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    PLEASE GO TO THESE TWO BLOG POSTS OF UNIT 1012 BLOG FOR THE DEBATE OF THE MONTH.

    1. VOTE YES OR NO TO PROPOSITION 34? [THE DEBATE OF THE FORTNIGHT ~ SUNDAY 4 NOVEMBER 2012 TO SATURDAY 17 NOVEMBER 2012]

    2. DEFEATING THE DEVIL’S GAME: VOTING NO ON PROPOSITION 34 (NOVEMBER 6, 2012) [THE DEBATE OF THE MONTH ~ NOVEMBER 2012]



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    NOTICE: The following article is written by the author itself and not by me, I am not trying to violate their copyright. I will give some information on them. On this date, November 6, 2012, Proposition 34 was defeated in California. I chose this article as the article on the death penalty of the week to honor the defeat of evil.
                                    
    ARTICLE TITLE: Capital punishment is necessary; No on Prop. 34
    DATE: Tuesday October 23, 2012
    AUTHOR: Benjamin Zycher
    AUTHOR INFORMATION: Benjamin Zycher is the president of Benjamin Zycher Economics Associates Inc., a senior fellow at the Pacific Research Institute, and an adjunct professor of Economics and Business at the Martin V. Smith School of Business and Economics, California State University, Channel Islands. He is an associate in the Intelligence Community Associate Program of the Office of Economic Analysis, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, U.S. Department of State. He served as a senior staff economist for the President's Council of Economic Advisers from July 1981 to July 1983. While at AEI, he is working on a monograph that will describe the economic viability of renewable energy.

    Benjamin Zycher
    Remember Jesse James Hollywood? He is serving a life sentence (without the possibility of parole) for the kidnapping and murder of 15-year-old Nicholas Markowitz in August 2000. His case is a classic example of why an effective system of capital punishment must be established and preserved, and thus why Proposition 34 must be defeated Nov. 6.

    After Hollywood "called his lawyer and learned the severe penalty for kidnapping, police say, [Hollywood and his accomplices] decided they had to kill Nicholas" (Los Angeles Times, Aug. 26, 2001). In other words, since the penalty for kidnapping was a life sentence, or close to it, the marginal (or "extra") penalty for murdering the young and innocent Markowitz was perceived to be small to zero, in that the actual application of capital punishment in California was, and remains, both unusual and subject to long delay.

    More generally: If a criminal faces a life term for a given crime, and if there is no effective threat of a death sentence, why not get rid of the witnesses? Stiff penalties deter crimes – the scholarly literature is quite clear that most criminals respond rationally to incentives – but if the structure of the penalty system makes even stiffer penalties difficult to impose, that structure actually can encourage crimes even more egregious.

    Consider the California "three strikes" law. The first two strikes must be felonies that are serious and/or violent. But the third strike carries a life term for any felony, whether or not serious or violent, so that a two-strike criminal pondering his next offense faces the same life sentence for attempted murder, auto theft, or mere drug possession.

    Yes, California has adopted discretion on the part of prosecutors and judges as to whether to count certain crimes as third strikes. But such an ad hoc approach is problematic both in practice and as a general principle in a nation that is supposed to be governed by a rule of law. (This is why conservatives interested in a serious public stance toward crime should vote "Yes" on the Proposition 36 effort to reform the "three-strikes" law so that only serious or violent third strikes may result in life sentences.)

    Moreover, the third-strike discretion now used is useless in the context of the most serious crimes in the absence of capital punishment. Such crimes as attempted murder, aggravated rape or kidnapping for ransom are so egregious that they appropriately carry very stiff penalties approximating life sentences. In the absence of capital punishment, that necessarily reduces the marginal penalties for offenses even worse, a state of affairs that can be predicted to increase the rate at which such terrible crimes are committed.

    One way around this deterrence problem is to reduce penalties for the large array of lesser crimes so as to preserve marginal deterrence for the more serious ones. But that would yield an increase in the rate at which the lesser crimes – many of which are hardly trivial – are committed, and might actually increase the rate at which the truly serious crimes are observed, in that some such offenses are unplanned outcomes of lesser felonies.

    After all, for example, some murders committed during convenience-store holdups are not envisioned by the robbers beforehand. In short, an attempt to preserve marginal deterrence by reducing penalties across the board is likely to increase serious crime generally. And given the very small likelihood that an innocent actually will be executed, such an across-the-board reduction in penalties is likely to increase the taking of innocent life on net, in this case by criminals rather than by state governments.

    Therefore, a society serious about deterring egregious crimes generally and murders in particular, and anxious to use punishment as a moral expression of the value of innocent life, must have an effective system of capital punishment.

    Both the moral pursuit of justice and the practical preservation of political support require that those accused of capital crimes be given the resources – say, $500,000 – necessary for a serious defense and appellate process. This hardly would be an important fiscal burden in a state with a GDP approximating $2 trillion, whatever our economic and fiscal problems. Such a political compromise restoring an effective system of capital punishment might also include a new state court of appeal specializing in capital cases, combined with strict time limits on the number and length of appeals. This new court would be subordinate to the Supreme Court, but the latter would be likely to accept few or no appeals from the former.

    The common argument that a humane society cannot risk even one execution of an innocent is misguided: Just as most of us risk death daily in order to drive automobiles, participate in extreme sports, or watch the Lifetime channel, it is axiomatic that virtually anyone would be willing to bear the infinitesimal risk of wrongful execution in order to obtain the far more important reductions in serious crime that an effective system of capital punishment makes possible.

    Capital punishment is an extremely difficult business. The alternative is worse.

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                  On this date, 9 November 2008, the Amrozi A.K.A the Smiling Assassin was executed together with Imam Samudra and Ali Ghufron Mukhlas by firing squad in Nusa Kambangan Island, Indonesia. They were involved in the 2002 Bail Bombings


                I chose the Brimob firing Squad as the weapon of the fortnight to remember the day I changed from an opponent to a supporter of the death penalty. 




    Single men only in Bali bomber firing squad
     
    TRAINING ... target shooting by Brimob paramilitary police who will make up the firing squads to execute the Bali bombers Amrozi, Mukhlas and Imam Samudra.Source: The Courier-Mail

    THE men chosen to form the firing squad for the Bali bombers will be single with no children, and will have passed psychological and health checks. 

    They will also be good shots with a rifle - most probably an SS1 and using 5.5mm bullets.

    They will have practised on police firing ranges shooting at targets. And they will not generally say no when assigned to form a firing squad.

    Three squads of 12 shooters each, plus a commander and senior member, will be chosen soon to shoot Amrozi, Mukhlas and Imam Samudra, possibly as early as this weekend.

    The squads will be chosen from the Brimob, or the Brigadier Mobile brigade of the paramilitary police, in the Central Java region, closest to where the executions will take place. The headquarters of the Central Java region is the city of Semarang, about six hours' drive from the execution site. 

    This week when The Courier-Mail visited the Brimob headquarters in Semarang, members of Brimob were engaged in their regular shooting and target practice on their firing range.

     They aimed and fired at targets including life-size cut-outs of a human figures and circles.

    Initially they fired from 100m away, then moved in to 75m and 50m. They fired from standing and kneeling positions and practised tactical moves.

    As shooting and target practice is part of their normal routine, commanders say they don't need to do anything special in order to qualify for a firing squad because all can shoot well.

    Every member of Brimob is subjected to regular written and oral psychological tests and to medicals to ensure they are mentally up to the job. And this includes those in firing squads.

    Sources say that when it comes to a firing squad the commander prefers to choose single men with no children to lessen potential psychological problems for those who might be uneasy about taking the life of a fellow human being.

    The Brimob chief in Central Java, Commissioner Wahyudi Hidayat, said there were 11 divisions of Brimob in Central Java, consisting of 170 members each and that the Bali bomber firing squads would be chosen from those 1870 members. He said the commanders knew their members well and would choose the squads.

    "All of Brimob has been trained to do jobs like the firing squad," he said.

    "We don't have any specific team for the firing squad because everybody must be trained to do it. We just do normal basic Brimob training and we have shooting training almost every day."

    Of the 12 shooters, only three have live bullets in their weapons - the other nine have blanks - and to salve consciences no one is meant to know who has the lives and who has the blanks. The guns are laid out on the ground and members are told to choose one shortly before execution hour.

    Under legislation, if the prisoner does not die immediately from the firing squad, the commander fires an "amnesty shot" to the head with a revolver.

