abortionhas been decriminalized, but only in matters of rape, or when the health of the child or mother is at risk. Victims of rape can legally get an abortion until the 12th week of pregnancy, and women can opt for abortions until the 22nd week of pregnancy if doctors detect a malformation of the fetus.

    Most abortions in Spain are performed when the woman's psychological or physical health is at risk, and mainly in private clinics, abortion clinic staffers at Dator Clinic in Madrid told CNN.

    The number of abortions has doubled in the past decade in the traditionally Roman Catholic country, from nearly 54,000 in 1998 to 112,000 in 2007, the most recent year for available data, according to Spain's Ministry of Health.

    The Socialist government has introduced a bill that would make it easier to get an abortion and give it legal backing, riling up abortion opponents, who already rallied thousands of demonstrators to the streets last March.

    The bill, soon to be debated in Parliament, would permit abortions through 14 weeks of pregnancy and set the legal age to obtain an abortion without parental consent at 16 years old.

    Supporters say the bill includes the "voluntary interruption of pregnancy" as part of a broader national strategy on sexual and reproductive health, with education and access to contraceptives, aimed at preventing unwanted pregnancies. Unwanted pregnancies have been on the rise in Spain, said Equality Minister Bibiana Aido in May, shortly before the introduction of the bill.

    But opponents say the proposed law throws open the door to more abortions.

    Benigno Blanco, director of Spanish Family Forum who organized the protest, told conservative newspaper ABC that "this debate won't end until there's not a single abortion." Blanco was a senior official in Aznar's government.

    Protesters traveled to the rally from various cities across Spain, and the event had the support of 234 anti-abortion groups from 45 countries, organizers said.

    The ruling Socialist party called the conservative-run protest "hypocritical" in a statement Saturday. The marchers said they opposed abortion in general, but the party said conservatives did nothing to completely outlaw abortion during their eight years in power.

    Socialist lawmaker Carmen Monton said the protesters are trying to "take the debate back to 20 years ago, when in fact abortion has been going on in Spain."

    She said the Socialists, despite the protest on Saturday, are confident of passing the bill with the support of several smaller, mainly leftist parties in parliament. But due to parliamentary schedules, it may not face a vote to become law until early next spring.



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                On this date, October 18, 1942, The Commando Order was issued by Adolf Hitler on 18 October 1942 stating that all Allied commandos encountered by German forces in Europe and Africa should be killed immediately without trial, even in proper uniforms or if they attempted to surrender. Any commando or small group of commandos or a similar unit, agents, and saboteurs not in proper uniforms, who fell into the hands of the German military forces by some means other than direct combat (through the police in occupied territories, for instance) were to be handed over immediately to the Sicherheitsdienst(SD, Security Service). The order, which was issued in secret, made it clear that failure to carry out these orders by any commander or officer would be considered to be an act of negligence punishable under German military law.

                I will post information about this war crime from Wikipedia.