    PLEASE GO TO THESE BLOG POSTS TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THE BALI BOMBERS:

    1.THE 2002 BALI BOMBINGS’ KEY DATES

    2. Imam Samudra

    3. Ali Ghufron Mukhlas

    4. WHY AM I SMILING? [THE TRIAL OF AMROZI]

    5. SHOOT STRAIGHT! DON’T MISS! – TIME TO GUN AMROZI DOWN!


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     On this date, 9 November 2008, the Amrozi A.K.A the Smiling Assassin was executed together with Imam Samudra and Ali Ghufron Mukhlas by firing squad in Nusa Kambangan Island, Indonesia. They were involved in the 2002 Bail Bombings



    Amrozi the Smiling Assassin being escorted by police officers.
                 I write this article not to make fun of Islam or any Muslims (I do have Muslim friends) but to share my Christian perspective on why I feel that Amrozi must die for his crimes. I would also take this opportunity to rebut that nun, Helen Prejean who has a great habit of asking people to oppose capital punishment.

                As I felt for the 202 victims and survivors of the 2002 Bali Bombings, I thought of this bible verse:


    So you shall not pollute the land where you are; for blood defiles the land, and no atonement can be made for the land, for the blood that is shed on it, except by the blood of him who shed it.
    – Numbers 35 verse 33 (NKJV)


                I felt that Amrozi and the other two Bali Bombers must pay with their lives of there will not be any justice at all. He had caused the death of 202 innocent people who did not deserve to die. 

    From left to right: Ali Ghufron Mukhlas, Imam Samudra & Amrozi

    Grief will remain, says sister of mercy
    By Penelope Debelle
    August 8, 2003





    It would be natural, said Sister Helen Prejean, for families of Bali victims to want the convicted bomber Amrozi to suffer a painful death.

    "Every one of them would want to take that person with their bare hands and kill [him]," said Sister Helen, an opponent of capital punishment who gives spiritual counselling to those on death row in US prisons. Her book Dead Man Walking inspired an Academy Award-winning film starring Susan Sarandon and now a contemporary opera, performed in Adelaide yesterday.

    "It is the expression of their loss, their confusion, their grief, maybe even part of their feelings of guilt as parents," she said.

    But Sister Helen, who has counselled six men before their execution by injection, warned that Amrozi's death would not meet the emotional needs of families affected by the bombing.
    "When we have lost a loved one and it was done by another, it is easy to focus the anger on the one who did that," she said in Adelaide, where she met and counselled magistrate Brian Deegan, whose son Josh died in the Bali blast.

    "But killing them is an act of despair that says, 'The only thing we can do with you, since you did this, is to imitate you'. It shows that we as a society have sunk to their level."

    Sister Helen, who attended the State Opera of South Australia performance last night of Dead Man Walking, said the execution of the Oklahoma bomber Timothy McVeigh, who killed 168 people, showed that capital punishment of offenders did not offer healing for victims' families.

    "[They] were allowed to watch through closed circuit television while the state killed him. By then over half the families knew that it would bring them no satisfaction, that they still had to deal with the loss of their loved one. One man whose daughter was killed said they could kill Timothy McVeigh a thousand times but when he came home he still had to deal with the empty chair."

    Mr Deegan opposed the death penalty for Amrozi because it would not bring his son back and would turn Amrozi into a martyr.

     
    <<"But killing them is an act of despair that says, 'The only thing we can do with you, since you did this, is to imitate you'. It shows that we as a society have sunk to their level.">>
     
    REBUTTAL: No way, as a Born Again Christian and a former opponent of the death penalty myself, I used to agree with Helen Prejean, but not anymore. The execution of the Bali Bombers was one of the many reasons that caused me to change from a strong opponent to a supporter of the death penalty. From November 8 to 9, 2008, I did not see Helen Prejean holding a candlelight vigil and protesting the Bali Bombers’ execution at the Indonesian embassy in Washington DC. All she does is talk and talk but no action if she really means that she is against the execution.    

                The Indonesian Justice System is not imitating the Bali Bombers when they executed them by the firing squad; they are meting out justice and protection. They have not sunk to the level of the Terrorists.

                The Bali Bombers now belong to The Legion of Doom: The 13 Dead Terrorists. The 13 evil men were either executed or killed by military action. Are the soldiers or executioners all stooping to their level?

    Helen Prejean, was the Prophet Samuel sinking to the level of King Agag the Amalekite King (who was a murderer) when he executed him? No, the Prophet Samuel was obeying God in following Genesis 9 verse 6.


    Please read I Samuel 15 of the Bible.

    "[They] were allowed to watch through closed circuit television while the state killed him. By then over half the families knew that it would bring them no satisfaction, that they still had to deal with the loss of their loved one. One man whose daughter was killed said they could kill Timothy McVeigh a thousand times but when he came home he still had to deal with the empty chair."

    Mr Deegan opposed the death penalty for Amrozi because it would not bring his son back and would turn Amrozi into a martyr.

    REBUTTAL: I do not buy that at all, as usual, Helen Prejeanonly speaks about Bud Welch who was the only one of the victims’ families who oppose the death penalty. Most of those whose loved ones were killed in the Oklahoma City Bombing wanted Timothy McVeigh to pay with his life. Helen Prejean, why do you not care for them too?

                Amrozi was all along a coward and he did not want to die at all. He died a coward as he was pale faced and shaking moments before he was shot. Amrozi did not die a martyr but a coward.

                If Amrozi was allowed to keep his life, there could be a strong possibility that he might get only 20 years in prison like Umar Patek. No way, it was justice that Amrozi paid with his life.

                In conclusion, Please see this blog post from Philip Jensen who agrees that the death sentence was part of the justice and mercy of God. At the same time, Helen Prejean should be making fun of Satan the devil than making fun of Jesus Christ (by saying that we made him into a poodle). She was quoted in the BBC:


    'We've made Jesus into a poodle'

    The nun who inspired the Oscar-winning film Dead Man Walking is in the north-east of England to talk about the death penalty and Christianity.

    Sister Helen Prejean has been invited over from America by the Hexham and Newcastle Catholic Diocese to talk about her inspirational life.

    Sister Helen writes and visits prisoners on death row in America.

    She says Christians have "domesticated" Jesus and forgotten that he was often in the company of sinners.

    Sister Helen said: "Often we made him [Jesus] like a French poodle, with a rhinestone necklace and painted his toenails because it's all very comfortable and doesn't rock the boat.

    "But Jesus was with the marginalised and the cast-offs and the people who had no voice."

    Sister Helen was speaking to BBC Newcastle's Alfie Joey and also described how she sits with prisoners while they are given the lethal injection, and why she is so against the death penalty.

              I will post a quote from the 20thPresident of the United States, James Garfield who spoke out against Satan. I find it sick that Prejean can make fun of Jesus Christ by saying that we made him like a poodle. No way, Amrozi the Smiling Assassin cannot be compared to Jesus Christ, he should be compared to the devil instead. 




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    The D.C. Sniper, John Allen Muhammad was executed by lethal injection at Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt, Virginia on 10 November 2009. He went on a spree killing and had killed more than 10 people.





    Mug shot of John Allen Muhammad

    Born
    December 31, 1960
    Baton Rouge, Louisiana, U.S.
    Died
    November 10, 2009 (aged 48)
    Jarratt, Virginia, U.S.
    Cause of death
    Execution by lethal injection
    Other names
    The Beltway Sniper
    The D.C. Sniper
    Religion
    Nation of Islam
    Criminal penalty
    Death


    Killings
    Number of victims
    10 killed, 3 injured (D.C. metropolitan area); 17 victims elsewhere
    Span of killings
    February 16, 2002–October 23, 2002
    Country
    United States of America
    State(s)
    Alabama, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Texas, Virginia, Washington State, and Washington, D.C.
    Date apprehended
    October 24, 2002

    John Allen Muhammad (December 31, 1960 - November 10, 2009) was a convicted murderer from the United States. He, along with his seventeen-year-old partner, Lee Boyd Malvo, carried out the 2002 Beltway sniper attacks, killing at least 10 people. Muhammad and Malvo were arrested in connection with the attacks on October 24, 2002, following tips from alert citizens. Although the pairing's actions were classified as psychopathy attributable to serial killer characteristics by the media, whether or not their psychopathy meets this classification or that of a spree killer is debated by researchers.

    Born as John Allen Williams, Muhammad joined the Nation of Islam in 1987 and later changed his surname to Muhammad. At Muhammad's trial, the prosecutor claimed that the rampage was part of a plot to kill his ex-wife and regain custody of his children, but the judge ruled that there was insufficient evidence to support this argument. His trial for one of the murders (the murder of Dean Harold Meyers in Prince William County, Virginia) began in October 2003, and the following month he was found guilty of capital murder. Four months later he was sentenced to death. While awaiting execution in Virginia, in August 2005, he was extradited to Maryland to face some of the charges there, for which he was convicted of six counts of first-degree murder on May 30, 2006.

    Upon completion of the trial activity in Maryland, he was returned to Virginia's death row pending an agreement with another state or the District of Columbia seeking to try him. He was not tried on additional charges in other Virginia jurisdictions, and faced potential trials in three other states and the District of Columbia involving other deaths and serious woundings. All appeals of his conviction for killing Dean Harold Meyers had been made and rejected. Appeals for Muhammad's other trials remained pending at the time of his execution.

    Muhammad was executed by lethal injection on November 10, 2009, at 9:06 pm EST at Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt, Virginia, and was pronounced dead at 9:11 pm EST. Muhammad declined to make a final statement.

    John Allen Muhammad
    Early life and military service

    Born John Allen Williams in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, to Ernest and Eva Williams, he and his family moved to New Orleans when his mother was diagnosed with breast cancer; she died when he was five. After his mother's death, his father left and he was raised mostly by his grandfather and an aunt. Muhammad enlisted in the Louisiana Army National Guard in 1979 and, after seven years of service, volunteered for active duty in 1986. In 1987 he joined the Nation of Islam.

    While in the U.S. Army, Muhammad was trained as a mechanic, truck driver, and specialist metalworker. He qualified with the Army's standard infantry rifle, the M16, earning the Expert Rifleman's Badge. This rating is the Army's highest of three levels of marksmanship for a basic soldier. He was discharged from military service following the Gulf War, as a sergeant, in 1994 after service in the Persian Gulf.

    As a member of the Nation of Islam, Muhammad helped provide security for the "Million Man March" in 1995, but Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan has publicly distanced himself and his organization from Muhammad's crimes. Muhammad kidnapped his children and brought them to Antigua around 1999, apparently engaging in credit card and immigration document fraud. It was during this time that he became close with Lee Boyd Malvo, who later acted as his partner in the killings. Williams changed his name to John Allen Muhammad in October 2001.

    After his arrest, authorities also claimed that Muhammad admitted that he admired and modeled himself after Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda, and approved of the September 11 attacks. One of Malvo's psychiatric witnesses testified in his trial that Muhammad had indoctrinated him into believing that the proceeds of the extortion attempt would be used to begin a new nation of only young, "pure" black people somewhere in Canada.

    Muhammad was twice divorced; his second wife, Mildred Muhammad, sought and was granted a restraining order. Muhammad was arrested on federal charges of violating the restraining order against him by possessing a weapon. Under federal law, those with restraining orders are prohibited to purchase or possess guns as per the Lautenberg Amendment to the Gun Control Act of 1968. Defense attorneys in the Malvo trial and the prosecution in Muhammad's trial argued that the ultimate goal of the killings was to kill Mildred so he would regain custody of his three children.

    Beltway sniper attacks


    Police followed a lead in which an anonymous caller told a priest to tell the police to check out a liquor store robbery-murder that had occurred in Montgomery, Alabama. Investigators responding to that crime scene found one of the suspects had dropped a magazine with his fingerprints on it; these were subsequently identified as belonging to a 17-year-old Jamaican immigrant, Lee Boyd Malvo, whose prints were on file with the INS. Malvo was known to associate with Muhammad. They had lived together in Tacoma, Washington for around one year, where Malvo used the alias John Lee Malvo.

    Muhammad's identification led to the discovery that he had purchased a former police car, a blue Chevrolet Caprice, in New Jersey on September 11, 2002. A lookout broadcast to the public on that vehicle resulted in their arrest when it was spotted parked in an Interstate 70 rest stop in Myersville, Maryland, just outside of Frederick, Maryland.

    Victims

    Listed in chronological order, below are the identified victims who were murdered or wounded prior to the Beltway sniper attacks:


    Name Age Status Date of Attack Location
    Keenya Cook 21 Killed February 16, 2002 Tacoma, Washington
    Jerry Ray Taylor 60 Killed March 19, 2002 Tucson, Arizona
    Billy Gene Dillon 37 Killed May 27, 2002 Denton, Texas
    John Gaeta 52 Survived August 1, 2002 Hammond, Louisiana
    Paul LaRuffa 55 Survived September 5, 2002 Clinton, Maryland
    Rupinder Oberoi 22 Survived September 14, 2002 Silver Spring, Maryland
    Muhammad Rashid 32 Survived September 15, 2002 Brandywine, Maryland
    Million Woldemariam 41 Killed September 21, 2002 Atlanta, Georgia
    Claudine Parker 52 Killed September 21, 2002 Montgomery, Alabama
    Kellie Adams 24 Survived September 21, 2002 Montgomery, Alabama
    Hong Im Ballenger 45 Killed September 23, 2002 Baton Rouge, Louisiana
    Wright Williams, Jr. 55 Survived September 26, 2002 Baton Rouge, Louisiana


    NOTE: This list does not include two victims who were not publicly identified. One man was shot and killed in a robbery in Los Angeles, California in either February or March 2002 and the other man, aged 76 and from Tucson, Arizona, was shot, but survived, on a Clearwater, Florida golf course on May 18, 2002.

    Listed in chronological order, these are the names of the victims who were murdered or wounded in the Beltway sniper attacks.


    Criminal case

    Muhammad was captured in Maryland, where most of the attacks and murders took place. Although Maryland sought to bring him to trial, United States attorney general John Ashcroft reassigned the case from the Maryland prosecutor Doug Gansler, a Democrat, to a Republican prosecutor in Virginia, Jerry W. Kilgore. Kilgore was planning to run for governor. Virginia was viewed as the more likely jurisdiction to provide a death sentence, which was borne out by the Virginia and Maryland verdicts, and Virginia also allowed the death penalty for juveniles.

    In October 2003, Muhammad went on trial for the murder of Dean Meyers at a Prince William County service station near the city of Manassas. The trial had been moved from Prince William County, to Virginia Beach, approximately 200 miles away. Muhammad was granted the right to represent himself in his defense, and dismissed his legal counsel, though he immediately switched back to having legal representation after his opening argument.

    Muhammad was charged with murder, terrorism, conspiracy and the illegal use of a firearm, and faced a possible death sentence. Prosecutors said the shootings were part of a plot to extort $10 million from local and state governments. The prosecution said that they would make the case for 16 shootings allegedly involving Muhammad. The terrorism charge against Muhammad required prosecutors to prove he committed at least two shootings in a three-year period.

    The prosecution called more than 130 witnesses and introduced more than 400 pieces of evidence intended to prove that Muhammad undertook the murders and ordered Malvo to help carry it out. Evidence included a rifle, found in Muhammad's car, that was linked by ballistics tests not only to 8 of the 10 killings in the Washington area but also to two others, in Louisiana and Alabama; the car itself, which was modified so that a sniper could shoot from inside the trunk; and a laptop computer, also found in the car, that contained maps with icons pinpointing shooting scenes.

    There were also witness accounts that put Muhammad across the street from one shooting and his car near the scene of several others. There was also a recorded phone call to a police hotline in which a man, his voice identified by a detective as Muhammad's, demanded money in exchange for stopping the shootings.

    Muhammad's defense asked the court to drop the capital murder charges due to the fact that there was no direct evidence. Malvo's fingerprints were on the Bushmaster rifle found in Muhammad's car, and genetic material from Muhammad himself was also discovered on the rifle, but the defense contended that Muhammad could not be put to death under Virginia's "trigger-man law" unless he actually pulled the trigger to kill Meyers, and no one testified that they saw him do so.

    On November 17, 2003, by verdict of his jury, Muhammad was convicted in Virginia of all four counts in the indictment against him: capital murder for the shooting of Dean H. Meyers; a second charge of capital murder under Virginia's antiterrorism statute, for homicide committed with an intent to terrorize the government or the public at large; conspiracy to commit murder; and the illegal use of a firearm. In the penalty phase of the trial, the jury, after five hours of deliberation over two days, unanimously recommended that Muhammad should be sentenced to death. On March 9, 2004, a Virginia judge agreed with the jury's recommendation and sentenced John Allen Muhammad to death.

    On April 22, 2005, the Virginia Supreme Court affirmed his death penalty, stating that Muhammad could be sentenced to death because the murder was part of an act of terrorism. The court also rejected an argument by defense lawyers that he could not be sentenced to death because he was not the triggerman in the killings. Virginia Supreme Court Justice Donald W. Lemons said at the time, "With calculation, extensive planning, premeditation and ruthless disregard for life, Muhammad carried out his cruel scheme of terror."

    In May 2005, Maryland and Virginia reached an agreement to allow his extradition to face Maryland charges, but Muhammad was fighting the action legally. He was held at the maximum security Sussex I State Prison near Waverly in Sussex County, Virginia, which houses Virginia's death row inmates. While awaiting execution in Virginia, in August 2005, he was extradited to Montgomery County, Maryland to face charges there.

    On May 30, 2006, a Maryland jury found John Allen Muhammad guilty of six counts of murder in Maryland. In return, he was sentenced to six consecutive life terms without possibility of parole on June 1, 2006. Neither Alabama, Arizona, Louisiana, or Washington State moved to try Muhammad, given his death sentence for murder in Virginia. In 2006, Malvo confessed that the pair also killed victims in California, Arizona, and Texas, making 17 victims.

    On May 6, 2008, it was revealed that Muhammad asked prosecutors in a letter to help him end legal appeals of his conviction and death sentence "so that you can murder this innocent black man." An appeal filed by Muhammad's defense lawyers in April 2008 cited evidence of brain damage that would render Muhammad incompetent to make legal decisions, and that he should not have been allowed to represent himself at his Virginia trial.

    On September 16, 2009, Muhammad's execution date was set for November 10, 2009. On November 9, 2009, Muhammad's petition for review of his death sentence was denied by the U.S. Supreme Court. Justice Stevens, joined by Justice Ginsburg and Justice Sotomayor wrote a separate opinion stating that Virginia's rush to set an execution date "highlights once again the perversity of executing inmates before their appeals process has been fully concluded", while noting that they concurred with the decision that the appeal ought not be heard.

    Civil case

    In 2003, Malvo and Muhammad were named in a major civil lawsuit by the Legal Action Project of the Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence on behalf of two of their victims who were seriously wounded and the families of some of those murdered. Although Malvo and Muhammad were each believed to be indigent, codefendants Bull's Eye Shooter Supply and Bushmaster Firearms, Inc. contributed to a landmark $2.5 million out-of-court settlement in late 2004.

    Testimony of Lee Boyd Malvo

    In John Allen Muhammad's May 2006 trial in Montgomery County, Maryland, Lee Boyd Malvo, who is serving a sentence of life without parole for his role in the shootings, took the stand and confessed to a more detailed version of the pair's plans. Malvo, after extensive psychological counseling, admitted that he was lying at the earlier Virginia trial where he had admitted to being the triggerman for every shooting. Malvo claimed that he had said this in order to protect John Allen Muhammad from the potential death penalty, because it was more difficult to achieve the death penalty for a minor. Malvo said that he wanted to do what little he could for the families of the victims by letting the full story be told. In his two days of testimony, Malvo outlined many very detailed aspects of all the shootings.

    Part of his testimony concerned Muhammad's complete multiphase plan. His plan consisted of three phases in the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metro areas. Phase One consisted of meticulously planning, mapping, and practicing their locations around the DC area. This way after each shooting they would be able to quickly leave the area on a predetermined path, and move on to the next location. John Allen Muhammad's goal in Phase One was to kill 6 white people a day for 30 days (180 per month). Malvo went on to describe how Phase One did not go as planned due to heavy traffic and the lack of a clear shot and/or getaway at different locations.

    Phase Two was meant to be moved up to Baltimore. Malvo described how this phase was close to being implemented, but never was carried out. Phase Two would begin with the killing of a pregnant woman with a shot to the abdomen. The next step would have been to shoot and kill a Baltimore City police officer. Then, at the officer's funeral, they were to detonate several improvised explosive devices complete with shrapnel. These explosives were intended to kill a large number of officers, since many of them would be at a comrade's funeral.

    Phase Three was to take place very shortly after, if not during, Phase Two. The third phase was to extort several million dollars from the United States government. This money would be used to finance a larger plan to travel north into Canada, stopping along the way in YMCAs and orphanages recruiting other impressionable young boys with no parents or guidance. John Allen Muhammad thought he could act as their father figure as he did with Lee Boyd Malvo. Once he recruited a large number of young boys and made his way up to Canada, he would begin their training. Malvo described how Muhammad allegedly intended to train the youths with weapons. After their training was complete, Muhammad would send them out across the United States to carry out mass shootings in many different cities, just as he had done in Washington, D.C. and Baltimore.

    Execution

    On September 16, 2009, a Virginia judge set a November 10, 2009, execution date for Muhammad. On November 9, 2009, the Supreme Court of the United States refused a last-minute appeal. On November 10, hours before Muhammad's scheduled execution, pleas for clemency made by his attorneys were denied by Virginia Governor Tim Kaine.

    Under Virginia law, an inmate is allowed to choose the method by which he or she will be put to death, either lethal injection or electrocution. Because Muhammad declined to select a method, by law, the method of lethal injection was selected for him. He was offered a selection of a last meal, which he accepted, but refused publication of its contents. However, J. Wyndal Gordon, Muhammad's attorney, told the Associated Press that Muhammad's last meal consisted of "chicken and red sauce, and some cakes".

    The execution began at 9:00 p.m. EST at the Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt, Virginia. According to the official statement of the prison spokesperson, the actual lethal injection process started at 9:06 pm EST. He was then pronounced dead at 9:11 p.m. EST; he declined to make a final statement. His body was cremated and given to his son in Louisiana.

    In popular culture
    OTHER LINKS:



    MY THOUGHTS:
    Unlike other States in the America, John Allen Muhammad was executed in six years after being sentenced to death on November 17, 2003 and seven years after committing his killing spree, he was not executed ‘voluntarily’ (state suicide assist). I hope other states can follow Virginia’s example, as they did it with Michael William Lenz.

    The D.C. Sniper was another danger to society and he now belongs to The Legion of Doom: The 13 Dead Terrorists. Assuming if he was never caught, he might have succeeded in bombing buildings and not just shooting, in order to continue with his reign of terror. Keep in mind, he has military training like Timothy McVeigh. 

    Please go to the Unit1012 Blog to hear from the victims’ families.


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  • 11/10/13--14:15: VETERANS DAY (NOVEMBER 11)















  • Observed by
    United States
    Type
    National
    Date
    November 11
    Next time
    11 November 2013
    Frequency
    annual
    Related to
    Veterans Day, Memorial Day





    Joseph Ambrose, an 86-year-old World War I veteran, attends the dedication day parade for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in 1982, holding the flag that covered the casket of his son, who was killed in the Korean War.
    Veterans Dayis an official United States holiday which honors people who have served in armed service also known as veterans. It is a federal holiday that is observed on November 11. It coincides with other holidays such as Armistice Day and Remembrance Day, which are celebrated in other parts of the world and also mark the anniversary of the end of World War I. (Major hostilities of World War I were formally ended at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, when the Armistice with Germany went into effect.)

    Veterans Day is not to be confused with Memorial Day; Veterans Day celebrates the service of all U.S. military veterans, while Memorial Day is a day of remembering the men and women who died while serving.

    Most sources spell Veterans as a simple plural without a possessive apostrophe (Veteran's or Veterans').


    Veterans Day 2012 poster
    History

    U.S. President Woodrow Wilson first proclaimed Armistice Day for November 11, 1919. In proclaiming the holiday, he said


    "To us in America, the reflections of Armistice Day will be filled with solemn pride in the heroism of those who died in the country's service and with gratitude for the victory, both because of the thing from which it has freed us and because of the opportunity it has given America to show her sympathy with peace and justice in the councils of the nations."


    The United States Congress passed a concurrent resolution seven years later on June 4, 1926, requesting that President Calvin Coolidge issue another proclamation to observe November 11 with appropriate ceremonies. A Congressional Act (52 Stat. 351; 5 U.S. Code, Sec. 87a) approved May 13, 1938, made the 11th of November in each year a legal holiday: "a day to be dedicated to the cause of world peace and to be thereafter celebrated and known as 'Armistice Day'."

    In 1945, World War II veteran Raymond Weeks from Birmingham, Alabama, had the idea to expand Armistice Day to celebrate all veterans, not just those who died in World War I. Weeks led a delegation to Gen. Dwight Eisenhower, who supported the idea of National Veterans Day. Weeks led the first national celebration in 1947 in Alabama and annually until his death in 1985. President Reagan honored Weeks at the White House with the Presidential Citizenship Medal in 1982 as the driving force for the national holiday. Elizabeth Dole, who prepared the briefing for President Reagan, determined Weeks as the "Father of Veterans Day."

    U.S. Representative Ed Rees from Emporia, Kansas, presented a bill establishing the holiday through Congress. President Dwight Eisenhower, also from Kansas, signed the bill into law on May 26, 1954.

    Congress amended this act on June 1, 1954, replacing "Armistice" with "Veterans," and it has been known as Veterans Day since.

    The National Veterans Award, created in 1954, also started in Birmingham. Congressman Rees of Kansas was honored in Alabama as the first recipient of the award for his support offering legislation to make Veterans Day a federal holiday, which marked nine years of effort by Raymond Weeks. Weeks conceived the idea in 1945, petitioned Gen. Eisenhower in 1946, and led the first Veterans Day celebration in 1947 (keeping the official name Armistice Day until Veterans Day was legal in 1954).

    Although originally scheduled for celebration on November 11 of every year, starting in 1971 in accordance with the Uniform Monday Holiday Act, Veterans Day was moved to the fourth Monday of October. In 1978, it was moved back to its original celebration on November 11. While the legal holiday remains on November 11, if that date happens to be on a Saturday or Sunday, then organizations that formally observe the holiday will normally be closed on the adjacent Friday or Monday, respectively.



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               On this date, November 12, 1948, Japanese War Criminal, Hideki Tojo was sentenced to death for war crimes. I will post information about him from Wikipedia and other internet sources.


    Hideki Tōjō (Kyūjitai: 東條英機; Shinjitai: 東条)

    Prime Minister of Japan
    Leader of the Taisei Yokusankai
    In office
    October 17, 1941 – July 22, 1944
    Monarch
    Shōwa
    Preceded by
    Fumimaro Konoe
    Succeeded by
    Kuniaki Koiso
    Minister of War
    In office
    22 July 1940 – 22 July 1944
    Monarch
    Shōwa
    Preceded by
    Hata Shunroku
    Succeeded by
    Hajime Sugiyama
    Personal details
    Born
    December 30, 1884
    Hamachi district of Tokyo, Empire of Japan
    Died
    December 23, 1948 (aged 63) executed by hanging
    Tokyo, occupied Japan
    Political party
    Imperial Rule Assistance Association (1940–1945)
    Other political
    affiliations
    Independent (before 1940)
    Spouse(s)
    Katsuko Ito
    Children
    3 sons
    4 daughters
    Alma mater
    Imperial Japanese Army Academy
    Army War College


    Military service
    Allegiance
    Empire of Japan
    Rank
    General
    Commands
    Kwantung Army (1932-1934)
    Battles/wars
    February 26 Incident
    Second Sino-Japanese War
    • Operation Chahar
    • Japanese invasion of Manchuria
    World War II
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor
    Awards
    Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun
    Order of the Golden Kite, 2nd Class
    Order of the Sacred Treasure


    Hideki Tōjō(Kyūjitai: 東條英機; Shinjitai: 東条英機; About this sound Tōjō Hideki (help·info)) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the leader of the Taisei Yokusankai, and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during most of World War II, from October 17, 1941 to July 22, 1944. As Prime Minister, he was directly responsible for the attack on Pearl Harbor, which initiated war between Japan and the United States, although planning for it had begun before he entered office. After the end of the war, Tōjō was arrested, sentenced to death for Japanese war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, and was hanged on December 23, 1948.


    Hideki Tojo in military uniform, photo taken before end of World War II. Public Domain as pre-1946 work.
    Biography

    Hideki Tōjō was born in the Kōjimachi district of Tokyo on December 30, 1884 as the third son of Hidenori Tōjō, a lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army. After 1941 he would change his given name from the Chinese-inspired "Eiki" to the traditionally more Japanese "Hideki" (see on'yomi). In 1899, Tōjō entered the Army Cadet School. When he graduated from the Japanese Military Academy (ranked 10th of 363 cadets) in March 1905 he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the infantry of the IJA. In 1909, he married Katsuko Ito, with whom he would have three sons and four daughters. By 1928, he had become the bureau chief of the Japanese Army, and was shortly thereafter promoted to colonel. He began to take an interest in militarist politics during his command of the 1st Infantry Regiment.


    Cabinet ministers of Cabinet of Hideki Tojo (東條内閣). They finished the first cabinet meeting and took a souvenir picture in Kantei.
    As general

    In 1933, Tōjō was promoted to major general and served as Chief of the Personnel Department within the Army Ministry. He was appointed commander of the IJA 24th Infantry Brigade in August 1934. In September 1935, Tōjō assumed top command of the Kempeitai of the Kwantung Army in Manchuria. Politically, he was fascist, nationalist, and militarist, and was nicknamed "Razor" (カミソリKamisori?), for his reputation for a sharp, legalistic mind capable of making quick decisions.

    During the February 26 coup attempt of 1936, Tōjō and Shigeru Honjō, a noted supporter of Sadao Araki, both opposed the rebels. Emperor Hirohito himself was outraged at the attacks on his close advisers, and after a brief political crisis and stalling on the part of a sympathetic military, the rebels were forced to surrender. In the aftermath, the Tōseiha faction was able to purge the Army of radical officers, and the coup leaders were tried and executed. Following the purge, Tōseiha and Kōdōha elements were unified in their nationalist but highly anti-political stance under the banner of the Kōdōha military clique, with Tōjō in the leadership position. Tōjō was promoted to Chief of Staff of the Kwangtung Army in 1937. As Chief of Staff, Tōjō was responsible for the military operations designed to increase Japanese penetration into the Inner Mongolia border regions with Manchukuo. In July 1937, he personally led the units of the 1st Independent Mixed Brigade in Operation Chahar, his only real combat experience.

    After the Marco Polo Bridge Incident marking the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Tōjō ordered his forces to attack Hopei and other targets in northern China. Tōjō received Jewish refugees in accordance with Japanese national policy and rejected the resulting Nazi German protests. Tōjō was recalled to Japan in May 1938 to serve as Vice-Minister of War under Army Minister Seishirō Itagaki. From December 1938 to 1940, Tōjō was Inspector-General of Army Aviation.


    Hideki Tōjō (Kyūjitai: 東條英機; Shinjitai: 東条)
     

    Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo landed in Nichols Field, an airfield south of Manila, for state visit to the Philippines. (1943)
    Rise to Prime Minister

    On July 22, 1940, Tōjō was appointed Army Minister in the second Fumimaro Konoe regime, and remained in that post in the third Konoe cabinet. He was a strong supporter of the Tripartite Pact between Japan, Nazi Germany, and Fascist Italy. As the Army Minister, he continued to vastly expand the grueling war with China.

    After negotiations with Vichy France, Japan was given permission to place its troops in French Indochina in July 1941. In spite of its formal recognition of the Vichy government, the United States retaliated against Japan by imposing economic sanctions in August, including a total embargo on oil and gasoline exports.

    On September 6, a deadline of early October was fixed in the Imperial Conference for resolving the situation diplomatically. On October 14, the deadline had passed with no progress. Prime Minister Konoe then held his last cabinet meeting, where Tōjō did most of the talking:

    For the past six months, ever since April, the foreign minister has made painstaking efforts to adjust relations. Although I respect him for that, we remain deadlocked... The heart of the matter is the imposition on us of withdrawal from Indochina and China... If we yield to America's demands, it will destroy the fruits of the China incident. Manchukuo will be endangered and our control of Korea undermined.

    The prevailing opinion within the Japanese Army at that time was that continued negotiations could be dangerous. However, Hirohito thought that he might be able to control extreme opinions in the army by using the charismatic and well-connected Tōjō, who had expressed reservations regarding war with the West, although the Emperor himself was skeptical that Tōjō would be able to avoid conflict. On October 13, he declared to Kōichi Kido: "There seems little hope in the present situation for the Japan-U.S. negotiations. This time, if hostilities erupt, I might have to issue a declaration of war."

    On October 16, Konoe, politically isolated and convinced that the Emperor no longer trusted him, resigned. Later, he justified himself to his chief cabinet secretary, Kenji Tomita:

    Of course His Majesty is a pacifist, and there is no doubt he wished to avoid war. When I told him that to initiate war is a mistake, he agreed. But the next day, he would tell me: "You were worried about it yesterday, but you do not have to worry so much." Thus, gradually, he began to lead toward war. And the next time I met him, he leaned even more toward war. In short, I felt the Emperor was telling me: "My prime minister does not understand military matters, I know much more." In short, the Emperor had absorbed the views of the army and navy high commands.

    At the time, Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni was said to be the only person who could control the Army and the Navy and was recommended by Konoe and Tōjō as Konoe's replacement. Hirohito rejected this option, arguing that a member of the imperial family should not have to eventually carry the responsibility for a war against the West. Following the advice of Kōichi Kido, he chose instead Tōjō, who was known for his devotion to the imperial institution. The Emperor summoned Tōjō to the Imperial Palace one day before Tōjō took office.

    Tōjō wrote in his diary: "I thought I was summoned because the Emperor was angry at my opinion." He was given one order from the Emperor: To make a policy review of what had been sanctioned by the Imperial Conferences. Tōjō, who was on the side of the war, nevertheless accepted this order, and pledged to obey. According to Colonel Akiho Ishii, a member of the Army General Staff, the Prime Minister showed a true sense of loyalty to the emperor performing this duty. For example, when Ishii received from Hirohito a communication saying the Army should drop the idea of stationing troops in China to counter military operations of Western powers, he wrote a reply for the Prime Minister for his audience with the Emperor. Tōjō then replied to Ishii: "If the Emperor said it should be so, then that's it for me. One cannot recite arguments to the Emperor. You may keep your finely phrased memorandum."

    On November 2, Tōjō and Chiefs of Staff Hajime Sugiyama and Osami Nagano reported to Hirohito that the review had been in vain. The Emperor then gave his consent to war.

    The next day, Fleet Admiral Osami Nagano explained in detail the Pearl Harbor attack to Hirohito. The eventual plan drawn up by Army and Navy Chiefs of Staff envisaged such a mauling of the Western powers that Japanese defense perimeter lines—operating on interior lines of communications and inflicting heavy Western casualties—could not be breached. In addition, the Japanese fleet which attacked Pearl Harbor was under orders from Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto to be prepared to return to Japan on a moment's notice, should negotiations succeed.

    Two days later on November 5, Hirohito approved the operations plan for a war against the West and continued to hold meetings with the military and Tōjō until the end of the month. On December 1, another conference finally sanctioned the "war against the United States, England, and Holland".


    Hideki Tōjō (Kyūjitai: 東條英機; Shinjitai: 東条)
    As Prime Minister

    Tōjō continued to hold the position of Army Minister during his term as Prime Minister, from October 17, 1941 to July 22, 1944. He also served concurrently as Home Minister from 1941–1942, Foreign Minister in September 1942, Education Minister in 1943, and Minister of Commerce and Industry in 1943.

    As Education Minister, he continued militaristic and nationalist indoctrination in the national education system, and reaffirmed totalitarian policies in government. As Home Minister, he ordered various eugenics measures (including the sterilization of the "mentally unfit").

    His popularity was sky-high in the early years of the war, as Japanese forces went from one great victory to another. However, after the Battle of Midway, with the tide of war turning against Japan, Tōjō faced increasing opposition from within the government and military. To strengthen his position, in February 1944, Tōjō assumed the post of Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff. However, after the fall of Saipan, he was forced to resign on 18 July 1944.


    Shashin Shuho No 249 (December 2, 1942), First Anniversary of the Great East Asia War. This is the noble figure of prime minister Hideki Tojo. 日本語:『寫眞週報』第二百四十九號 (昭和十七年十二月二日), 大東亞戰爭一周年. 東條内閣總理大臣の英姿である.
     

    Immediately after his suicide attempt Hideki Tojo, receiving life-saving treatment. (8 September 1945)
    Capture, trial, and execution

    After Japan's unconditional surrender in 1945, U.S. general Douglas MacArthur issued orders for the arrest of the first forty alleged war criminals, including Tōjō. Soon, Tōjō's home in Setagaya was besieged with newsmen and photographers. Three American GI's (Corporal Paul Korol, Private First Class John Potkul, and Private First Class James Safford) and two Office of Strategic Services (O.S.S.) Officers (one of whom was John J. Wilpers, Jr., who received the Bronze Star for his efforts at age 90 in 2010 and died in 2013) were sent to serve the arrest warrant on Tojo.

    Two American war correspondents (Hugh Bailey and Russell Braun) had previously interviewed Tojo and were also present when the attempt was made to serve the arrest warrant. It was not until approximately two hours after his suicide attempt that military police and a physician attended to Tojo. Thereafter, when the subsequent arrest was to occur for Admiral Shimada, military police, a physician, and an ambulance were included in that arrest process as they learned from Tojo's suicide attempt. Inside, a doctor named Suzuki had marked Tōjō's chest with charcoal to indicate the location of his heart. When American military police surrounded the house on 8 September 1945, they heard a muffled shot from inside. Major Paul Kraus and a group of military police burst in, followed by George Jones, a reporter for The New York Times. Tōjō had shot himself in the chest with a pistol, but despite shooting directly through the mark, the bullets missed his heart and penetrated his stomach. Now disarmed and with blood gushing out of his chest, Tōjō began to talk, and two Japanese reporters recorded his murmured words: "I am very sorry it is taking me so long to die. The Greater East Asia War was justified and righteous. I am very sorry for the nation and all the races of the Greater Asiatic powers. I wait for the righteous judgment of history. I wished to commit suicide but sometimes that fails."

    Tōjō was arrested and underwent emergency surgery in a U.S. Army hospital. After recovering from his injuries, Tōjō was moved to Sugamo Prison. While there he received a new set of dentures made by an American dentist. Secretly the phrase "Remember Pearl Harbor" had been drilled into the teeth in Morse code. 


    The defendants at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East Ichigaya Court: Accused Japanese war criminals in the prisoners' box. Front row of defendants from left to right: General Kenji Doihara; Field Marshal Shunroku Hata; Koki Hirota, former prime minister of Japan; General Jiro Minami; General Hideki Tojo, former prime minister of Japan; Takasumi Oka; General Yoshijiro Umezu; General Sadao Araki; General Akira Muto; Naoki Hoshino; Okinori Kaga; Marquis Koichi Kido. Back row: Colonel Kingiro Hashimoto; General Kuniaki Koiso; Admiral Osami Nagano; General Hiroshi Oshima; General Iwane Matsui; Shumei Okawa; Baron Kiichiro Hiranuma; Shigenori Togo; Yosuke Matsuoka; Mamoru Shigemitsu; General Kenryo Sato; Admiral Shigetaro Shimada; Toshio Shiratori; Teiichi Suzuki.
     

    Hideki Tojo, former Japanese General Premier and War Minister, takes the stand for the first time during the International Tribunal trials, Tokyo, Japan. He is testifying in his own behalf during the defense phase of the trials. Tojo is surrounded by the Tribunal's staff.

    Tōjō was tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East for war crimes and found guilty of the following:
    • Count 1 (waging wars of aggression, and war or wars in violation of international law)
    • Count 27 (waging unprovoked war against the Republic of China)
    • Count 29 (waging aggressive war against the United States of America)
    • Count 31 (waging aggressive war against the British Commonwealth of Nations)
    • Count 32 (waging aggressive war against the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
    • Count 33 (waging aggressive war against the French Republic)
    • Count 54 (ordering, authorizing, and permitting inhumane treatment of Prisoners of War (POWs) and others)
    Hideki Tōjō accepted full responsibility in the end for his actions during the war, and made this speech:

    It is natural that I should bear entire responsibility for the war in general, and, needless to say, I am prepared to do so. Consequently, now that the war has been lost, it is presumably necessary that I be judged so that the circumstances of the time can be clarified and the future peace of the world be assured. Therefore, with respect to my trial, it is my intention to speak frankly, according to my recollection, even though when the vanquished stands before the victor, who has over him the power of life and death, he may be apt to toady and flatter. I mean to pay considerable attention to this in my actions, and say to the end that what is true is true and what is false is false. To shade one's words in flattery to the point of untruthfulness would falsify the trial and do incalculable harm to the nation, and great care must be taken to avoid this.

    Tōjō was sentenced to death on November 12, 1948 and executed by hanging 41 days later on December 23, 1948. Before his execution he gave his military ribbons to Private First Class Kincaid, one of his guards; they are now on display in the National Museum for Naval Aviation in Pensacola, FL. In his final statements, he apologized for the atrocities committed by the Japanese military and urged the American military to show compassion toward the Japanese people, who had suffered devastating air attacks and the two atomic bombings.

    Many historians criticize the work done by General Douglas MacArthur and his staff to exonerate Emperor Hirohito and all members of the imperial family from criminal prosecutions. According to them, MacArthur and Brigadier General Bonner Fellers worked to protect the Emperor and shift ultimate responsibility to Tōjō.

    According to the written report of Shūichi Mizota, interpreter for Admiral Mitsumasa Yonai, Fellers met the two men at his office on 6 March 1946 and told Yonai: "It would be most convenient if the Japanese side could prove to us that the Emperor is completely blameless. I think the forthcoming trials offer the best opportunity to do that. Tōjō, in particular, should be made to bear all responsibility at this trial."

    The sustained intensity of this campaign to protect the Emperor was revealed when, in testifying before the tribunal on December 31, 1947, Tōjō momentarily strayed from the agreed-upon line concerning imperial innocence and referred to the Emperor's ultimate authority. The American-led prosecution immediately arranged that he be secretly coached to recant this testimony. Ryūkichi Tanaka, a former general who testified at the trial and had close connections with chief prosecutor Joseph B. Keenan, was used as an intermediary to persuade Tōjō to revise his testimony.


    Hideki Tōjō (Kyūjitai: 東條英機; Shinjitai: 東条)
     

    Hideki Tōjō (Kyūjitai: 東條英機; Shinjitai: 東条)

    Legacy

    Tōjō's commemorating tomb is located in a shrine in Hazu, Aichi (now Nishio, Aichi), and he is one of those enshrined at the controversial Yasukuni Shrine. His ashes are divided between Yasukuni Shrine and Zōshigaya Cemetery in Toshima ward, Tokyo.

    He was survived by a number of his descendants, including his granddaughter, Yūko Tōjō, a right-wing nationalist and political hopeful who claimed Japan's war was one of self-defense and that it was unfair that her grandfather was judged a Class-A war criminal. Tōjō's second son, Teruo Tōjō, who designed fighter and passenger aircraft during and after the war, eventually served as an executive at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries.

    U.S. wartime propagandacaricatured Tojo as the face of the enemy.


    Depictions in fiction

    In Japanese culture, depictions of Hideki Tojo have varied in tone and style throughout the years.

    In Tora! Tora! Tora!, directed by Toshio Masuda, he is portrayed by Asao Uchida at various events leading up to the Pearl Harbor attack.

    In 1970's The Militarists, directed by Hiromichi Horikawa, Hideki Tojo is portrayed by Keiju Kobayashi as a tyrant, and in an alternate history angle, stays Prime Minister until the end of the war.

    In 1981's The Imperial Japanese Empire, Hideki Tojo is portrayed by Tetsuro Tamba as a family man who single-handedly planned the war against America, and the film deals with his war crimes trial.

    In 2012's Emperor, Hideki Tojo is portrayed by Shôhei Hino.

    Honours
    From the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia
    • Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure (July 7, 1937)
    • Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun (April 29, 1940)
    • Order of the Golden Kite, 2nd Class (April 29, 1940)


    World War II Axis Dictators. Left to Right: Hideki Tojo, Prime Minister & Minister of War, Japan;
    Benito Mussolini, Prime Minister, Italy; Adolf Hitler, Chancellor, Germany. Courtesy Wikipedia, public domain. (PHOTO SOURCE: http://www.nebraskastudies.org/0800/stories/0801_0600.html)
    OTHER LINKS:

    VIDEOS ON HIDEKI TOJO:




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  • 11/12/13--13:13: HAIL THE SEAL TEAM SIX!



  • If we can send The Seal Team Six to kill Osama Bin Laden and other terrorists. Why can we not use them as the firing squad to kill all guilty murderers in America?

              I chose this blog post as on this date, November 13, 1982, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C. after a march to its site by thousands of Vietnam Warveterans. I chose to honor the Seal Team Six, I got the information from Wikipedia.



    Active
    November 1980 – present
    Country
    United States of America
    Branch
    Type
    Role
    Part of
    Garrison/HQ
    Dam Neck Annex
    NAS Oceana, Virginia, U.S.
    Nickname
    DEVGRU, SEAL Team Six
    Engagements
    The United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group (NSWDG), or DEVGRU, is a U.S. Navy component of Joint Special Operations Command. It is often referred to as SEAL Team Six, the name of its predecessor which was officially disbanded in 1987. DEVGRU is administratively supported by Naval Special Warfare Command and operationally commanded by the Joint Special Operations Command. Most information concerning DEVGRU is classified and details of its activities are not usually commented on by either the White House or the Department of Defense. In 2010 it was reported DEVGRU's designation was changed by the Defense Department. Despite the official name changes, "SEAL Team Six" remains the unit's widely recognized moniker. It is sometimes referred to in the U.S. media as a Special Mission Unit.

    DEVGRU and its Army counterpart, Delta Force, are the United States military's primary counter-terrorism units. Although DEVGRU was created as a maritime counter-terrorism unit, it has become a multi-functional special operations unit with several roles that include high-risk personnel/hostage extractions and other specialized missions.

    The Central Intelligence Agency's highly secretive Special Activities Division (SAD) and more specifically its elite Special Operations Group (SOG) often works with—and recruits—operators from DEVGRU. The combination of these units led to the most significant special operations success in the Global War On Terror.

    (SOURCE: http://www.thankyouteamsix.com/)
    1 History

    The origins of DEVGRU are in SEAL Team Six, a unit created in the aftermath of Operation Eagle Claw. During the Iran hostage crisis in 1979, Richard Marcinko was one of two U.S. Navy representatives for a Joint Chiefs of Staff task force known as the TAT (Terrorist Action Team). The purpose of the TAT was to develop a plan to free the American hostages held in Iran. In the wake of the disaster at the Desert One base in Iran, the Navy saw the need for a full-time counter-terrorist unit, and tasked Marcinko with its design and development.

    Marcinko was the first commanding officer of this new unit, which was first called MOB 6 (Mobility 6) and Sixth Platoon. Eventually the unit was dubbed SEAL Team Six. At the time there were only two SEAL teams. Marcinko named the unit SEAL Team Six in order to confuse Soviet intelligence as to the number of actual SEAL teams in existence. The unit's plankowners were hand-picked by Marcinko from throughout the UDT/SEAL community. SEAL Team Six became the U.S. Navy's premier counter-terrorist unit. It has been compared to the U.S. Army's Delta Force. Marcinko held the command of SEAL Team Six for three years, from 1980 to 1983, instead of the typical two-year command in the Navy at the time. SEAL Team Six was formally created in October 1980, and an intense, progressive work-up training program made the unit mission-ready just six months later. SEAL Team Six started with 75 shooters. According to Dick Marcinko, the annual training allowance for the command was larger than that of the entire U.S. Marine Corps. The unit has virtually unlimited resources at its disposal.

    In 1987 SEAL Team Six was dissolved. A new unit named the "Naval Special Warfare Development Group" was formed, essentially as SEAL Team Six's successor. Reasons for the disbanding are varied, but the name SEAL Team Six is often used in reference to DEVGRU.



    2 Recruitment, selection and training

    In the early stages of creating SEAL Team Six, Marcinko was given only six months to get ST6 up and running or the whole project would come to an end. This meant that there was a timing issue and Marcinko had little time to create a proper selection course, similar to that of Delta Force, and as a result hand-picked the first plankowners of the unit after assessing their Navy records and interviewing each man. It has been said that Marcinko regretted not having enough time to set up a proper selection process and course. All applicants came from the Underwater Demolition Teams (UDTs) and East and West Coast SEAL teams. Marcinko's criteria for recruiting applicants was combat experience so he would know they could perform under fire; language skills were vital, as the unit would have a worldwide mandate to communicate with the local population if needed; union skills, to be able to blend in as civilians during an operation; and finally SEAL skills. Members of SEAL Team Six were selected in part because of the different specialist skills of each man.

    The training schedule is without comparison in its intensity. A former Team member claims that in one year SEAL Team Six fired more rounds of ammunition than the entire U.S. Marine Corps ammunition allowance. The emphasis was on shooting skills, range firing, close-quarters battle (CQB), and stress shooting in a variety of conditions.

    Information about the unit is mostly highly classified, so little is available about recruitment and selection. What is known is that the selection and training for the unit has not changed dramatically since its creation. All applicants come from the "regular" SEAL teams, unless applying for support positions (there have been open advertisements on the web for support personnel).

    It can be inferred from the quality of their pool of applicants that those considered are in peak physical condition, maintain an excellent reputation as operators within the Naval Special Warfare community, and have done multiple operational deployments with a SEAL Team. As a result, the candidate will usually be in his 30s. As ST6 was recruiting the best and brightest SEALs/UDTs from the regular teams, this created animosity between the unit and the "regular" teams, who considered that their best SEALs were being poached for the unit.

    Candidates are interviewed by a review board to deem whether the candidate is suitable to undertake the selection phase. Those who pass the stringent recruitment and selection process will be selected to attend a six- to eight-month Operators Training Course. Candidates will screen with the unit's training wing known as "Green Team." The training course attrition rate is high; during one selection course, out of the original 20 candidates, 12 completed the course. All candidates are watched closely by DEVGRU instructors and evaluated on whether they are suitable to join the individual squadrons. Howard E. Wasdin, a former member of SEAL Team Six said in a recent interview that 16 applied for SEAL Team Six selection course and only two were accepted. Those who do not pass the selection phase are returned to their previous assignments and unlikely to be able to try again in the future.

    Like all Special Operations Forces units that have an extremely intensive and high-risk training schedule, there can be serious injuries and deaths. SEAL Team Six/DEVGRU has lost several operators during training, including parachute accidents and close-quarters battle training accidents. It is presumed that the unit's assessment process for potential new recruits is different from what a SEAL operator experienced in his previous career, and much of the training tests the candidate's mental capacity rather than his physical condition, as he will have already completed Basic Underwater Demolitions/SEAL or the Navy EOD training pipeline.

    Candidates are put through a variety of advanced training courses led by civilian or military instructors. These can include free-climbing, advanced unarmed combat techniques, defensive and offensive driving, advanced diving, and Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape (SERE) training. All candidates must perform at the top level during selection, and the unit instructors evaluate the candidate during the training process. Selected candidates are assigned to one of the Tactical Development and Evaluation Squadrons; the others are returned to their previous units. Unlike the other regular SEAL Teams, SEAL Team Six operators were able to go to almost any of the best schools anywhere and train in whatever they wanted depending on the unit's requirements.


    3 Structure 

    DEVGRU is divided into color-coded line squadrons, which are commanded by Commanders:
    • Gold Squadron (Assault Team)
    • Blue Squadron (Assault Team)
    • Silver Squadron (Assault Team)
    • Red Squadron (Assault Team)
    • Black Squadron (Reconnaissance & Surveillance Team)
    • Gray Squadron (Boat Crews)
    Each assault squadron is divided into three troops (commanded by lieutenant commanders) and troops are divided into smaller teams. Each line squadron has a specific nickname. Examples being Gold-Knights, Red-Indians, Black-Pirates.


    4 Commanding officers 

    Command of DEVGRU is a Captain's billet:
    • Commander Richard Marcinko – Nov 1980 to July 1983
    • Captain Robert A. Gormly – 1983 to 1986
    • Captain Thomas E. Murphy – 1986 to 1987
    • Captain Richard T.P. Woolard – 1987 to 1990
    • Captain Ronald E. Yeaw – 1990 to 1992
    • Captain Thomas G. Moser – 1992 to 1994
    • Admiral Eric T. Olson – 1994 to 1997
    • Vice Admiral Albert M. Calland III – June 1997 to June 1999
    • Vice Admiral Joseph D. Kernan – 1999 to 2002
    • Rear Admiral Edward G. Winters, III – 2002 to 2004
    • Captain Scott P. Moore – 2004 to 2008
    • Rear Admiral Brian L. Losey – 2008 to 2010

    (SOURCE: http://www.sealteam6.net/)

    5 Roles and responsibilities

    When SEAL Team Six was first created it was devoted exclusively to counter-terrorism with a worldwide maritime responsibility; its objectives typically included targets such as ships, oil rigs, naval bases, coastal embassies, and other civilian or military bases that were accessible from the sea or inland waterways.

    On certain operations small teams from SEAL Team Six were tasked with covertly infiltrating international high risk areas in order to carry out reconnaissance or security assessments of U.S. military facilities and embassies; and to give advice on improvements in order to prevent casualties in an event of a terrorist attack.

    Although the unit was created as a maritime counter-terrorism unit, it has become a multi-functional special operations unit with multiple roles that include high-risk personnel/hostage extractions. Such operations include the successful rescue of Jessica Buchanan and Poul Hagen Thisted, the attempted rescue of Linda Norgrove, the successful rescue of American doctor Dilip Joseph and in 1991 the successful recovery of Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and his family during a coup that deposed him.

    After SEAL Team Six was disbanded and renamed, the official mission of the currently operating Naval Special Warfare Development Group is to test, evaluate, and develop technology and maritime, ground, and airborne tactics applicable to Naval Special Warfareforces such as Navy SEALs; however, it is presumed this is only a small part of the group's work assignment and more of a cover.

    DEVGRU's full mission is classified but is thought to include pre-emptive, pro-active counter-terrorist operations, counter-proliferation (efforts to prevent the spread of both conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction), as well as the elimination or recovery of high-value targets (HVTs) from unfriendly nations. DEVGRU is one of only a handful of U.S. Special Mission Units authorized to use pre-emptive actions against terrorists and their facilities.

    DEVGRU and the Army's Delta Force train and deploy together on counter-terrorist missions usually as part of a joint special operations task force (JSOTF).


    6 Operations and covert actions

    The majority of the operations assigned to DEVGRU are classified and may never be known to the public. However, there are some operations in which the unit has been involved where certain details have been made public.

    6.1 Operation Urgent Fury

    Main article: Invasion of Grenada

    On 13 March 1979 the People's Revolutionary Army, led by Maurice Bishop, overthrew the newly independent government of the small island of Grenada and established a new regime based on socialist principles. This brought it into continuing conflict with the United States, as the administration of U.S. President Reagan considered the leftist government to be too closely allied to Cuba and the Soviet Union.

    On 12 October 1983 a hard-line faction of the Central Committee of the Revolutionary Government of Grenada, controlled by former Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard, took control of the government from Bishop and placed him under house arrest. Within days, Bishop and many of his supporters were dead, and the nation had been placed under martial law. The severity of the violence, coupled with Coard's hard-line Marxism, caused deep concern among neighboring Caribbean nations, as well as in Washington, D.C. Adding to the U.S.' concern was the presence of nearly 1,000 American medical students in Grenada. On 25 October, the United States invaded Grenada, an operation codenamed Operation Urgent Fury.

    SEAL Team Six's Assault Group Three was to conduct a static line drop with boats a few miles away from the Grenadian coast. One of two C-130 cargo planes transporting the SEALs to their drop point veered far off course. A rain squall accompanied by high winds broke out just before the SEALs conducted the drop. Four out of the eight SEALs that made the drop drowned and were never seen again. After the disastrous insertion, Assault Group Three was told to stand-by and began preparing for the next mission. The next mission was to go to the governor's mansion and secure Governor-GeneralPaul Scoon, protect him and his family and move them out of the combat area. A second mission was to capture and secure Grenada's only radio station so that it couldn't be used by the local military to incite the population or coordinate military actions. There was almost no intelligence for either of these operations.

    6.1.1 Governor-General's mansion

    To reach the governor-general's mansion, the SEALs were flown in on Black Hawk helicopters that morning, and fast-roped to the ground while under fire. As they approached from the back of the mansion, the team found Scoon hiding. The SEALs then continued to clear the rest of the house and began to set up a perimeter to ensure security. Soon the mansion started to take fire from men armed with AK-47s and RPGs. As the incoming fire started to increase, Governor-General Scoon and his family were moved to a safer location in the house. After the incoming fire had decreased, three men wearing Cuban uniforms approached the mansion, all of them carrying AK-47s. The SEALs shouted for the three men to stop where they were. When the three men heard the yells, they raised their weapons. The SEALs opened fire on the Cubans and killed them almost instantly.

    Soon afterward, two BTR-60PBs rolled up to the mansion's gates. One of the BTRs at the mansion's front gate opened fire. Just as the SEALs were about to fire a LAW anti-tank rocket, the BTR backed off and left with the other BTR. When the SEALs had been inserted into the compound, they left behind their long-range SATCOM radio on a helicopter; the only communications the team had were through MX-360 radios. The team used the radios to communicate with a SEAL command post on the island to call in air strikes. As the radios' batteries started to fade, communications with the SEAL command post became weak. Once all the radios had died, when the SEALs urgently needed air support, they used a regular house phone to call JSOC, which was able to get an AC-130 Spectre gunship to hold station over the SEALs' position to provide air support.

    When morning came, a group of Force Recon Marines arrived to escort the SEALs, Governor-General Scoon, and his family to a point from where they were evacuated by helicopter.

    6.1.2 Radio station

    Assault Group Three and another squad from SEAL Team Six flew to the radio station on a Black Hawk helicopter. The helicopter took small-arms fire on the insertion. Once the team unloaded, it overran the radio station compound. The SEALs were told to hold the station until Governor Scoon and a broadcast team could be brought in. After the team took control of the compound, it was not able to make radio contact with the SEAL command post. The SEALs set up a perimeter while they continued to try to make radio contact. As this was happening, a BTR-60 armored personnel carrier arrived, and 20 Grenadian soldiers disguised as station workers got out. The soldiers carried weapons even in disguise. The SEALs ordered the soldiers to drop the weapons. The soldiers opened fire but were shot down almost instantly.

    The SEALs continued trying to make radio contact, then another BTR and three trucks, carrying a dozen soldiers each, were spotted coming towards the station; the soldiers flanked the building and the BTR covered the front entrance with its 14.5 mm KPV heavy machine gun. The incoming fire on the SEALs' position was becoming devastatingly heavy, and they were running out of ammunition: the team knew that their only option was to change their original plan of holding the radio station, and instead destroy the radio transmitter, then head to the water following their pre-planned escape route out behind the station across a broad meadow that led to a path that cut between cliffs and a beach. The meadow was very exposed to Grenadian fire. The team leapfrogged across the exposed ground and took heavy fire, finally reaching the end of the field, cut through a chain-link fence, ran into dense brush, and followed the path to the beach. One SEAL had been wounded in the arm. The Grenadians were still in pursuit, so the SEALs waded into the water and began swimming parallel to the shore until they found cliff ledges in which to hide; once the Grenadians had given up the search they swam out to sea, where they were in the water for nearly six hours until a rescue plane spotted them and vectored a US Navy ship to pick them up.


    6.2 Operation Gothic Serpent

    During Operation Gothic Serpent in Somalia, DEVGRU was a part of Task Force Ranger. TF Ranger was made up of operators from Delta Force, the 75th Ranger Regiment, the 160th SOAR, the 24th Special Tactics Squadron, and SEALs from DEVGRU. Eric T. Olson, John Gay, Howard Wasdin, Homer Nearpass, and Richard Kaiser were the five SEALs that fought in the 1993 Battle of Mogadishu during the last mission of Operation Gothic Serpent to capture the warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid.[38] Olson would receive the Silver Star for his actions which were cited as "... during combat actions in Mogadishu, Somalia, in October 1993. While under withering enemy fire during actions in support of UNOSOM II operations, Captain Olson demonstrated a complete disregard for his own personal safety in the accomplishment of his mission". Olson became commander of the Naval Special Warfare Development Group one year later.


    6.3 NATO intervention in Bosnia, 1992–95

    During NATO's intervention in the Bosnian War, the NSWDG operated alongside other members of NATO's Implementation Force, such as its Army counterpart Delta Force and the British SAS. These units were tasked with finding and apprehending persons indicted for war crimes (PIFWC) and returning them to The Hague to stand trial. Some of DEVGRU's PIFWC operations included apprehending Goran Jelisić, Simo Zaric, Milan Simic, Miroslav Tadic, and Radislav Krstić.